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[PMID]:28931011
[Au] Autor:Salerno JM; Bottoms BL; Peter-Hagene LC
[Ad] Endereço:School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Arizona State University, Glendale, AZ, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Individual versus group decision making: Jurors' reliance on central and peripheral information to evaluate expert testimony.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0183580, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To investigate dual-process persuasion theories in the context of group decision making, we studied low and high need-for-cognition (NFC) participants within a mock trial study. Participants considered plaintiff and defense expert scientific testimony that varied in argument strength. All participants heard a cross-examination of the experts focusing on peripheral information (e.g., credentials) about the expert, but half were randomly assigned to also hear central information highlighting flaws in the expert's message (e.g., quality of the research presented by the expert). Participants rendered pre- and post-group-deliberation verdicts, which were considered "scientifically accurate" if the verdicts reflected the strong (versus weak) expert message, and "scientifically inaccurate" if they reflected the weak (versus strong) expert message. For individual participants, we replicated studies testing classic persuasion theories: Factors promoting reliance on central information (i.e., central cross-examination, high NFC) improved verdict accuracy because they sensitized individual participants to the quality discrepancy between the experts' messages. Interestingly, however, at the group level, the more that scientifically accurate mock jurors discussed peripheral (versus central) information about the experts, the more likely their group was to reach the scientifically accurate verdict. When participants were arguing for the scientifically accurate verdict consistent with the strong expert message, peripheral comments increased their persuasiveness, which made the group more likely to reach the more scientifically accurate verdict.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomada de Decisões
Prova Pericial
Função Jurisdicional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cognição/fisiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183580


  2 / 3305 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28817579
[Au] Autor:Clipper SJ; Morris RG; Russell-Kaplan A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The link between bond forfeiture and pretrial release mechanism: The case of Dallas County, Texas.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182772, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types) commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture). These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency. METHODS: A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture. Data were culled from archival state justice records comprising all defendants booked into the Dallas County, Texas jail during 2008 (n = 29,416). RESULTS: The results suggest that defendants released via commercial bail bonds were less likely to experience failure to appear leading to the bond forfeiture process compared to equivalent defendants released via cash, attorney, and pretrial services bonds. This finding held across different offense categories. The study frames these differences within a discussion encompassing procedural variation within and between each release mechanism, thereby setting the stage for further research and dialog regarding potential justice reform.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Função Jurisdicional
Aplicação da Lei/métodos
Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos
Texas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182772


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[PMID]:28640684
[Au] Autor:Altindag O; Joyce T
[Ad] Endereço:Onur Altindag is with the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, and Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, MA. Ted Joyce is with Baruch College, City University of New York and National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, NY.
[Ti] Título:Judicial Bypass for Minors Seeking Abortions in Arkansas Versus Other States.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(8):1266-1271, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To describe demographic characteristics and abortion timing of minors in Arkansas who obtained an abortion through a judicial bypass, and to contrast the frequency of judicial bypass in other states in the United States. METHODS: We used individual-level data on all abortions to minors (n = 2624) performed in Arkansas from 2005 to 2014 and aggregated data from 10 additional states on abortions obtained through a judicial bypass. We characterized correlates of the judicial bypass and its association with the timing of abortion. RESULTS: Minors in Arkansas who used the courts were more likely to be 17 years of age, nonresidents of Arkansas, Hispanic, and with fewer previous pregnancies than their younger, resident, non-Hispanic White, and multigravida counterparts; 7.7% of abortions to minors were obtained via a bypass in 11 states, but only 2% if Texas and Arkansas are excluded. CONCLUSIONS: The demographics of minors who obtain an abortion through a judicial bypass differ significantly from those who have parental consent, and there is widespread variation in the proportion of bypass cases across states.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aspirantes a Aborto/legislação & jurisprudência
Função Jurisdicional
Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Aborto Legal
Adolescente
Arkansas
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170724
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170724
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170623
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303822


