Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : I01.880.735 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:28273114
[Au] Autor:Gargano F; Tamburino L; Bagarello F; Bravo G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Energy, Engineering of the Information and Mathematical Models (DEIM), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Large-scale effects of migration and conflict in pre-agricultural groups: Insights from a dynamic model.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0172262, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The debate on the causes of conflict in human societies has deep roots. In particular, the extent of conflict in hunter-gatherer groups remains unclear. Some authors suggest that large-scale violence only arose with the spreading of agriculture and the building of complex societies. To shed light on this issue, we developed a model based on operatorial techniques simulating population-resource dynamics within a two-dimensional lattice, with humans and natural resources interacting in each cell of the lattice. The model outcomes under different conditions were compared with recently available demographic data for prehistoric South America. Only under conditions that include migration among cells and conflict was the model able to consistently reproduce the empirical data at a continental scale. We argue that the interplay between resource competition, migration, and conflict drove the population dynamics of South America after the colonization phase and before the introduction of agriculture. The relation between population and resources indeed emerged as a key factor leading to migration and conflict once the carrying capacity of the environment has been reached.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura
Emigração e Imigração
Modelos Teóricos
Problemas Sociais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Seres Humanos
Dinâmica Populacional
Fatores Socioeconômicos
América do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170901
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170901
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170309
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0172262


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[PMID]:28207329
[Au] Autor:Ni MY; Li TK; Pang H; Chan BH; Kawachi I; Viswanath K; Schooling CM; Leung GM
[Ad] Endereço:Michael Yuxuan Ni, Tom Kung Li, Herbert Hei Pang, Brandford Ho Chan, Catherine Mary Schooling, and Gabriel Matthew Leung are with the School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Ichiro Kawachi and Kasisomayajula V
[Ti] Título:Longitudinal Patterns and Predictors of Depression Trajectories Related to the 2014 Occupy Central/Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(4):593-600, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To examine the longitudinal patterns and predictors of depression trajectories before, during, and after Hong Kong's 2014 Occupy Central/Umbrella Movement. METHODS: In a prospective study, between March 2009 and November 2015, we interviewed 1170 adults randomly sampled from the population-representative FAMILY Cohort. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 to assess depressive symptoms and probable major depression. We investigated pre-event and time-varying predictors of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: We identified 4 trajectories: resistant (22.6% of sample), resilient (37.0%), mild depressive symptoms (32.5%), and persistent moderate depression (8.0%). Baseline predictors that appeared to protect against persistent moderate depression included higher household income (odds ratio [OR] = 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06, 0.56), greater psychological resilience (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.48, 0.82), more family harmony (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.56, 0.83), higher family support (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.69, 0.92), better self-rated health (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.16, 0.49), and fewer depressive symptoms (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.43, 0.81). CONCLUSIONS: Depression trajectories after a major protest are comparable to those after major population events. Health care professionals should be aware of the mental health consequences during and after social movements, particularly among individuals lacking social support.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Depressão/epidemiologia
Dissidências e Disputas
Participação Social/psicologia
Problemas Sociais/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Relações Familiares/psicologia
Feminino
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
Hong Kong/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Renda/estatística & dados numéricos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Estudos Prospectivos
Resiliência Psicológica
Fatores de Risco
Apoio Social
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170615
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170615
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303651


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[PMID]:28191650
[Au] Autor:Toolis EE
[Ad] Endereço:University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Theorizing Critical Placemaking as a Tool for Reclaiming Public Space.
[So] Source:Am J Community Psychol;59(1-2):184-199, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2770
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:As economic inequality and segregation continue to grow in the U.S., psychology has an important role to play in exploring and promoting processes that can disrupt social injustice. This paper identifies the privatization of public space as a social problem that contributes to the entrenchment of social, economic, and racial inequality, and advances "critical placemaking" as a tool for reclaiming public space for public use. Drawing from key concepts in environmental psychology, narrative psychology, and community psychology, the proposed framework seeks to theorize the processes by which placemaking may contribute to transforming community narratives and building more inclusive, participatory, and democratic communities. Policy implications and future directions for empirical work are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Privatização
Problemas Sociais
Segregação Social
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Psicologia Ambiental
Seres Humanos
Teoria Psicológica
Psicologia Social
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajcp.12118


