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[PMID]:28366897
[Au] Autor:Lambe JL
[Ti] Título:Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.
[So] Source:Bull Hist Med;91(1):62-93, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1086-3176
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comunismo
Psiquiatria/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cuba
História do Século XX
Psiquiatria/métodos
Psiquiatria/organização & administração
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170518
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170518
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170404
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/bhm.2017.0003


  2 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28707854
[Au] Autor:Bruno A
[Ti] Título:A Eurasian Mineralogy: Aleksandr Fersman's Conception of the Natural World.
[So] Source:Isis;107(3):518-39, 2016 09.
[Is] ISSN:0021-1753
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Thoroughly a product of imperial Russia's aristocratic culture, the mineralogist and geochemist Aleksandr Fersman rose to the top of the country's scientific establishment after the Bolsheviks took control. He then remained a staunch supporter of various industrial projects through much of the Stalinist period. This essay puts Fersman's thinking about the natural world in conversation with a quite distinctive mode of intellectual inquiry that developed contemporaneously. Eurasianism was a philosophical doctrine of a group of Russian émigrés who emphasized Russia's unique status straddling Europe and Asia. While Fersman did not belong to this group of thinkers, a number of his ideas drew on specific experiences in the environments of the Eurasian landmass. Indeed, the article argues that Fersman's dualistic understanding of nature, his advocacy for the field of geochemistry, his definition of deserts, and a scheme he proposed for industrial operations owed much to the Eurasian settings of the science he practiced. Furthermore, this case of a Eurasian mineralogist illuminates novel aspects of the interplay between national and global sciences.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Minerais
Disciplinas das Ciências Naturais/história
Ciência/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunismo/história
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Federação Russa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Fersman A
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Minerals)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170715
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27942909
[Au] Autor:Mendelsohn E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of the History of Science, Harvard University, 1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA. emendels@fas.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Título:Garland Allen: An Appreciation.
[So] Source:J Hist Biol;49(4):583-586, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1573-0387
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Biologia/educação
Comunismo/história
Genética/história
História do Século XX
Livros de Texto como Assunto/história
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; EDITORIAL; HISTORICAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Allen G
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27808532
[Au] Autor:García LN
[Ad] Endereço:Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas.
[Ti] Título:Before the "boom": Readings and uses of Vygotsky in Argentina (1935-1974).
[So] Source:Hist Psychol;19(4):298-313, 2016 11.
[Is] ISSN:1939-0610
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article analyzes, from the standpoint of reception studies and transnational history, the different ways Lev S. Vygotsky's published work in Spanish, English, and Russian was read, discussed, and used in Argentina from 1935 to 1974. This "early" reception primarily involved 2 groups: writers affiliated with the Argentine Communist Party, and individuals without political affiliations who engaged in discussion with Communists. The article argues that Communism, as a cultural tradition and political organization, played a key role in the reception and diffusion of Vygotsky's work. The ideas of the Soviet psychologist were applied in 3 different areas: the psychophysiological theorizing of consciousness, the diagnosis and treatment of dyslexia, and the study of psychiatric phenomena. This article partially reconstructs the circulation of Soviet psychology in Argentina in order to provide a critical approach regarding the inclusion of certain figures in the psychological canon, the methods by which these authors have been researched in the past, the means that enable the circulation of psychological knowledge, and the ways in which the political and intellectual milieu of reception define the productivity and relevance of an author. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Psicológica
Psicologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Argentina
Comunismo
História do Século XX
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Vygotsky LS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170628
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170628
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/hop0000046


