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[PMID]:29206950
[Au] Autor:Gilster ME; Meier CL
[Ad] Endereço:School of Social Work, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
[Ti] Título:Formal and Informal Neighborhood Social Organization: Which Promotes Better Resident Health?
[So] Source:Health Soc Work;41(3):182-190, 2016 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:0360-7283
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Neighborhood social organization captures how neighborhood residents differently organize to exert social control and enact their vision of their community. Whereas structural aspects of neighborhoods have been found to predict the health of neighborhood residents, we know less about whether neighborhood social characteristics, like social organization, matter for resident health. In their study, authors tested whether two types of social organization-formal and informal-were more predictive of resident self-rated health in a diverse sample of Chicago residents. They used multilevel models with survey weights, ordered dependent variables, and multiple imputation. They found that one measure of formal social organization, organizational participation, was significantly associated with self-rated health even when controlling for other types of social organization and individual participation. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for macro social work practice to address social determinants of health and improve community health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Promoção da Saúde
Nível de Saúde
Distribuição Espacial da População
Meio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Chicago
Demografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Controle Social Formal
Controles Informais da Sociedade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/hsw/hlw024


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[PMID]:28675833
[Au] Autor:León-Flández K; Rico-Gómez A; Moya-Geromin MÁ; Romero-Fernández M; Bosqued-Estefania MJ; Damián J; López-Jurado L; Royo-Bordonada MÁ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Heath, Complutense University of Madrid, Pza. Ramón y Cajal, S/N. Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: karimenleonf@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of compliance with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years in Spain, 2012.
[So] Source:Public Health;150:121-129, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5616
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate compliance levels with the Spanish Code of self-regulation of food and drinks advertising directed at children under the age of 12 years (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad, Salud [PAOS] Code) in 2012; and compare these against the figures for 2008. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Television advertisements of food and drinks (AFD) were recorded over 7 days in 2012 (8am-midnight) of five Spanish channels popular to children. AFD were classified as core (nutrient-rich/low-calorie products), non-core (nutrient-poor/rich-calorie products) or miscellaneous. Compliance with each standard of the PAOS Code was evaluated. AFD were deemed to be fully compliant when it met all the standards. RESULTS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-two AFDs came within the purview of the PAOS Code. Some of the standards that registered the highest levels of non-compliance were those regulating the suitability of the information presented (79.4%) and those prohibiting the use of characters popular with children (25%). Overall non-compliance with the Code was greater in 2012 than in 2008 (88.3% vs 49.3%). Non-compliance was highest for advertisements screened on children's/youth channels (92.3% vs. 81.5%; P < 0.001) and for those aired outside the enhanced protection time slot (89.3% vs. 86%; P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Non-compliance with the PAOS Code is higher than for 2008. Given the lack of effectiveness of self-regulation, a statutory system should be adopted to ban AFD directed at minors, or at least restrict it to healthy products.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Publicidade como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos
Indústria Alimentícia/normas
Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
Controles Informais da Sociedade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Publicidade como Assunto/legislação & jurisprudência
Publicidade como Assunto/normas
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência
Seres Humanos
Marketing/normas
Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos
Espanha
Televisão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170705
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28477238
[Au] Autor:Chen WY; Liekens I; Broekx S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. wychen@hku.hk.
[Ti] Título:Identifying Societal Preferences for River Restoration in a Densely Populated Urban Environment: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment in Central Brussels.
[So] Source:Environ Manage;60(2):263-279, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1009
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:One of the major challenges facing river restoration in densely populated urban areas has been the disparity between the expectations of policy-makers and societal preferences. This study aimed to elicit public preferences and elucidate underlying sources of preference heterogeneity, using the Zenne River in central Brussels, Belgium, as a case study. A discrete choice experiment was administered to a representative sample of the Brussels population. Five attributes were specified, including water quality, ecological status, hydromorphological features of channels, recreational opportunities, and monetary cost. Our econometric analysis based on mixed logit models revealed that overall public would like to have a more natural river (open and naturalized channel, good water quality, and with rich species diversity), while achieving good water quality was the most preferred attribute. Respondents categorized as male, non-Belgian citizen, or not being a member of an environmental organization constituted an inclination to prefer the status quo. Belgian citizens showed a pronounced preference for good biodiversity, and being a member of an environmental organization could moderate the strong preference for good water quality. This study provided insights into the relative attractiveness of key attributes pertaining to river restoration, in general, and served as a useful input to the ongoing discussion concerning the future plan for the Zenne River in Brussels, specifically. Possible implications also exist for other urban river restorations in the rest of Europe, where the Water Framework Directive has become a major impetus for the expansion of freshwater ecosystem restoration from rural and peri-urban areas to densely populated urban areas. Particularly, the cultural heterogeneity of societal preferences should be tested and accounted for to compare the welfare impacts of river restoration and to facilitate benefit transfer, within and between river basins, in the Water Framework Directive implementation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Escolha
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Formulação de Políticas
Rios
Urbanização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bélgica
Ecossistema
Política Ambiental
Modelos Econométricos
Densidade Demográfica
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Qualidade da Água/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170507
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00267-017-0885-5


