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[PMID]:29190268
[Au] Autor:Tapp L; Ramsey JG; Wen A; Gerona R
[Ti] Título:Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory - Nevada, 2014.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;66(47):1291-1294, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures. After making the request for a health hazard evaluation, federal agents conducted a raid of an illegal SC laboratory, with assistance from local law enforcement and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) personnel and with NIOSH investigators observing from a distance. After the raid, agents collected and processed material evidence. NIOSH investigators tested agents' urine for SC levels before and after the raid and measured SCs in the air and on surfaces after the raid. DEA determined that AB-PINACA (an SC compound) and mitragynine (a plant material with opium-like effects, also known as "kratom") were present in the illegal laboratory. AB-PINACA, its metabolites, and mitragynine were not detected in agents' urine before the raid; however, one or more of these substances was found in the urine of six of nine agents after the raid and processing of the SC evidence. AB-PINACA was detected in one surface wipe sample from the SC laboratory; none was detected in the air in the laboratory or in the offices of the law enforcement agency where the materials were processed after the raid. No policies were in place regarding work practices and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during raids and evidence processing. To protect agents from SC exposures, NIOSH recommended that the agency require agents to wear a minimum level of PPE (e.g., protective gloves and disposable clothing) and undergo training in PPE and in handling and storing of contaminated evidence from SC laboratory raids. Showers and locker rooms also need to be provided so that agents can reduce contamination and prevent take-home exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Canabinoides/urina
Drogas Desenhadas
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/legislação & jurisprudência
Laboratórios/legislação & jurisprudência
Aplicação da Lei
Exposição Ocupacional/análise
Alcaloides de Triptamina e Secologanina/urina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Indazóis/urina
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Nevada
Equipamento de Proteção Individual/utilização
Valina/análogos & derivados
Valina/urina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cannabinoids); 0 (Designer Drugs); 0 (Indazoles); 0 (N-(1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide); 0 (Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids); EP479K822J (mitragynine); HG18B9YRS7 (Valine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6647a3


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[PMID]:29069567
[Au] Autor:Rush R
[Ad] Endereço:From the Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, and Toronto Grace Hospital - both in Toronto.
[Ti] Título:Officer of the Law.
[So] Source:N Engl J Med;377(17):1610-1611, 2017 Oct 26.
[Is] ISSN:1533-4406
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência
Confidencialidade/legislação & jurisprudência
Aplicação da Lei
Notificação Compulsória
Papel do Médico
Relações Médico-Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Notificação Compulsória/ética
Ontário
Planos de Incentivos Médicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; PERSONAL NARRATIVES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1056/NEJMp1709679