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[PMID]:28077106
[Au] Autor:Poudel A; Gautam S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Nursing, Nepal Medical College, Jorpati, Kathmandu, Nepal. anju_pk@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Age of onset of substance use and psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders.
[So] Source:BMC Psychiatry;17(1):10, 2017 Jan 11.
[Is] ISSN:1471-244X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Substance use is generally initiated in adolescence or early adulthood and is commonly associated with several physical, psychological, emotional and social problems. The objective of this study is to assess the age of onset of substance use differences on psychosocial problems among individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) residing in drug rehabilitation centers. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional research design was carried out. Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) sampling technique was used to select the drug rehabilitation centers and all the respondents meeting the inclusion criteria of the selected seven rehabilitation centers were taken as a sample and comprised of 221 diagnosed individuals with SUDs. A semi structured self administered questionnaires were used to collect the information regarding demographic and substance use related characteristics. A standard tool Drug Use Screening Inventory-Revised (DUSI-R) was used to assess the psychosocial problems among individuals with SUDs. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Multivariate general linear model (MANOVA and MANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences in psychosocial problems between early vs late onset substance users. RESULT: The age of onset of substance use was significantly associated with psychosocial problems. The mean psychosocial problem scores were higher in early onset substance user (17 years or younger) than late onset substance user (18 years or higher) in various domains of DUSI-R even after controlling confounding factors. The two groups (early vs late) differed significantly in relation to age, gender, occupational status, current types of substance use, frequency of use, mode of substance use and relapse history. CONCLUSION: The study indicated that early onset substance users are at higher risk for psychosocial problems in various areas of life such as Behavior Pattern, Psychiatric disorder, Family system, Peer relationship, Leisure/Recreation and Work adjustment compared to late onset substance users. It highlights the need for early prevention, screening, and timely intervention among those individuals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Problemas Sociais/psicologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idade de Início
Estudos Transversais
Emprego/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
Fatores de Risco
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12888-016-1191-0


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[PMID]:27589385
[Au] Autor:Taymur I; Budak E; Duyan V; Kanat BB; Önen S
[Ad] Endereço:a Bursa Sevket Yilmaz Training and Research Hospital , Bursa , Turkey.
[Ti] Título:Examination of personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals whose driving licenses have been confiscated due to drunk driving.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;18(1):3-8, 2017 Jan 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Drunk driving is one of the major behavioral issues connected with problematic alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. METHOD: One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating Solution Options, Solution Implementation and Verification, and Decision Making) were used to evaluate the participants. RESULTS: A positive relationship was found between the Extroversion subscale of the EPQ-RA and the Cognition subscale (P <.01), Emotion subscale (P <.01), Behavior subscale (P <.01), Generation of Alternatives subscale (P <.01), Decision Making subscale (P <.05), and Solution Implementation and Verification subscale (P <.01). For individuals who repeated intoxicated driving, all subscales of the EPQ-RA (Extroversion, Lying, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism subscales) explained 12% of the scores of the Cognition subscale and 16.2% (P <.001) of the Emotion subscale of the SPSI. There was no significant relationship between the first and second incident alcohol blood levels (P >.05). CONCLUSION: Drinking and driving behaviors appear to be negative or maladaptive behaviors closely related to personality traits and may represent an effort to avoid negative emotions. Evaluation of negative emotions may have an important place in training programs intended to change drunk driving behavior.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dirigir sob a Influência/psicologia
Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência
Personalidade
Resolução de Problemas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas
Dirigir sob a Influência/legislação & jurisprudência
Etanol/sangue
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Determinação da Personalidade
Psicometria
Problemas Sociais/psicologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160903
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27468658
[Au] Autor:Giordano J
[Ad] Endereço:Neuroethics Studies Program, Pellegrino Center for Clinical Bioethics, Georgetown University Medical Center, 4000 Reservoir Road, Bldg. D, Rm. 238, Washington, DC 20057, USA; Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 4000 Reservoir Road, Bldg. D, Rm. 238, Washington, DC 20057, USA. Electronic address: james.giordano@georgetown.edu.
[Ti] Título:Toward an operational neuroethical risk analysis and mitigation paradigm for emerging neuroscience and technology (neuroS/T).
[So] Source:Exp Neurol;287(Pt 4):492-495, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2430
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Research in neuroscience and neurotechnology (neuroS/T) is progressing at a rapid pace with translational applications both in medicine, and more widely in the social milieu. Current and projected neuroS/T research and its applications evoke a number of neuroethicolegal and social issues (NELSI). This paper defines inherent and derivative NELSI of current and near-term neuroS/T development and engagement, and provides an overview of our group's ongoing work to develop a systematized approach to their address. Our proposed operational neuroethical risk assessment and mitigation paradigm (ONRAMP) is presented, which entails querying, framing, and modeling patterns and trajectories of neuroS/T research and translational uses, and the NELSI generated by such advancements and their applications. Extant ethical methods are addressed, with suggestion toward possible revision or re-formulation to meet the needs and exigencies fostered by neuroS/T and resultant NELSI in multi-cultural contexts. The relevance and importance of multi-disciplinary expertise in focusing upon NELSI is discussed, and the need for neuroethics education toward cultivating such a cadre of expertise is emphasized.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tecnologia Biomédica/ética
Neurociências/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tecnologia Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência
Simulação por Computador
Ética em Pesquisa
Órgãos Governamentais
Seres Humanos
Invenções/ética
Neurociências/legislação & jurisprudência
Medição de Risco
Problemas Sociais
Reino Unido
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170621
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170621
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160730
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27341840
[Au] Autor:Bunford N; Kujawa A; Swain JE; Fitzgerald KD; Monk CS; Phan KL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1747 W. Roosevelt Rd., Rm. 277, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. nbunford@psych.uic.edu.
[Ti] Título:Attenuated neural reactivity to happy faces is associated with rule breaking and social problems in anxious youth.
[So] Source:Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry;26(2):215-230, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1435-165X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Pediatric anxiety is associated with comorbid externalizing behaviors and social problems, and these associations may be related to altered emotion processing. The late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component, is a neural marker of emotion processing, and there is evidence that anxious youth exhibits enhanced LPPs to threatening signals. It is unknown, however, if differences in the LPP are related to externalizing behaviors and social problems co-occurring with anxiety and if these associations are driven by altered processing of threatening (angry or fearful faces) or rewarding (happy faces) socio-emotional signals. Thus, in the present study, we examined, in a sample of 39 anxious youth, the association between LPPs, following socio-emotional signals and externalizing behaviors and social problems. Results indicated an association between attenuated LPPs in response to happy faces and greater rule-breaking and social problems. These findings suggest that differences in positive socio-emotional signal processing are related to heterogeneity in pediatric anxiety and that LPPs are a sensitive index of such heterogeneity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia
Emoções/fisiologia
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia
Expressão Facial
Problemas Sociais/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Ira
Ansiedade/diagnóstico
Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Ansiedade/etiologia
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia
Comorbidade
Eletroencefalografia
Medo
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160626
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00787-016-0883-9