  5 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27795453
[Au] Autor:Alexopoulos G
[Ti] Título:Medical Research in Stalin's Gulag.
[So] Source:Bull Hist Med;90(3):363-393, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1086-3176
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recently declassified Gulag archives reveal for the first time that the Stalinist leadership established medical research laboratories in the camps. The present work offers an initial reading of the medical research conducted by and on prisoners in Stalin's Gulag. Although Gulag science did not apparently possess the lethal character of Nazi medicine, neither was this work entirely benign. I argue that the highly constrained environment of the Stalinist camps distorted medical science. Scientists were forced to produce work agreeable to their Gulag administrators. Thus they remained silent regarding the context of mass starvation and forced labor, and often perpetuated Gulag myths concerning the nature of diseases and the threat of deceptive patients. Rather than aggressive treatment to save lives, they often engaged in clinical observations of dead or dying patients. At the same time, a few courageous scientists challenged the Gulag system in their research, in both subtle and overt ways.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica/história
Campos de Concentração/história
Prisioneiros/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
Comunismo/história
Campos de Concentração/ética
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Pacientes
U.R.S.S.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170518
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170518
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161101
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27628861
[Au] Autor:Hresanová E
[Ti] Título:The Psychoprophylactic Method of Painless Childbirth in Socialist Czechoslovakia: from State Propaganda to Activism of Enthusiasts.
[So] Source:Med Hist;60(4):534-56, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:2048-8343
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death. The method was imported to Czechoslovakia in the early 1950s and it was politically promoted as Soviet science's gift to women. In the 1960s the method became widespread in practice but research on it diminished and, in the 1970s, its use declined too. However, in the 1980s, in the last decade of the Communist regime, the method resurfaced in the pages of Czechoslovak medical journals and underwent an exciting renaissance, having been reintroduced by a few enthusiastic individuals, most of them women. This article explores the background to the renewed interest in the method while providing insight into the wider social and political context that shaped socialist maternity and birth care in different periods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dor do Parto/história
Parto Normal/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunismo/história
Tchecoslováquia
Parto Obstétrico/história
Parto Obstétrico/métodos
Feminino
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Dor do Parto/psicologia
Dor do Parto/terapia
Parto Normal/psicologia
Gravidez
Propaganda
Socialismo/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160916
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/mdh.2016.59


  7 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27476257
[Au] Autor:Hinz-Wessels A
[Ti] Título:[The Appointment of Paediatric Professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the early GDR. The Impact of the Political System Change after 1945].
[Ti] Título:Die Besetzung der pädiatrischen Lehrstühle in der SBZ und frühen DDR. Personeller Umbruch im Zeichen des politischen Neuanfangs nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg?.
[So] Source:Medizinhist J;51(2):124-61, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0025-8431
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:ger
[Ab] Resumo:This paper examines the impact of the political system change after 1945 on the appointment of paediatric professorships in the Soviet Occupation Zone and the GDR up until the time the Wall was built in 1961. It can be demonstrated that the political purge in the post-war period had only minor impact on the appointment of professorships and the National Socialist past no longer mattered after the conclusion of denazification. In 1957, the proportion of former NSDAP members among East German university professors of paediatrics was 100 per cent. When it came to new appointments, both members of the "bourgeois" academic non-professorial teaching staff from the GDR as well as paediatricians from West Germany, who had largely gained their scientifically qualifications under National Socialism, were in the running. A politically-controlled elite exchange did not take place until the construction of the Wall. State and party organs generally followed the personnel proposals of the universities since an insufficient number of qualified candidates was available for the systematic appointment of ,,progressive" paediatricians. Given the lack of staff, the SED personnel policy was aimed at the integration of previous elites, as long as they behaved loyally towards the new state. Since the East German faculties continued to make the questioning of the professionally competent professors in West Germany and East Germany the basis for their appointment lists, West German university paediatricians were able to exert considerable influence on the appointment of East German paediatric professorship until 1960s.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comunismo/história
Docentes de Medicina/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Pediatria/história
II Guerra Mundial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alemanha Oriental
História do Século XX
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160801
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160801
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160802
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27473198
[Au] Autor:Irdam D; King L; Gugushvili A; Azarova A; Fazekas M; Scheiring G; Stefler D; Doniec K; Horvat P; Kolesnikova I; Popov V; Szelenyi I; Marmot M; Murphy M; McKee M; Bobak M
[Ad] Endereço:University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
[Ti] Título:Mortality in Transition: Study Protocol of the PrivMort Project, a multilevel convenience cohort study.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;16:672, 2016 Jul 30.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Previous research using routine data identified rapid mass privatisation as an important driver of mortality crisis following the collapse of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe. However, existing studies on the mortality crisis relying on individual level or routine data cannot assess both distal (societal) and proximal (individual) causes of mortality simultaneously. The aim of the PrivMort Project is to overcome these limitations and to investigate the role of societal factors (particularly rapid mass privatisation) and individual-level factors (e.g. alcohol consumption) in the mortality changes in post-communist countries. METHODS: The PrivMort conducts large-sample surveys in Russia, Belarus and Hungary. The approach is unique in comparing towns that have undergone rapid privatisation of their key industrial enterprises with those that experienced more gradual forms of privatisation, employing a multi-level retrospective cohort design that combines data on the industrial characteristics of the towns, socio-economic descriptions of the communities, settlement-level data, individual socio-economic characteristics, and individuals' health behaviour. It then incorporates data on mortality of different types of relatives of survey respondents, employing a retrospective demographic approach, which enables linkage of historical patterns of mortality to exposures, based on experiences of family members. By May 2016, 63,073 respondents provided information on themselves and 205,607 relatives, of whom 102,971 had died. The settlement-level dataset contains information on 539 settlements and 12,082 enterprises in these settlements in Russia, 96 settlements and 271 enterprises in Belarus, and 52 settlement and 148 enterprises in Hungary. DISCUSSION: In addition to reinforcing existing evidence linking smoking, hazardous drinking and unemployment to mortality, the PrivMort dataset will investigate the variation in transition experiences for individual respondents and their families across settlements characterized by differing contextual factors, including industrial characteristics, simultaneously providing information about how excess mortality is distributed across settlements with various privatization strategies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comunismo
Mortalidade/tendências
Privatização
Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Estudos de Coortes
Europa Oriental
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Retrospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160731
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-016-3249-9