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[PMID]:29016598
[Au] Autor:Feldman JM; Gruskin S; Coull BA; Krieger N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Quantifying underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths in United States vital statistics and news-media-based data sources: A capture-recapture analysis.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(10):e1002399, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Prior research suggests that United States governmental sources documenting the number of law-enforcement-related deaths (i.e., fatalities due to injuries inflicted by law enforcement officers) undercount these incidents. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), administered by the federal government and based on state death certificate data, identifies such deaths by assigning them diagnostic codes corresponding to "legal intervention" in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision (ICD-10). Newer, nongovernmental databases track law-enforcement-related deaths by compiling news media reports and provide an opportunity to assess the magnitude and determinants of suspected NVSS underreporting. Our a priori hypotheses were that underreporting by the NVSS would exceed that by the news media sources, and that underreporting rates would be higher for decedents of color versus white, decedents in lower versus higher income counties, decedents killed by non-firearm (e.g., Taser) versus firearm mechanisms, and deaths recorded by a medical examiner versus coroner. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created a new US-wide dataset by matching cases reported in a nongovernmental, news-media-based dataset produced by the newspaper The Guardian, The Counted, to identifiable NVSS mortality records for 2015. We conducted 2 main analyses for this cross-sectional study: (1) an estimate of the total number of deaths and the proportion unreported by each source using capture-recapture analysis and (2) an assessment of correlates of underreporting of law-enforcement-related deaths (demographic characteristics of the decedent, mechanism of death, death investigator type [medical examiner versus coroner], county median income, and county urbanicity) in the NVSS using multilevel logistic regression. We estimated that the total number of law-enforcement-related deaths in 2015 was 1,166 (95% CI: 1,153, 1,184). There were 599 deaths reported in The Counted only, 36 reported in the NVSS only, 487 reported in both lists, and an estimated 44 (95% CI: 31, 62) not reported in either source. The NVSS documented 44.9% (95% CI: 44.2%, 45.4%) of the total number of deaths, and The Counted documented 93.1% (95% CI: 91.7%, 94.2%). In a multivariable mixed-effects logistic model that controlled for all individual- and county-level covariates, decedents injured by non-firearm mechanisms had higher odds of underreporting in the NVSS than those injured by firearms (odds ratio [OR]: 68.2; 95% CI: 15.7, 297.5; p < 0.01), and underreporting was also more likely outside of the highest-income-quintile counties (OR for the lowest versus highest income quintile: 10.1; 95% CI: 2.4, 42.8; p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the odds of underreporting in the NVSS for deaths certified by coroners compared to medical examiners, and the odds of underreporting did not vary by race/ethnicity. One limitation of our analyses is that we were unable to examine the characteristics of cases that were unreported in The Counted. CONCLUSIONS: The media-based source, The Counted, reported a considerably higher proportion of law-enforcement-related deaths than the NVSS, which failed to report a majority of these incidents. For the NVSS, rates of underreporting were higher in lower income counties and for decedents killed by non-firearm mechanisms. There was no evidence suggesting that underreporting varied by death investigator type (medical examiner versus coroner) or race/ethnicity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coleta de Dados
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos
Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos
Aplicação da Lei
Meios de Comunicação de Massa
Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Afroamericanos
Americanos Asiáticos
Causas de Morte
Estudos Transversais
Bases de Dados Factuais
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Feminino
Hispano-Americanos
Seres Humanos
Índios Norte-Americanos
Modelos Logísticos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Mortalidade
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos
Razão de Chances
Estados Unidos
Estatísticas Vitais
Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002399


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28954060
[Au] Autor:Mendes FL; Szklo AS; Perez CA; Cavalcante TM; Fong GT
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Perceived enforcement of anti-smoking laws in bars and restaurants of three Brazilian cities: data from the ITC-Brazil survey.
[Ti] Título:A percepção do cumprimento das leis antifumo em bares e restaurantes em três cidades brasileiras: dados do ITC-Brasil..
[So] Source:Cad Saude Publica;33Suppl 3(Suppl 3):e00140315, 2017 Sep 21.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4464
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:por; eng
[Ab] Resumo:Passive smoking causes severe and lethal effects on health. Since 1996 Brazil has been moving forward in the implementation of anti-smoking legislation in enclosed public spaces. This article aims to evaluate the perceived enforcement of anti-smoking legislation in the cities of Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul State), Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, based on the results of the ITC-Brazil Survey (International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project). The results of the survey showed a significant reduction in the proportion of people who saw individuals smoking in restaurants and bars between 2009 and 2013 in the three cities surveyed. Concurrently there was an increase in the proportion of smokers who mentioned having smoked in the outer areas of these facilities. These results likely reflect a successful implementation of anti-smoking laws. Of note is the fact that by decreasing passive smoking we further enhance smoking denormalization among the general population, decreasing smoking initiation and increasing its cessation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aplicação da Lei
Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Política de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Percepção
Política Pública
Inquéritos e Questionários
Telefone
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170928
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28933926
[Au] Autor:Runyan CW; Brooks-Russell A; Brandspigel S; Betz M; Tung G; Novins D; Agans R
[Ad] Endereço:Carol W. Runyan and Sara Brandspigel are with the Department of Epidemiology, Ashley Brooks-Russell is with the Department of Community and Behavioral Health, and Gregory Tung is with the Department of Health Systems Management and Policy, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora. Marian Betz is wit
[Ti] Título:Law Enforcement and Gun Retailers as Partners for Safely Storing Guns to Prevent Suicide: A Study in 8 Mountain West States.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(11):1789-1794, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which law enforcement agencies (LEAs) and gun retailers are willing to offer voluntary, temporary storage as a part of an overall suicide prevention effort. METHODS: We invited all LEAs and gun retailers in 8 US states to respond to questionnaires asking about their willingness to offer temporary gun storage and their recommendations to gun owners about safe storage. RESULTS: We collected data in 2016 from 448 LEAs and 95 retailers (response rates of 53% and 25%, respectively). Three quarters of LEAs (74.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 72.1, 77.5) indicated they already provided temporary storage compared with 47.6% (95% CI = 39.2, 56.0) of retailers. LEAs were most willing to provide storage when a gun owner was concerned about the mental health of a family member. Retailers were more receptive than were LEAs to providing storage when visitors were coming or for people wanting storage while traveling. Both groups recommended locking devices within the home, but LEAs were slightly more favorable to storing guns away from the home. CONCLUSIONS: Law enforcement agencies and gun retailers are important resources for families concerned about suicide.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Armas de Fogo
Aplicação da Lei
Segurança
Suicídio/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Armas de Fogo/economia
Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência
Armas de Fogo/normas
Seres Humanos
Relações Interinstitucionais
Noroeste dos Estados Unidos
Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência
Segurança/normas
Sudoeste dos Estados Unidos
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304013