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[PMID]:28270463
[Au] Autor:Bloom JD; Britton J; Berry W
[Ad] Endereço:Dr. Bloom is Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Ms. Britton is Director, Oregon Psychiatric Security Review Board, Portland, OR; Dr. Berry is Staff Psychiatrist, Deschutes County Behavioral Health, Bend, OR. bloomj@ohsu.edu.
[Ti] Título:The Oregon Court of Appeals and the State Civil Commitment Statute.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Psychiatry Law;45(1):52-61, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1943-3662
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In 1973 the Oregon Legislature passed a major revision of its civil commitment law adopting changes that mirrored those taking place across the United States. The new sections offered significant protections of the rights of individuals who are alleged to have mental illness, a limitation on the length of commitment, the adoption of both dangerousness and gravely disabled type commitment criteria and the adoption of "beyond a reasonable doubt" as the standard of proof for commitment hearings. From 1973 to the present time, the Oregon Court of Appeals adjudicated a large number of appeals emanating from civil commitment courts. This article is based on a review of 98 written Oregon Court of Appeals commitment decisions from the years 1998 through 2015 and is accompanied by a review of legislative intent in 1973. It appears that the court of appeals has significantly altered the 1973 legislative changes by moving the dangerousness criteria to imminence and the gravely disabled criteria to a focus on survival. Empirically, civil commitment has dramatically decreased in Oregon over a 40-year period and the case law, as developed by Oregon Court of Appeals, has had a significant contributing role in this reduction.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Direitos Civis/legislação & jurisprudência
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência
Jurisprudência
Defesa do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência
Prisioneiros/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento Perigoso
Avaliação da Deficiência
Seres Humanos
Função Jurisdicional
Oregon
Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência
Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 3305 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28241364
[Au] Autor:Hirschtritt ME; Binder RL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco.
[Ti] Título:Interrupting the Mental Illness-Incarceration-Recidivism Cycle.
[So] Source:JAMA;317(7):695-696, 2017 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aplicação da Lei
Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação
Prisioneiros/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração
Intervenção na Crise/educação
Intervenção na Crise/organização & administração
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos
Habitação
Seres Humanos
Função Jurisdicional
Aplicação da Lei/métodos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
Polícia/educação
Prisioneiros/educação
Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Psicoterapia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170616
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170616
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.20992


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[PMID]:28236496
[Au] Autor:Parizot I; Cailbault I; Winance M; Barbot J
[Ad] Endereço:CNRS, centre Maurice-Halbwachs (CMH), équipe de recherche sur les inégalités sociales (ERIS), 48, boulevard Jourdan, 75014 Paris, France. Electronic address: isabelle.parizot@ens.fr.
[Ti] Título:[Inequity of compensation trajectories for victims of medical injuries. A survey in the French out-of-court settlement mechanism].
[Ti] Título:Inégalités dans les parcours d'indemnisation des victimes d'accidents médicaux. Une enquête au sein du dispositif français de règlement amiable..
[So] Source:Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique;65(2):99-108, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0398-7620
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:fre
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In France little is known about either the characteristics of people who take legal action because they believe themselves to be victims of harm caused by medical activity, or about their complaint trajectory. The law of 4th March 2002 created an out-of-court settlement mechanism which aims to reduce inequitable access to compensation experienced by victims faced with legal procedures that are both lengthy and costly. This mechanism now occupies a central position among the avenues of recourse available to patients and their families. METHODS: The study relates to the exhaustive database of 18,258 requests for compensation filed with the out-of-court settlement mechanism between 2003 and 2009. It takes 4 series of variables into account: (1) the characteristics of the people concerned by the request, (2) the recourse practices, (3) the result of the requests, (4) the characteristics of the commissions with whom they dealt. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, in particular to find factors relating to the different responses given to the requests. RESULTS: Of the requests filed with the out-of-court settlement mechanism, 34.5% led to compensation being awarded, 30.7% were deemed inadmissible and 34.8% were rejected on the basis of expert opinions. The risk of inadmissibility was greater when the victim was a woman, undeceased, or a minor aged between 1 and 17; it bore no relation to standard of living. Recourse to a lawyer (24%) depended on various characteristics, in particular the age and vital status of the victim. It is associated to the decrease of the risk of inadmissibility and to the increase of the chances of receiving compensation. There were significant differences in the ways requests were processed (depending on where they were filed), in the time it took to examine the case, and in the tendency to reject requests before or after expert medical opinion. CONCLUSION: This study offers the first ever description of the population of patients and families who accessed the out-of-court settlement mechanism for medical claims in France. It looks at how, within the mechanism, the diversity of practices impacts inequity and experiences during the compensation process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compensação e Reparação
Doença Iatrogênica/economia
Doença Iatrogênica/epidemiologia
Imperícia/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Compensação e Reparação/legislação & jurisprudência
Feminino
França/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Revisão da Utilização de Seguros
Função Jurisdicional
Masculino
Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência
Meia-Idade
Política Pública
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170929
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170929
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170226
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 3305 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28234202
[Au] Autor:Logan TK
[Ti] Título:"If I Can't Have You Nobody Will": Explicit Threats in the Context of Coercive Control.
[So] Source:Violence Vict;32(1):126-140, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:0886-6708
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Physical assault is only one tool in partner abuse characterized by coercive control. Coercive control creates an ongoing state of fear and chronic stress. Explicit threats are an important component of coercive control yet have received limited research attention. This study examined 210 women with protective orders (POs) against abusive (ex)partners and their experiences of explicit threats including threats of harm and death, threats about harming friends and family, and actual threats to friends and family. There are 4 main findings from this study: (a) explicit threats of harm and death, threats about harming others, and actual threats to others are common both in the history of the abusive relationship as well as within 6 months prior to obtaining a PO but are only moderately correlated with each other; (b) the high-frequency threats of harm group had the highest rates of concurrent abuse, violence, distress, and fear; (c) the prevalence and frequency of threats changed over time for all 3 types of threats examined in this study; and (d) understanding the variety of threats partner abuse victims experience, especially threats of third-party harm, may be important in understanding the larger context and consequences of partner abuse. This study is an interim step toward a better understanding of the role of explicit threats in abusive relationships. Future research is needed to examine the prevalence, frequency, trajectory, features, context, and types of explicit threats that victims of partner abuse experience. This information may be especially key to understanding more about future risk of harm, risk of harm to others, victim distress and fear, and safety planning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mulheres Agredidas/psicologia
Coerção
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos
Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
Maus-Tratos Conjugais/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Mulheres Agredidas/estatística & dados numéricos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Função Jurisdicional
Meia-Idade
Polícia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170606
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170606
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170225
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-14-00187


