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  1 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29420654
[Au] Autor:Sen R; Quercia D
[Ad] Endereço:Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi, India.
[Ti] Título:World wide spatial capital.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190346, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Internet
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Planejamento de Cidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190346


  2 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29192615
[Au] Autor:Zhang Y; Kang J; Kang J
[Ad] Endereço:School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shenyang Jianzhu University, Shenyang, China; School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
[Ti] Título:Effects of Soundscape on the Environmental Restoration in Urban Natural Environments.
[So] Source:Noise Health;19(87):65-72, 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1463-1741
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:CONTEXT: According to the attention restoration theory, directed attention is a limited physiological resource and is susceptible to fatigue by overuse. Natural environments are a healthy resource, which allows and promotes the restoration of individuals within it from their state of directed attention fatigue. This process is called the environmental restoration on individuals, and it is affected both positively and negatively by environmental factors. AIMS: By considering the relationship among the three components of soundscape, that is, people, sound and the environment, this study aims to explore the effects of soundscape on the environmental restoration in urban natural environments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A field experiment was conducted with 70 participants (four groups) in an urban natural environment (Shenyang, China). Directed attention was first depleted with a 50-min 'consumption' phase, followed by a baseline measurement of attention level. Three groups then engaged in 40 min of restoration in the respective environments with similar visual surroundings but with different sounds present, after which attention levels were re-tested. The fourth group did not undergo restoration and was immediately re-tested. The difference between the two test scores, corrected for the practice effect, represents the attention restoration of individuals exposed to the respective environments. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: An analysis of variance was performed, demonstrating that the differences between the mean values for each group were statistically significant [sig. = 0.027 (<0.050)]. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean values (confidence interval of 95%) of each group are as follows: 'natural sounds group' (8.4), 'traffic sounds group' (2.4) and 'machine sounds group' (-1.8). CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that (1) urban natural environments, with natural sounds, have a positive effect on the restoration of an individuals' attention and (2) the presence of different types of sounds has significantly divergent effects on the environmental restoration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atenção
Planejamento de Cidades
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
Ruído
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_73_16


  3 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29226442
[Au] Autor:Sharfstein JM
[Ti] Título:Common Ground on Responsibility for Health.
[So] Source:Milbank Q;95(4):718-721, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1468-0009
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento de Cidades
Desastres/economia
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde
Socorro em Desastres/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tempestades Ciclônicas/economia
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
Seres Humanos
Prática de Saúde Pública
Socorro em Desastres/legislação & jurisprudência
Discriminação Social
Responsabilidade Social
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1468-0009.12295


  4 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29048958
[Au] Autor:Buller DB; English DR; Buller MK; Simmons J; Chamberlain JA; Wakefield M; Dobbinson S
[Ad] Endereço:David B. Buller and Mary Klein Buller are with Klein Buendel, Inc., Golden, CO. Dallas R. English is with the Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Jody Simmons, Melanie Wakefield, and Suzanne Dobbinson are with the Centre for Beha
[Ti] Título:Shade Sails and Passive Recreation in Public Parks of Melbourne and Denver: A Randomized Intervention.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(12):1869-1875, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To test whether shade sails will increase the use of passive recreation areas (PRAs). METHODS: We conducted a stratified randomized pretest-posttest controlled design study in Melbourne, Australia, and Denver, Colorado, in 2010 to 2014. We randomized a sample of 144 public parks with 2 PRAs in full sun in a 1:3 ratio to treatment or control. Shade sails were built at 1 PRA per treatment park. The outcome was any use of the study PRA (n = 576 pretest and n = 576 posttest observations; 100% follow-up). RESULTS: Compared with control PRAs (adjusted probability of use: pretest = 0.14, posttest = 0.17), use of treatment PRAs (pretest = 0.10, posttest = 0.32) was higher at posttest (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.71, 8.94). Shade increased use of PRAs in Denver (control: pretest = 0.18, posttest = 0.19; treatment: pretest = 0.16, posttest = 0.47) more than Melbourne (control: pretest = 0.11, posttest = 0.14; shaded: pretest = 0.06, posttest = 0.19; OR = 2.98; 95% CI = 1.09, 8.14). CONCLUSIONS: Public investment in shade is warranted for skin cancer prevention and may be especially useful in the United States. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02971709.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento Ambiental
Parques Recreativos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Austrália
Planejamento de Cidades
Colorado
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Prospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171020
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304071