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[PMID]:28418198
[Au] Autor:Baldin E; Hauser WA; Pack A; Hesdorffer DC
[Ad] Endereço:Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, Columbia University, New York, New York, U.S.A.
[Ti] Título:Stress is associated with an increased risk of recurrent seizures in adults.
[So] Source:Epilepsia;58(6):1037-1046, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1528-1167
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The literature is sparse on the complex interrelationships between stressors, depression, anxiety disorders, and epilepsy. We hypothesized that a relationship exists between stress and epilepsy. We evaluated whether markers of stress are associated with seizure recurrence in a low income community-based cohort of adults with single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: We ascertained adult residents of Northern Manhattan and Harlem, New York City, with a first unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy, between December 2010 and January 2013. At enrollment, we collected information about seizure phenomenology, demographics, clinical information, and measures of stress (environmental stress, stressful life events, facets of allostatic load-i.e., the cumulative effect of adaptation to stress, psychiatric disorders, and low collective efficacy). Collective efficacy assesses neighborhood characteristics and incorporates social cohesion and informal social control. All subjects were followed for 2 years for further seizures. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of seizure recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: We identified 52 subjects (64.2%) with a single unprovoked seizure and 29 (35.9%) with newly diagnosed epilepsy. Seizure recurrence was recorded in 38.5% (N = 20) of subjects with a single unprovoked seizure and in 69% of those with epilepsy (N = 20) (p = 0.01). In the overall sample, the hazard of seizure recurrence was increased by lifetime generalized anxiety disorder (3.0-fold) and by low collective efficacy (2.7-fold). In a second model, the hazard was increased by lifetime mood disorder (2.1-fold) and low collective efficacy (2.5-fold). SIGNIFICANCE: Markers of stress (i.e., low collective efficacy, lifetime mood disorder, and lifetime generalized anxiety disorder) were associated with an increased risk for seizure recurrence in adults with a single unprovoked seizure or newly diagnosed epilepsy. Stress-reducing interventions, such as mindfulness, may be a useful, safe, and inexpensive adjunctive treatment for epilepsy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações
Transtorno Depressivo/complicações
Epilepsia/psicologia
Estresse Psicológico/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Alostase
Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
Estudos de Coortes
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia
Feminino
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Psicológicos
Cidade de Nova Iorque
Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Recidiva
Fatores de Risco
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Identificação Social
Apoio Social
Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170419
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/epi.13741


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[PMID]:28403207
[Au] Autor:Campbell ML; Bryant DE; Hewitt CL
[Ad] Endereço:University of Tasmania, National Centre for Marine Conservation and Resource Sustainability, Locked Bag 1370, Newnham, Tasmania, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Biosecurity messages are lost in translation to citizens: Implications for devolving management to citizens.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(4):e0175439, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The increasing focus of marine biosecurity agencies on transferring management responsibilities to citizens and industry begs the question whether devolved responsibility is a viable option for creating biosecurity outcomes. We examined recreational marine users' self-declared awareness of non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) at six locations in Tasmania, Australia and evaluated the accuracy of their awareness through recognition of four well-known NIMS with active awareness campaigns. We also investigated whether the activities of recreational marine users influence the accuracy of their NIMS recognition skills. We generally found that respondents declare NIMS awareness (70.45%), yet we found their recognition accuracy was variable ranging from low to fair (<10% to 54.95%) and recreational activity did not influence accuracy. Based on our results, we conclude that marine users' awareness does not predict accuracy and therefore devolved management of biosecurity without additional resources may pose a risky biosecurity management strategy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesqueiros
Disseminação de Informação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conscientização
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Seres Humanos
Espécies Introduzidas
Recreação
Gestão de Riscos
Navios
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Tasmânia
Traduções
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0175439