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[PMID]:27982750
[Au] Autor:Wheatcroft JM; Keogan H
[Ad] Endereço:a University of Liverpool , UK.
[Ti] Título:Impact of Evidence Type and Judicial Warning on Juror Perceptions of Global and Specific Witness Evidence.
[So] Source:J Psychol;151(3):247-267, 2017 Apr 03.
[Is] ISSN:1940-1019
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Court of Appeal in England and Wales held (R. v. Sardar, 2012) there had been no exceptional circumstances that justified a jury retiring with a transcript of the complainant's interview. This paper reports an investigation into the impact multiple evidence forms and use of a judicial warning has on juror evaluations of a witness. The warning focuses juror attention on placing disproportionate weight on the evidence as opposed to their general impression of it. Sixty jury-eligible participants were presented with witness evidence in transcript, video, or transcript plus video format. Half the participants in each condition received the warning. All mock jurors completed a questionnaire which assessed perceptions of witness and task. Outcomes showed that transcript plus video evidence, when accompanied by a warning, did impact on mock jurors' global assessments of the witness. The warning made the task less clear for jurors and, in the video condition, led to higher ratings of how satisfactory and reliable the witness was. Findings support the provision of a judicial warning to jurors and show some initial support for judiciary opposition to the provision of an additional transcript only when jurors are asked to make the more usual global witness assessments.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Direito Penal/métodos
Tomada de Decisões
Função Jurisdicional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Inglaterra
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
País de Gales
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170609
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170609
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00223980.2016.1261077


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[PMID]:28009247
[Au] Autor:Preston J; McTeigue J; Opperman C; Scott Krieg JD; Brandt-Fontaine M; Yasis A; Shen FX
[Ad] Endereço:Research assistant in the Shen Neurolaw Lab at the University of Minnesota Law School in the Twin Cities, and a research fellow at the Center for Science and Law at Baylor College of Medicine. His work focuses on the intersection of law, neuroscience, and public policy.
[Ti] Título:The Legal Implications of Detecting Alzheimer's Disease Earlier.
[So] Source:AMA J Ethics;18(12):1207-1217, 2016 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2376-6980
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) raises a number of challenging legal questions. In this essay, we explore some of those questions, such as: Is a neurological indicator of increased risk for AD a legally relevant brain state before there are any outward behavioral manifestations? How should courts address evidentiary challenges to the admissibility of AD-related neuroimaging? How should the government regulate the marketing of neuroimaging diagnostic tools? How should insurance coverage for the use of these new tools be optimized? We suggest that many voices and multidisciplinary perspectives are needed to answer these questions and ensure that legal responses are swift, efficient, and equitable.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
Função Jurisdicional
Neuroimagem/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem
Comportamento
Biomarcadores
Diagnóstico Precoce
Seres Humanos
Cobertura do Seguro
Marketing
Medição de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161224
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 3305 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27881368
[Au] Autor:Dyer C
[Ti] Título:Where should the buck stop? Doctors taking the blame for system failure.
[So] Source:BMJ;355:i6274, 2016 Nov 23.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cirurgia Geral/legislação & jurisprudência
Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência
Perfuração Intestinal/mortalidade
Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Inglaterra
Prova Pericial
Seres Humanos
Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia
Função Jurisdicional
Prisões
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.i6274



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