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Pesquisa : I01.696.586 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29368467
[Au] Autor:Weindling P
[Ti] Título:Nazi Human Experiments: The Victims' Perspective and the Post-Second World War Discourse.
[So] Source:Clio Med;95:240-59, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0045-7183
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vítimas de Crime/história
Experimentação Humana/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Crimes de Guerra/história
II Guerra Mundial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28155423
[Au] Autor:Loewenau A; Weindling PJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Community Health Sciences and Calgary Institute for the Humanities, University of Calgary.
[Ti] Título:Nazi Medical Research in Neuroscience: Medical Procedures, Victims, and Perpetrators.
[So] Source:Can Bull Med Hist;33(2):418-446, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0823-2105
[Cp] País de publicação:Canada
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Issues relating to the euthanasia killings of the mentally ill, the medical research conducted on collected body parts, and the clinical investigations on living victims under National Socialism are among the best-known abuses in medical history. But to date, there have been no statistics compiled regarding the extent and number of the victims and perpetrators, or regarding their identities in terms of age, nationality, and gender. "Victims of Unethical Human Experiments and Coerced Research under National Socialism," a research project based at Oxford Brookes University, has established an evidence-based documentation of the overall numbers of victims and perpetrators through specific record linkages of the evidence from the period of National Socialism, as well as from post-WWII trials and other records. This article examines the level and extent of these unethical medical procedures as they relate to the field of neuroscience. It presents statistical information regarding the victims, as well as detailing the involvement of the perpetrators and Nazi physicians with respect to their post-war activities and subsequent court trials.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Holocausto
Experimentação Humana
Neurociências/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Eutanásia
Feminino
História do Século XX
Holocausto/história
Holocausto/estatística & dados numéricos
Experimentação Humana/ética
Experimentação Humana/história
Experimentação Humana/legislação & jurisprudência
Experimentação Humana/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Nacional-Socialismo
Pesquisadores/história
Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170204
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3138/cbmh.33.2.152-27012015


  3 / 1463 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29207433
[Au] Autor:Forsbach R; Hofer HG
[Ti] Título:[From the History of the German Society of Internal Medicine (DGIM) - Part 1: The DGIM in the Nazi era].
[Ti] Título:Aus der Geschichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Innere Medizin (DGIM)..
[So] Source:Dtsch Med Wochenschr;142(24):1862-1867, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1439-4413
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:ger
[Ab] Resumo:51 years after its founding in 1882, the "Congress for Internal Medicine", 1920 renamed "German Society for Internal Medicine (DGIM)", fell into heavy water. While during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic the medical care for the individual patient had never been seriously questioned, the proclaimed "Third Reich" brought fundamental changes. The 1164 male and 13 female physicians, who had been organized in the DGIM 1933, had to position themselves in the Nazi dictatorship. The same applied for the society as a whole.The behavior of the German Society of Internal Medicine during the Nazi period is disenchanting. The society completely subordinated to the Nazi regime. The scientific program of the meetings was oriented to the ideological interests of the regime. Solidarity with nazi-persecuted people is only apparent in rare cases. On the contrary, even DGIM chairmen were involved in expulsions and NS-medical crimes. Cautious criticism was limited to a few areas, such as the "Neue Deutsche Heilkunde" ("New German Healing") and the study conditions at the universities. Only individual DGIM members developed oppositional behavior on the basis of personal conviction.In accordance with the more recent research on the Nazi era, these results both clarify and broaden the picture of scientific organizations in general and medical societies in particular.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Medicina Interna/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Sociedades Médicas/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alemanha
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1055/s-0043-121871


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[PMID]:28880309
[Ti] Título:Science must acknowledge its past mistakes and crimes.
[So] Source:Nature;549(7670):5-6, 2017 09 04.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eugenia (Ciência)/história
Experimentação Humana/ética
Experimentação Humana/história
Racismo/história
Pesquisadores/ética
Pesquisadores/história
Justiça Social/tendências
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/história
Canadá
Europa (Continente)
Feminino
Guatemala
Ginecologia/história
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Gravidez
Justiça Social/história
Sífilis/história
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL; HISTORICAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/549005b