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[PMID]:28323867
[Au] Autor:Rudas C; Surányi O; Yasseri T; Török J
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest, Hungary.
[Ti] Título:Understanding and coping with extremism in an online collaborative environment: A data-driven modeling.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0173561, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Internet has provided us with great opportunities for large scale collaborative public good projects. Wikipedia is a predominant example of such projects where conflicts emerge and get resolved through bottom-up mechanisms leading to the emergence of the largest encyclopedia in human history. Disaccord arises whenever editors with different opinions try to produce an article reflecting a consensual view. The debates are mainly heated by editors with extreme views. Using a model of common value production, we show that the consensus can only be reached if groups with extreme views can actively take part in the discussion and if their views are also represented in the common outcome, at least temporarily. We show that banning problematic editors mostly hinders the consensus as it delays discussion and thus the whole consensus building process. To validate the model, relevant quantities are measured both in simulations and Wikipedia, which show satisfactory agreement. We also consider the role of direct communication between editors both in the model and in Wikipedia data (by analyzing the Wikipedia talk pages). While the model suggests that in certain conditions there is an optimal rate of "talking" vs "editing", it correctly predicts that in the current settings of Wikipedia, more activity in talk pages is associated with more controversy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adaptação Psicológica
Comunicação
Consenso
Comportamento Cooperativo
Internet
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Simulação por Computador
Enciclopédias como Assunto
Seres Humanos
Sistemas de Informação
Modelos Psicológicos
Controles Informais da Sociedade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170823
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170823
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173561


