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Pesquisa : I01.880.735.950.500.600 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29292964
[Au] Autor:Westberg G
[Ti] Título:Arbetet mot kärnvapen är fortfarande en läkaruppgift..
[So] Source:Lakartidningen;114, 2017 12 04.
[Is] ISSN:1652-7518
[Cp] País de publicação:Sweden
[La] Idioma:swe
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Guerra Nuclear
Papel do Médico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28475424
[Au] Autor:Laiakis EC; Wang YW; Young EF; Harken AD; Xu Y; Smilenov L; Garty GY; Brenner DJ; Fornace AJ
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.
[Ti] Título:Metabolic Dysregulation after Neutron Exposures Expected from an Improvised Nuclear Device.
[So] Source:Radiat Res;188(1):21-34, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1938-5404
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The increased threat of terrorism across the globe has raised fears that certain groups will acquire and use radioactive materials to inflict maximum damage. In the event that an improvised nuclear device (IND) is detonated, a potentially large population of victims will require assessment for radiation exposure. While photons will contribute to a major portion of the dose, neutrons may be responsible for the severity of the biologic effects and cellular responses. We investigated differences in response between these two radiation types by using metabolomics and lipidomics to identify biomarkers in urine and blood of wild-type C57BL/6 male mice. Identification of metabolites was based on a 1 Gy dose of radiation. Compared to X rays, a neutron spectrum similar to that encountered in Hiroshima at 1-1.5 km from the epicenter induced a severe metabolic dysregulation, with perturbations in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid ß-oxidation being the predominant ones. Urinary metabolites were able to discriminate between neutron and X rays on day 1 as well as day 7 postirradiation, while serum markers showed such discrimination only on day 1. Free fatty acids from omega-6 and omega-3 pathways were also decreased with 1 Gy of neutrons, implicating cell membrane dysfunction and impaired phospholipid metabolism, which should otherwise lead to release of those molecules in circulation. While a precise relative biological effectiveness value could not be calculated from this study, the results are consistent with other published studies showing higher levels of damage from neutrons, demonstrated here by increased metabolic dysregulation. Metabolomics can therefore aid in identifying global perturbations in blood and urine, and effectively distinguishing between neutron and photon exposures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia
Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo
Metaboloma/efeitos da radiação
Nêutrons/efeitos adversos
Guerra Nuclear
Lesões por Radiação/metabolismo
Terrorismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bioensaio/métodos
Masculino
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
Fótons/efeitos adversos
Dose de Radiação
Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos
Exposição à Radiação/análise
Lesões por Radiação/etiologia
Radiometria/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170818
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170818
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; S
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170506
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1667/RR14656.1


  3 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28472357
[Au] Autor:Imaizumi M; Ohishi W; Nakashima E; Sera N; Neriishi K; Yamada M; Tatsukawa Y; Takahashi I; Fujiwara S; Sugino K; Ando T; Usa T; Kawakami A; Akahoshi M; Hida A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Clinical Studies, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki 850-0013 and Hiroshima 732-0815, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.
[So] Source:J Clin Endocrinol Metab;102(7):2516-2524, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7197
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Context: The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. Objective: To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Main Outcome and Measures: Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Results: Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Conclusions: Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Hashimoto/etiologia
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia
Armas Nucleares
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Fatores Etários
Criança
Estudos Transversais
Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação
Feminino
Doença de Hashimoto/epidemiologia
Doença de Hashimoto/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Japão
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Guerra Nuclear
Razão de Chances
Prevalência
Medição de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
Sobreviventes
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia
Fatores de Tempo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1210/jc.2017-00102


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[PMID]:28340486
[Au] Autor:Auxier JP; Auxier JD; Hall HL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Radiochemistry Center of Excellence (RCOE), University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Institute for Nuclear Security, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, United States; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, United States. Electronic address: jauxier1@vols.utk.edu.
[Ti] Título:Review of current nuclear fallout codes.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;171:246-252, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons. This will decrease the response time required for the government to respond to the event.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento de Radiação
Proteção Radiológica/normas
Cinza Radioativa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Explosões
Guerra Nuclear
Armas Nucleares
Proteção Radiológica/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Radioactive Fallout)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170428
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170428
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170325
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28123077
[Au] Autor:Launer J
[Ti] Título:Doctors and the prevention of nuclear war.
[So] Source:Postgrad Med J;93(1096):111-112, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1469-0756
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Guerra Nuclear/legislação & jurisprudência
Guerra Nuclear/prevenção & controle
Papel do Médico
Médicos
Política
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Esperança
Seres Humanos
Prêmio Nobel
Nações Unidas/legislação & jurisprudência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-134799