  5 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29040314
[Au] Autor:Wang L; Qian C; Kats P; Kontokosta C; Sobolevsky S
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Urban Science and Progress, New York University, Brooklyn, New York, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Structure of 311 service requests as a signature of urban location.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186314, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:While urban systems demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity, many urban planning, economic and political decisions heavily rely on a deep understanding of local neighborhood contexts. We show that the structure of 311 Service Requests enables one possible way of building a unique signature of the local urban context, thus being able to serve as a low-cost decision support tool for urban stakeholders. Considering examples of New York City, Boston and Chicago, we demonstrate how 311 Service Requests recorded and categorized by type in each neighborhood can be utilized to generate a meaningful classification of locations across the city, based on distinctive socioeconomic profiles. Moreover, the 311-based classification of urban neighborhoods can present sufficient information to model various socioeconomic features. Finally, we show that these characteristics are capable of predicting future trends in comparative local real estate prices. We demonstrate 311 Service Requests data can be used to monitor and predict socioeconomic performance of urban neighborhoods, allowing urban stakeholders to quantify the impacts of their interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
População Urbana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Boston
Censos
Chicago
Planejamento de Cidades
Previsões
Habitação
Seres Humanos
Aprendizado de Máquina
Cidade de Nova Iorque
Distribuição Espacial da População
Análise Espacial
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171018
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186314


  6 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28898244
[Au] Autor:Al-Barrak L; Kanjo E; Younis EMG
[Ad] Endereço:Bristol University, Computing Department, Bristol, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:NeuroPlace: Categorizing urban places according to mental states.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0183890, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban spaces have a great impact on how people's emotion and behaviour. There are number of factors that impact our brain responses to a space. This paper presents a novel urban place recommendation approach, that is based on modelling in-situ EEG data. The research investigations leverages on newly affordable Electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets, which has the capability to sense mental states such as meditation and attention levels. These emerging devices have been utilized in understanding how human brains are affected by the surrounding built environments and natural spaces. In this paper, mobile EEG headsets have been used to detect mental states at different types of urban places. By analysing and modelling brain activity data, we were able to classify three different places according to the mental state signature of the users, and create an association map to guide and recommend people to therapeutic places that lessen brain fatigue and increase mental rejuvenation. Our mental states classifier has achieved accuracy of (%90.8). NeuroPlace breaks new ground not only as a mobile ubiquitous brain monitoring system for urban computing, but also as a system that can advise urban planners on the impact of specific urban planning policies and structures. We present and discuss the challenges in making our initial prototype more practical, robust, and reliable as part of our on-going research. In addition, we present some enabling applications using the proposed architecture.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Encéfalo/fisiologia
Eletroencefalografia
Processos Mentais
População Urbana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Algoritmos
Análise de Variância
Ondas Encefálicas
Planejamento de Cidades
Eletroencefalografia/métodos
Meio Ambiente
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Modelos Estatísticos
Distribuição Espacial da População
Estresse Psicológico
Tecnologia sem Fio
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170913
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183890