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[PMID]:28604315
[Au] Autor:Dhai A
[Ad] Endereço:Steve Biko Centre for Bioethics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ames.dhai@wits.ac.za.
[Ti] Título:Exploitation of the vulnerable in research: Responses to lessons learnt in history.
[So] Source:S Afr Med J;107(6):472-474, 2017 May 24.
[Is] ISSN:0256-9574
[Cp] País de publicação:South Africa
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Nuremberg Trials raised insightful issues on how and why doctors who were trained in the Hippocratic tradition were able to commit such egregious and heinous medical crimes. The vulnerable were considered to be subhuman, of decreased intelligence, of no moral status and lacking human dignity. The reputation of the medical profession had been undermined, professionalism questioned and the doctor-patient relationship damaged as a result of the Nazi medical experiments. The World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki has been hailed as one of the most successful efforts in rescuing medical research from the darkness of the scandals and tragedies in health research. The first Research Ethics Committee in South Africa was established in 1966 at the University of the Witwatersrand. From the mid-1970s other institutions followed suit. The promulgation of the National Health Act No. 61 of 2003, in 2004, resulted in strong protectionism for research participants in the country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica/história
Ética em Pesquisa
Declaração de Helsinki/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Sujeitos da Pesquisa
Populações Vulneráveis
Crimes de Guerra/história
II Guerra Mundial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Sociedades Médicas
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170613
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i6.12437


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[PMID]:28528032
[Au] Autor:Sade RM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Electronic address: sader@musc.edu.
[Ti] Título:A Surprising Alliance: Two Giants of the 20th Century.
[So] Source:Ann Thorac Surg;103(6):2015-2019, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1552-6259
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh were among the most famous international figures in the 20th century: Carrel, the surgeon-scientist who won a Nobel prize as a young surgeon, and Lindbergh, the aviator-engineer who pioneered aviation and promoted commercial flight throughout his life. Surprisingly, these two amazing individuals came together to collaborate on the early development of extracorporeal circulation. Their work was interrupted by the onset of World War II, which destroyed one of them and nearly destroyed the other.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aviação/história
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardiovasculares/história
Comportamento Cooperativo
Circulação Extracorpórea/história
Pessoas Famosas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: França
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Prêmio Nobel
Cirurgiões/história
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Carrel A; Lindbergh C
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170821
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170821
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170522
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 1463 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28418558
[Au] Autor:Bruns F; Chelouche T
[Ad] Endereço:From Charité University Medical Center, Berlin, Germany, and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Lectures on Inhumanity: Teaching Medical Ethics in German Medical Schools Under Nazism.
[So] Source:Ann Intern Med;166(8):591-595, 2017 Apr 18.
[Is] ISSN:1539-3704
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Nazi medicine and its atrocities have been explored in depth over the past few decades, but scholars have started to examine medical ethics under Nazism only in recent years. Given the medical crimes and immoral conduct of physicians during the Third Reich, it is often assumed that Nazi medical authorities spurned ethics. However, in 1939, Germany introduced mandatory lectures on ethics as part of the medical curriculum. Course catalogs and archival sources show that lectures on ethics were an integral part of the medical curriculum in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Nazi officials established lecturer positions for the new subject area, named Medical Law and Professional Studies, at every medical school. The appointed lecturers were mostly early members of the Nazi Party and imparted Nazi political and moral values in their teaching. These values included the unequal worth of human beings, the moral imperative of preserving a pure Aryan people, the authoritarian role of the physician, the individual's obligation to stay healthy, and the priority of public health over individual-patient care. This article shows that there existed not only a Nazi version of medical ethics but also a systematic teaching of such ethics to students in Nazi Germany. The findings illustrate that, from a historical point of view, the notion of "eternal values" that are inherent to the medical profession is questionable. Rather, the prevailing medical ethos can be strongly determined by politics and the zeitgeist and therefore has to be repeatedly negotiated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ética Médica/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Faculdades de Medicina/história
Ensino/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Currículo
Desumanização
Alemanha
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170427
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170427
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7326/M16-2758