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[PMID]:28859052
[Au] Autor:O'Donnell JK; Gladden RM; Seth P
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, CDC.
[Ti] Título:Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;66(34):897-903, 2017 Sep 01.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015. In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento
Drogas Desenhadas/envenenamento
Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade
Fentanila/envenenamento
Heroína/envenenamento
Drogas Ilícitas/legislação & jurisprudência
Drogas Ilícitas/envenenamento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Censos
Seres Humanos
Aplicação da Lei
Mortalidade/tendências
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid); 0 (Designer Drugs); 0 (Street Drugs); 70D95007SX (Heroin); UF599785JZ (Fentanyl)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6634a2


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[PMID]:28817579
[Au] Autor:Clipper SJ; Morris RG; Russell-Kaplan A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:The link between bond forfeiture and pretrial release mechanism: The case of Dallas County, Texas.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182772, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of four pretrial jail release mechanisms (i.e., bond types) commonly used during the pretrial phase of the criminal justice process in terms of their ability to discriminate between defendants failing to appear in court (i.e., bond forfeiture). These include attorney bonds, cash bonds, commercial bail bonds, and release via a pretrial services agency. METHODS: A multi-treatment propensity score matching protocol was employed to assess between-release-mechanism differences in the conditional probability of failure to appear/bond forfeiture. Data were culled from archival state justice records comprising all defendants booked into the Dallas County, Texas jail during 2008 (n = 29,416). RESULTS: The results suggest that defendants released via commercial bail bonds were less likely to experience failure to appear leading to the bond forfeiture process compared to equivalent defendants released via cash, attorney, and pretrial services bonds. This finding held across different offense categories. The study frames these differences within a discussion encompassing procedural variation within and between each release mechanism, thereby setting the stage for further research and dialog regarding potential justice reform.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Função Jurisdicional
Aplicação da Lei/métodos
Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos
Texas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171006
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171006
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170818
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182772