  6 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27286002
[Au] Autor:Little MP; McElvenny DM
[Ad] Endereço:Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland, USA.
[Ti] Título:Male Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality Risk in the Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors - Differences in Excess Relative and Absolute Risk from Female Breast Cancer.
[So] Source:Environ Health Perspect;125(2):223-229, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1552-9924
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: There are well-known associations of ionizing radiation with female breast cancer, and emerging evidence also for male breast cancer. In the United Kingdom, female breast cancer following occupational radiation exposure is among that set of cancers eligible for state compensation and consideration is currently being given to an extension to include male breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: We compare radiation-associated excess relative and absolute risks of male and female breast cancers. METHODS: Breast cancer incidence and mortality data in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors were analyzed using relative and absolute risk models via Poisson regression. RESULTS: We observed significant (p ≤ 0.01) dose-related excess risk for male breast cancer incidence and mortality. For incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 15 and 5, respectively, of relative risk for male compared with female breast cancer incidence, the former borderline significant (p = 0.050). In contrast, for incidence and mortality data, there are elevations by factors of approximately 20 and 10, respectively, of female absolute risk compared with male, both statistically significant (p < 0.001). There are no indications of differences between the sexes in age/time-since-exposure/age-at-exposure modifications to the relative or absolute excess risk. The probability of causation of male breast cancer following radiation exposure exceeds by at least a factor of 5 that of many other malignancies. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of much higher radiation-associated relative risk for male than for female breast cancer, although absolute excess risks for males are much less than for females. However, the small number of male cases and deaths suggests a degree of caution in interpretation of this finding. Citation: Little MP, McElvenny DM. 2017. Male breast cancer incidence and mortality risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors - differences in excess relative and absolute risk from female breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 125:223-229; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP151.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia
Guerra Nuclear
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Japão/epidemiologia
Masculino
Armas Nucleares
Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170824
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170824
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160611
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1289/EHP151


  7 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27924901
[Au] Autor:Grinspoon D
[Ti] Título:Deep Time Deep Survival.
[So] Source:Sci Am;315(3):76-79, 2016 Aug 16.
[Is] ISSN:0036-8733
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Terra (Planeta)
Extinção Biológica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mudança Climática
Exobiologia
Fenômenos Geológicos
Seres Humanos
Guerra Nuclear/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170613
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170613
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/scientificamerican0916-76


  8 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27681099
[Au] Autor:Nagataki S
[Ad] Endereço:Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: shigenobu.nagataki@nifty.com.
[Ti] Título:Thoughts on relief for atomic bomb survivors since Obama's visit to Hiroshima.
[So] Source:Lancet;388(10054):1878-1879, 2016 Oct 15.
[Is] ISSN:1474-547X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Guerra Nuclear
Armas Nucleares
Lesões por Radiação
Sobreviventes
II Guerra Mundial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Medo
Nível de Saúde
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
Japão
Guerra Nuclear/história
Armas Nucleares/história
Lesões por Radiação/economia
Lesões por Radiação/etiologia
Lesões por Radiação/história
Socorro em Desastres
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160930
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27586509
[Au] Autor:Walsh L; Schneider U
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Physics, Science Faculty, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland. linda.walsh@uzh.ch.
[Ti] Título:The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors.
[So] Source:Radiat Environ Biophys;55(4):509-515, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1432-2099
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D , below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D ], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D by presenting further investigations into D using different trial values for D and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D comes from the length of follow-up and a D of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A-bomb hypocenter. Similar systematic trends, although much less pronounced, were also found in the LSS cancer incidence data. Some evidence is provided here that results on low-dose radiation risks from earlier follow-up periods should not be ignored by radiation protection authorities, once the results from the new extended follow-ups are published. This is because of the possibility that the new data for extended follow-up beyond a certain calendar time, which pertain to very long times since exposure, may be contributing to an overall reduction in radiation related risks per unit dose compared to analogous risks determined from earlier follow-up periods, because of the risk effect modification of time since exposure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia
Guerra Nuclear
Dose de Radiação
Sobreviventes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seguimentos
Seres Humanos
Japão/epidemiologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Risco
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160903
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 3540 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27575382
[Au] Autor:Boddie C; Watson M; Sell TK
[Ti] Título:Federal Funding for Health Security in FY2017.
[So] Source:Health Secur;14(5):284-304, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:2326-5108
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This latest article in the Federal Funding for Health Security series assesses FY2017 US government funding in 5 domains critical to strengthening health security: biosecurity, radiological and nuclear security, chemical security, pandemic influenza and emerging infectious disease, and multiple-hazard and general preparedness.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Defesa Civil/economia
Planejamento em Desastres/economia
Governo Federal
Financiamento Governamental
Medidas de Segurança/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Guerra Biológica/economia
Guerra Biológica/prevenção & controle
Guerra Química/economia
Guerra Química/prevenção & controle
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia
Seres Humanos
Guerra Nuclear/economia
Guerra Nuclear/prevenção & controle
Terrorismo/economia
Terrorismo/prevenção & controle
Estados Unidos
United States Government Agencies/economia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171001
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171001
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160831
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1089/hs.2016.0063



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