  9 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27325060
[Au] Autor:Palecek P
[Ad] Endereço:Military History Institute Prague, Odlehlá 19, 621 00, Brno, Czech Republic. pavel.palecek@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Vítezslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.
[So] Source:Hist Philos Life Sci;38(3):4, 2016 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:0391-9714
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítezslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Krízenecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biografia como Assunto
Genética/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunismo/história
Tchecoslováquia
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Orel V
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160622
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s40656-016-0104-3


  10 / 2589 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27301856
[Au] Autor:Park JY
[Ti] Título:[The War on "Red Drugs": Anticommunism and Drug Policy in Republic of Korea, 1945-1960].
[So] Source:Uisahak;25(1):77-110, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1225-505X
[Cp] País de publicação:Korea (South)
[La] Idioma:kor
[Ab] Resumo:This paper investigates the discourses and policies on narcotics in Republic of Korea from 1945 to 1960. Since the Liberation the narcotic problem was regarded as the vestige of Japanese imperialism. which was expected to be cleaned up. The image of narcotic crimes as the legacy of the colonial past was turned into as the result of the Red Army's tactics to attack on the liberalist camp around the Korean war. The government of ROK represented the source of the illegal drugs as the Red army and the spy from North Korea. The anticommunist discourse about narcotics described the spies, who introduced the enormous amount of poppies into ROK and brought about the addicts, as the social evil. Through this discourse on poppies from North Korea, the government of ROK emphasized the immorality of the communists reinforcing the anticommunist regime, which was inevitable for the government of ROK to legitimize the division of Korea and the establishment of the government alone. This paper examines how the discourses and policies on narcotics in ROK was shaped and transformed from 1945 to 1960 focusing the relationship between the them and the political context such as anticommunism, Korean war, the division of Korea, and etc. This approach would be helpful to reveal the effect of the ROK's own political situation to the public health system involving the management for drugs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Aditivo/história
Comunismo
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/história
Saúde Pública/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
República Democrática Popular da Coreia
História do Século XX
Guerra da Coreia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia
Papaver/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Propaganda
Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência
República da Coreia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:ENGLISH ABSTRACT; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160616
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.13081/kjmh.2016.25.77



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