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[PMID]:28624036
[Au] Autor:Joudi N; Tashiro J; Golpanian S; Eidelson SA; Perez EA; Sola JE
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Pediatric Surgery, DeWitt-Daughtry Department of Surgery, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
[Ti] Título:Firearm injuries due to legal intervention in children and adolescents: a national analysis.
[So] Source:J Surg Res;214:140-144, 2017 Jun 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8673
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Firearm injuries related to legal intervention have come under scrutiny because of recent events. METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database (1997-2012) was searched for firearm injuries due to legal interventions (International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, Clinical Modification E970) requiring inpatient admission in children aged <20 y. Cases were weighted to provide national estimates. The Brady Campaign criteria were used to identify lenient versus strict gun law states. RESULTS: Overall, 275 cases were identified, with a 7.5% mortality rate. Incidence peaked at 1.0 per 100,000 admissions in 2006, significantly increased from a low 0.2 per 100,000 admissions in 1997, P < 0.001. Patients were predominantly male (97%). African Americans (44%) represented the largest racial group, followed by Hispanics (30%) and Caucasians (20%). Mean age was 17.5 ± 2.08 y. Patients were insured by Medicaid (33%) or a private payer (24%); the remainder (43%) was uninsured. Admissions most frequently occurred at urban teaching hospitals (81%). Cases occurred most frequently in the Southern United States (44%), followed by the Western United States (35%). Most patients presented to non-children's hospitals (97%). Mean hospital admission cost was 27,507 ± 40,197 USD, whereas mean charges amounted to 75,905 ± 116,622 USD. Cases mostly occurred in lenient (56%) gun law states, whereas the remainder occurred in strict (41%) and neutral (3%) states. When analyzed by race, Caucasians (16%) had a significantly higher mortality rate when compared with African Americans (5%), P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: An analysis of this very specific injury mechanism demonstrates important findings, which are difficult to collect from conventional data sources. Future research will contribute to the objective analysis of this politically charged subject.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência
Aplicação da Lei
Polícia/legislação & jurisprudência
Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
Hospitalização
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos
Estudos Retrospectivos
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Violência/etnologia
Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170619
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28542125
[Au] Autor:Venkat H; Kassem AM; Su CP; Hill C; Timme E; Briggs G; Komatsu K; Robinson S; Sunenshine R; Patel M; Elson D; Gastañaduy P; Brady S; Measles Investigation Team
[Ti] Título:Notes from the Field: Measles Outbreak at a United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Facility - Arizona, May-June 2016.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;66(20):543-544, 2017 05 26.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Surtos de Doenças
Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência
Sarampo/epidemiologia
Logradouros Públicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Arizona/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
Seres Humanos
Aplicação da Lei
Sarampo/diagnóstico
Sarampo/prevenção & controle
Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem
Meia-Idade
Estados Unidos
United States Government Agencies
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170601
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170601
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6620a5


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[PMID]:28441520
[Au] Autor:Freeman J; Kaye SA; Truelove V; Davey J
[Ad] Endereço:Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety - Queensland(CARRS-Q), 130 Victoria Park Road, Kelvin Grove, 4059, Australia. Electronic address: je.freeman@qut.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Age, gender and deterrability: Are younger male drivers more likely to discount the future?
[So] Source:Accid Anal Prev;104:1-9, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2057
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Utilizing the Classical Deterrence theory and Stafford and Warr's (1993) reconceptualized model of deterrence, the current study examined whether age, gender, and discounting the future tendencies influence perceptions of being apprehended for speeding offences. Licensed motorists (N=700; 57% female) in Queensland (Australia) were recruited to complete a self-report questionnaire that measured perceptual deterrence, speeding related behaviors and discounting the future tendencies. Data were analyzed utilizing descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regressions. Significant (albeit weak) positive correlations were found between age and perceptions of apprehension certainty. Males were significantly more likely to report higher incidences of speeding (including while avoiding detection) compared to females. In contrast, females were more likely to perceive high levels of apprehension certainty and consider impending penalties to be more severe. At a multivariate level, discounting the future tendencies (in addition to being male, reporting lower levels of perceptual severity and swiftness, and more instances of punishment avoidance) were predictive of lower perceptual certainty levels. This study is one of the first to reveal that being male and having a tendency to discount the consequences of the future may directly influence drivers' perceptual deterrence levels.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fatores Etários
Condução de Veículo/psicologia
Aplicação da Lei
Licenciamento/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Sexuais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Austrália
Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Teóricos
Análise de Regressão
Assunção de Riscos
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170426
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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