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[PMID]:28374706
[Au] Autor:Damulin IV
[Ad] Endereço:Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
[Ti] Título:[Eponyms related to Nazism neurosciences].
[Ti] Título:Cvyazannye s natsizmom eponimy v neironaukakh..
[So] Source:Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova;117(2):174-177, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1997-7298
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The author considers eponymous names of CNS diseases related to physicians who had actively cooperated with Nazis during the Second World War. The data on the activity of some specialists in the field of neurosciences whose activity did not correspond to ethical values of the physician and the scientist are presented. The author suggests excluding a number of eponymous terms associated with the names of physicians, former Nazis or those who actively cooperated with Nazis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/história
Epônimos
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Neurociências/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alemanha
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Médicos/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170810
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170810
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170405
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.17116/jnevro201711721174-177


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[PMID]:28289166
[Au] Autor:Zeidman LA
[Ad] Endereço:From the Department of Neurology and Rehabilitation, University of Illinois at Chicago. lzeidm1@uic.edu.
[Ti] Título:Hans Jacob and brain research on Hamburg "euthanasia" victims: "Awaiting further brains!"
[So] Source:Neurology;88(11):1089-1094, 2017 Mar 14.
[Is] ISSN:1526-632X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Several neuropathologists conducted brain research on victims of so-called euthanasia programs carried out by the National Socialist (Nazi) regime in Germany from 1940 to 1945. Some published their results in German journals or books during and after the war. One of these neuropathologists was Hans Jacob of Hamburg, a former Nazi party member and the leader of the same laboratory previously run by Alfons Jakob (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). Though much has been published on the unethical actions of Jacob's fellow neuropathologist from Berlin, Julius Hallervorden, Jacob's actions were remarkably similar and have not been previously analyzed in the neuroscience literature. Jacob dissected at least 42 patient brains from euthanasia centers near Hamburg, and saved the specimens from at least 17 of them. He published a 1956 book chapter featuring 2 such specimens. Jacob was denazified, had a notable career, and never publicly addressed his actions during the war. His ethical violations may not have been on the same scale as Hallervorden's, but the effect of his work echoes to the modern era. As responsible researchers, we must always be conscious of the provenance of material provided and not succumb to opportunistic temptation despite the ethical consequences.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eutanásia/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
Neurologia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acetilcarnitina
Alemanha
História do Século XIX
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Nm] Nome de substância:
6DH1W9VH8Q (Acetylcarnitine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170522
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170522
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000003712


  10 / 1463 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28219632
[Au] Autor:Hildebrandt S; Czarnowski G
[Ad] Endereço:Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Div. General Pediatrics, Dep. Medicine, 333 Longwood Avenue-LO 234, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: sabine.hildebrandt@childrens.harvard.edu.
[Ti] Título:Alfred Pischinger (1899-1983): An Austrian career in anatomy continuing through National Socialism to postwar leadership.
[So] Source:Ann Anat;211:104-113, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1618-0402
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite intensified research efforts on the history of anatomy during National Socialism (NS), many aspects of this story still need further investigation. This study explores the life, work and politics of Alfred Pischinger, Chairman of the Institute for Embryology and Histology in Graz from 1936 to 1945, and in Vienna from 1958 to 1970, and is an addition to previous reports on careers in anatomy continuing through the Third Reich to the postwar period. Pischinger was an illegal NSDAP member in Austria, joined the SA in 1938, served as expert in racial hygiene, and as judge on the Genetic Health High Court of Graz. His research focus was histochemistry, but he became part of a scientific network at the University of Graz, which from 1939 on experimented on the bodies of pregnant women and their fetuses under the leadership of gynecologist Karl Ehrhardt. The researchers were among the many who took actively part in the complete exploitation and physical destruction of those considered to be "the enemy" by the NS regime. After the war, Pischinger received publicity for his work on the "scientific basis" of alternative and holistic approaches of medicine. His NS past and fetal experiments seem to have vanished from public knowledge. As systematic studies of the influence of the NS period on postwar medical education and the science of anatomy itself are still missing, this critical investigation of Alfred Pischinger's life within the relevant historic background aims to contribute to this body of knowledge.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Embriologia/história
Eugenia (Ciência)/história
Ginecologia/história
Histocitoquímica/história
Experimentação Humana/história
Nacional-Socialismo/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Áustria
História do Século XX
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170222
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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