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[PMID]:26752441
[Au] Autor:Vázquez JJ; Panadero S; Zúñiga C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social Psychology, Universidad de Alcalá.
[Ti] Título:Actors, observers, and causal attributions of homelessness: Differences in attribution for the causes of homelessness among domiciled and homeless people in Madrid (Spain).
[So] Source:Am J Orthopsychiatry;87(1):15-22, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1939-0025
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The study analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness and attributions of responsibility among the members of 3 groups: homeless group, consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); domiciled service-users group, consisting of people at risk of homelessness (n = 164); and domiciled nonservice-users group, consisting of people at no imminent risk of homelessness (n = 180). The domiciled service-users group and domiciled nonservice-users group were matched to the homeless group or sex, age, and nationality. The article also analyzes homeless people's causal attributions as regards their own situation. The results show that compared with the domiciled nonservice-users group, a higher percentage of members of the homeless group and domiciled service-users group attributed homelessness to individualistic causes and they blamed homeless people for their situation to a greater extent. The results also show that there was no "actor-observer bias" in causal attributions for homelessness in Madrid. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia
Habitação
Problemas Sociais/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Pobreza
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170925
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170925
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/ort0000130


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[PMID]:27815264
[Au] Autor:Bonell C; McKee M; Fletcher A
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1H 9SH, UK chris.bonell@lshtm.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Troubled families, troubled policy making.
[So] Source:BMJ;355:i5879, 2016 Nov 04.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Terapia Familiar
Formulação de Políticas
Problemas Sociais/prevenção & controle
Seguridade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
Apoio Social
Medicina Estatal
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.i5879


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[PMID]:27792299
[Au] Autor:Fang J; Luo Y; Li Y; Huang W
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Nursing, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
[Ti] Título:Social problem-solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.
[So] Source:J Evid Based Med;9(4):181-187, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1756-5391
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To describe social problem solving in Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with a cluster sample of 681 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. The Chinese version of the Social Problem-Solving scale was used. Descriptive analyses, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were applied to analyze the data. FINDINGS: The final year nursing students presented the highest scores of positive social problem-solving skills. Students with experiences of self-directed and problem-based learning presented significantly higher scores in Positive Problem Orientation subscale. The group with Critical thinking training experience, however, displayed higher negative problem solving scores compared with nonexperience group. CONCLUSIONS: Social problem solving abilities varied based upon teaching-learning strategies. Self-directed and problem-based learning may be recommended as effective way to improve social problem-solving ability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacharelado em Enfermagem
Resolução de Problemas
Problemas Sociais
Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161030
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/jebm.12232



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