  7 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28888233
[Au] Autor:Hunt J; Wu J
[Ad] Endereço:University College London and Trinity College, University of Cambridge, UK. Electronic address: julian.hunt@ucl.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Asian Urban Environment and Climate Change: Preface.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);59:1-5, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Asian Network on Climate Science and Technology (www.ancst.org), in collaboration with Tsinghua University, held a conference on environmental and climate science, air pollution, urban planning and transportation in July 2015, with over 40 Asian experts participating and presentation. This was followed by a meeting with local government and community experts on the practical conclusions of the conference. Of the papers presented at the conference a selection are included in this special issue of Journal of Environmental Science, which also reflects the conclusions of the Paris Climate meeting in Dec 2015, when the major nations of the world agreed about the compelling need to reduce the upward trend of adverse impacts associated with global climate change. Now is the time for urban areas to work out the serious consequences for their populations, but also how they should work together to take action to reduce global warming to benefit their own communities and also the whole planet!
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento de Cidades
Mudança Climática
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluição do Ar
Ásia
Efeito Estufa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170911
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28866382
[Au] Autor:Kerckhoffs J; Hoek G; Vlaanderen J; van Nunen E; Messier K; Brunekreef B; Gulliver J; Vermeulen R
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, 3584 CK Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: j.kerckhoffs@uu.nl.
[Ti] Título:Robustness of intra urban land-use regression models for ultrafine particles and black carbon based on mobile monitoring.
[So] Source:Environ Res;159:500-508, 2017 11.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Land-use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) in urban areas have been developed using short-term stationary monitoring or mobile platforms in order to capture the high variability of these pollutants. However, little is known about the comparability of predictions of mobile and short-term stationary models and especially the validity of these models for assessing residential exposures and the robustness of model predictions developed in different campaigns. We used an electric car to collect mobile measurements (n = 5236 unique road segments) and short-term stationary measurements (3 × 30min, n = 240) of UFP and BC in three Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Utrecht, Maastricht) in 2014-2015. Predictions of LUR models based on mobile measurements were compared to (i) measured concentrations at the short-term stationary sites, (ii) LUR model predictions based on short-term stationary measurements at 1500 random addresses in the three cities, (iii) externally obtained home outdoor measurements (3 × 24h samples; n = 42) and (iv) predictions of a LUR model developed based upon a 2013 mobile campaign in two cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam). Despite the poor model R of 15%, the ability of mobile UFP models to predict measurements with longer averaging time increased substantially from 36% for short-term stationary measurements to 57% for home outdoor measurements. In contrast, the mobile BC model only predicted 14% of the variation in the short-term stationary sites and also 14% of the home outdoor sites. Models based upon mobile and short-term stationary monitoring provided fairly high correlated predictions of UFP concentrations at 1500 randomly selected addresses in the three Dutch cities (R = 0.64). We found higher UFP predictions (of about 30%) based on mobile models opposed to short-term model predictions and home outdoor measurements with no clear geospatial patterns. The mobile model for UFP was stable over different settings as the model predicted concentration levels highly correlated to predictions made by a previously developed LUR model with another spatial extent and in a different year at the 1500 random addresses (R = 0.80). In conclusion, mobile monitoring provided robust LUR models for UFP, valid to use in epidemiological studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental
Material Particulado/análise
Fuligem/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cidades
Planejamento de Cidades
Tamanho da Partícula
Análise de Regressão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Particulate Matter); 0 (Soot)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170904
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28863302
[Au] Autor:Rugel EJ; Henderson SB; Carpiano RM; Brauer M
[Ad] Endereço:School of Population & Public Health, 2206 E Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z9, Canada. Electronic address: emilyrugel@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.
[So] Source:Environ Res;159:474-483, 2017 11.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0953
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). RESULTS: Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. CONCLUSIONS: Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index represents a novel approach at a regional scale with application to urban planning and policy-making.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento de Cidades/métodos
Saúde Mental
Saúde da População Urbana
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colúmbia Britânica
Cidades
Meio Ambiente
Nível de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171120
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171120
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170902
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1728 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28850594
[Au] Autor:Cottineau C
[Ad] Endereço:Urban Dynamics Lab, Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, University College London, W1T 4TJ, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:MetaZipf. A dynamic meta-analysis of city size distributions.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183919, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The results from urban scaling in recent years have held the promise of increased efficiency to the societies who could actively control the distribution of their cities' size. However, little evidence exists as to the factors which influence the level of urban unevenness, as expressed by the slope of the rank-size distribution, partly because the diversity of results found in the literature follows the heterogeneity of analysis specifications. In this study, I set up a meta-analysis of Zipf's law which accounts for technical as well as topical factors of variations of Zipf's coefficient. I found 86 studies publishing at least one empirical estimation of this coefficient and recorded their metadata into an open database. I regressed the 1962 corresponding estimates with variables describing the study and the estimation process as well as socio-demographic variables describing the territory under enquiry. A dynamic meta-analysis was also performed to look for factors of evolution of city size unevenness. The results of the most interesting models are presented in the article, whereas all analyses can be reproduced on a dedicated online platform. The results show that on average, 40% of the variation of Zipf's coefficients is due to the technical choices. The main other variables associated with distinct evolutions are linked to the urbanisation process rather than the process of economic development and population growth. Finally, no evidence was found to support the effectiveness of past planning actions in modifying this urban feature.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Planejamento de Cidades
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bases de Dados Factuais
Seres Humanos
Metadados
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170830
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183919



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