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[PMID]:28225702
[Au] Autor:Applbaum AI
[Ad] Endereço:Adams Professor of Political Leadership and Democratic Values at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
[Ti] Título:The Idea of Legitimate Authority in the Practice of Medicine.
[So] Source:AMA J Ethics;19(2):207-213, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:2376-6980
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Legitimate authority is the normative power to govern, where a normative power is the ability to change the normative situation of others. Correlatively, when one has the normative power to govern others, these others face a normative liability to be governed. So understood, physicians do not have legitimate authority over their patients, and patients do not have legitimate authority over their physicians. An authority is legitimate only when it is a free group agent constituted by its free members. On this conception, associations of physicians sometimes have legitimate authority over individual physicians, and physicians sometimes count as members subject to the legitimate authority of these associations. This might be so even when they have not consented to membership.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Médicos
Padrões de Prática Médica
Controle Social Formal
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Sociedades Médicas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ética Médica
Seres Humanos
Medicina
Relações Médico-Paciente
Médicos/ética
Padrões de Prática Médica/ética
Padrões de Prática Médica/legislação & jurisprudência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170320
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170320
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170223
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28215283
[Au] Autor:Warner TD; Settersten RA
[Ad] Endereço:University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, United States. Electronic address: twarner2@unl.edu.
[Ti] Título:Why Neighborhoods (and How We Study Them) Matter for Adolescent Development.
[So] Source:Adv Child Dev Behav;52:105-152, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0065-2407
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Adolescence is a sensitive developmental period marked by significant changes that unfold across multiple contexts. As a central context of development, neighborhoods capture-in both physical and social space-the stratification of life chances and differential distribution of resources and risks. For some youth, neighborhoods are springboards to opportunities; for others, they are snares that constrain progress and limit the ability to avoid risks. Despite abundant research on "neighborhood effects," scant attention has been paid to how neighborhoods are a product of social stratification forces that operate simultaneously to affect human development. Neighborhoods in the United States are the manifestation of three intersecting social structural cleavages: race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and geography. Many opportunities are allocated or denied along these three cleavages. To capture these joint processes, we advocate a "neighborhood-centered" approach to study the effects of neighborhoods on adolescent development. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), we demonstrate the complex ways that these three cleavages shape specific neighborhood contexts and can result in stark differences in well-being. A neighborhood-centered approach demands more rigorous and sensitive theories of place, as well as multidimensional classification and measures. We discuss an agenda to advance the state of theories and research, drawing explicit attention to the stratifying forces that bring about distinct neighborhood types that shape developmental trajectories during adolescence and beyond.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desenvolvimento do Adolescente
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
Aspirações (Psicologia)
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia
Seres Humanos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
Pobreza/psicologia
Carência Psicossocial
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Meio Social
Facilitação Social
Apoio Social
Valores Sociais
Socialização
Violência/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170221
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27903954
[Au] Autor:Bauermeister JA; Connochie D; Jadwin-Cakmak L; Meanley S
[Ad] Endereço:1 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Gender Policing During Childhood and the Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Sexual Minority Men in the United States.
[So] Source:Am J Mens Health;11(3):693-701, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1557-9891
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Hegemonic masculinities (i.e., sets of socially accepted masculine behaviors and beliefs within a given time and culture) may affect the well-being of sexual minority men, yet quantitative relationships between these masculinities and well-being remain largely unexplored. Using data from a national cross-sectional survey of young sexual minority men ( N = 1,484; ages 18-24 years), the current study examined the relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and subsequent substance use and psychological distress. Over one third of the sample (37.8%) reported their parent(s) or the person(s) who raised them had policed their gender, including the use of disciplinary actions. Using multivariable regression, this study examined the relationship between parental gender policing and psychological well-being and substance use, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and current student status. Gender policing during childhood and adolescence was associated with recent substance use behaviors and psychological distress in multivariable models. A linear association between substance use behaviors and psychological distress and the number of disciplinary actions experienced during childhood and adolescence was also observed. Parents' attempts to police their sons' gender expression were associated with markers of distress among young sexual minority men. The relationship between parental gender policing during childhood and adolescence and distress among young sexual minority men are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Relações Pais-Filho
Satisfação Pessoal
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Estudos Transversais
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Masculinidade
Controles Informais da Sociedade
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1177/1557988316680938


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[PMID]:27808561
[Au] Autor:Caetano R; Vaeth PA; Canino G
[Ad] Endereço:a Prevention Research Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation , Oakland , CA , USA.
[Ti] Título:Family cohesion and pride, drinking and alcohol use disorder in Puerto Rico.
[So] Source:Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse;43(1):87-94, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1097-9891
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The extended multigenerational family is a core value of Hispanic culture. Family cohesion/pride can have protective effects on drinking- and drug-use-related behavior among Hispanics. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between family cohesion/pride, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) in Puerto Rico. METHODS: Data are from a household random sample of 1510 individuals 18-64 years of age in San Juan, Puerto Rico. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that family cohesion/pride was not associated with the average number of drinks consumed per week but was associated with binge drinking among men. Family cohesion/pride was also associated with DSM-5 AUD. Results of the multivariate analyses were consistent with these bivariate results for DSM-5 AUD. Respondents with low (OR = 2.2, 95CL = 1.21-3.98; p < .01) and medium (OR = 1.88; 95CL = 1.12-3.14; p < .01) family cohesion/pride were more likely than those with high family cohesion/pride to have a positive diagnosis of DSM-5 AUD. More liberal drinking norms and positive attitudes toward drinking were also strong predictors of the average number of drinks consumed per week. More liberal drinking norms also predicted binge drinking, and DSM-5 AUD. CONCLUSIONS: Higher family cohesion/pride may have a protective effect against DSM-5 AUD. This may have practical implications for clinical and prevention programs. As long as high cohesion is not enabling drinking, these programs can enhance and support family cohesion/pride to help clients in treatment and recovery and prevent drinking problems.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia
Saúde da Família/estatística & dados numéricos
Controles Informais da Sociedade
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Bebedeira/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Porto Rico/epidemiologia
Fatores Sexuais
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/00952990.2016.1225073



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