Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : I01.880.853.200 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 2005 [refinar]
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  1 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29368265
[Au] Autor:Yoshimura H; Yamada YY
[Ad] Endereço:Insect Ecology Laboratory, Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Caste-fate determination primarily occurs after adult emergence in a primitively eusocial paper wasp: significance of the photoperiod during the adult stage.
[So] Source:Naturwissenschaften;105(1-2):15, 2018 Jan 24.
[Is] ISSN:1432-1904
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Independent-founding paper wasps constitute a major group of primitively eusocial insects, and when caste-fate determination occurs in temperate species of these wasps, particularly regarding whether it occurs before or after emergence, remains unclear. No critical morphological differences occur between potential queens of the next generation (often called gynes) and workers in primitively eusocial insects. The gynes of temperate species are characterized by diapausing, and the nutrients available during the larval stage have often been believed to determine caste fate. Short days usually induce diapause in temperate nonsocial insects, although few investigations of the effects of day length on caste-fate determination in paper wasps have been conducted. By exposing individuals to different combinations of short and long days during the immature and adult stages, we show for the first time that short days during the adult stage (but not during the immature stage) facilitated caste-fate determination toward gynes in a paper wasp. Moreover, the decision to diapause partly depended on changes in the photoperiod during the pupal and adult stages. The size of the adult also affected caste-fate determination, with diapause more likely to occur in large adults, but this size effect did not occur when individuals were exposed to many short days during the pupal stage. In addition, all adults except for a small proportion of smaller individuals prepared for diapause under short days. These findings suggest that the photoperiod is a higher priority cue than adult size.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hierarquia Social
Fotoperíodo
Vespas/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
Especificidade da Espécie
Vespas/anatomia & histologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00114-018-1541-5


  2 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29281137
[Au] Autor:Ritchie HA
[Ad] Endereço:(Post-doc) Research Fellow, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings: female empowerment amidst male emasculation-a challenge to local integration?
[So] Source:Disasters;42 Suppl 1:S40-S60, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1467-7717
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members. In the case of longer-term refugees (Somalis), it describes new collective agency among refugee women, boosting support for new practices. The paper reflects on emerging gender roles and relations in such hostile conditions, particularly as men remain excluded and struggle for their own identity and authority. In addition, it draws attention to the gap relating to refugee men and policymaking, and highlights ways to address better their needs for refugee resilience, inclusion, and local integration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Contrato de Risco
Identidade de Gênero
Hierarquia Social
Relações Interpessoais
Refugiados/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Poder (Psicologia)
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Sexuais
Somália/etnologia
Síria/etnologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/disa.12271


  3 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29281136
[Au] Autor:Krystalli R; Hawkins A; Wilson K
[Ad] Endereço:Humanitarian Evidence Program Manager, Feinstein International Center, Tufts University, and PhD Candidate, The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, United States.
[Ti] Título:'I followed the flood': a gender analysis of the moral and financial economies of forced migration.
[So] Source:Disasters;42 Suppl 1:S17-S39, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1467-7717
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:What would a gender analysis of refugee crises reveal if one expanded the focus beyond female refugees, and acts of physical violence? This paper draws on qualitative research conducted in Denmark, Greece, Jordan, and Turkey in July and August 2016 to spotlight the gendered kinship, hierarchies, networks, and transactions that affect refugees. The coping strategies of groups often overlooked in the gender conversation are examined throughout this study, including those of male refugees and those making crossings outside of the context of a family unit. The analysis is theoretically situated at the intersection of critical humanitarianism and the politics of vulnerability, and rooted in debates about the feminisation of refugees and corresponding protection agendas. A key contribution of this work is the ethnographic tracing of how refugees embody these politics along their journeys. In closing, the paper sketches out some implications of the findings for humanitarian practice and identifies avenues for further research.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Emigração e Imigração
Refugiados/psicologia
Fatores Sexuais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Psicológica
Altruísmo
Dinamarca
Feminino
Grécia
Hierarquia Social
Seres Humanos
Jordânia
Masculino
Princípios Morais
Política
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/disa.12269


  4 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28467994
[Au] Autor:Zernig G; Hiemke C
[Ad] Endereço:Experimental Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry 1, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
[Ti] Título:Making the Case for 'Power Abuse Disorder' as a Nosologic Entity.
[So] Source:Pharmacology;100(1-2):50-63, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1423-0313
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The development of societies and cultures arguably is based on the ability of human primates to form hierarchies in which some individuals acquire and wield power, that is, control resources and influence and control the behavior of their conspecifics. In the following, we focus on the type of human primate power wielding that (a) harms and (b) produces excessive negative emotions in (1) the victim(s) of the power wielder and (2) the power wielder her/himself. If such a harmful behavior of the power wielder is not accompanied by an ethically justifiable benefit for the involved human primate groups, it can be considered "power abuse." We propose to term the associated behaviors, cognitions, and emotions of the power wielder as "power abuse disorder" (PAD). This behavior results from what we consider addictive behavior of the power abuse disordered (PADed) power wielder. PAD can be diagnosed on the basis of the World Health Organization's criteria for "dependence syndrome" as listed in the International Classification of Diseases version 10. We will demonstrate that many PADed individuals may very likely carry the Zeitgeist diagnosis "burnout." This article reviews the current understanding of the neural correlates of PAD and suggests future research. Based on the available evidence, PAD seems to be associated with a dysfunction of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, rendering PADed individuals vulnerable for psychostimulant abuse/dependence, and suggesting specific pharmacotherapeutic approaches to treat PAD.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
Dopamina/metabolismo
Hierarquia Social
Poder (Psicologia)
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia
Seres Humanos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças
Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
VTD58H1Z2X (Dopamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000475600


  5 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28742933
[Au] Autor:Lucas ER; Romiguier J; Keller L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology and Evolution, Biophore, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Gene expression is more strongly influenced by age than caste in the ant Lasius niger.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;26(19):5058-5073, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Phenotypic plasticity, where a single genome can give rise to different phenotypes, underlies many remarkable features of the natural world and occurs in a wide range of organisms. Understanding the transcriptional differences that underlie plastic phenotypes remains a major unsolved problem in biology. In many ants, females can develop into either queens or workers, two phenotypes with different morphology, behaviour and longevity. In comparison with workers, queens are larger, more fecund and longer lived. Here, we study gene expression differences between queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger. The analysis of age- and tissue-specific RNA sequencing showed that patterns of caste-biased gene expression vary considerably between ages and tissues. Expression was more tightly linked to age than caste despite the important morphological and behavioural differences between queens and workers. Our data allowed us to identify genes that are consistently biased across biological contexts. Caste-biased genes showed faster rates of molecular evolution, lower levels of DNA methylation and greater variability in expression than unbiased genes. Our results indicate that a substantial proportion of caste-biased expression is ephemeral and that taking account of age and tissue is critical to understanding the transcriptomic basis of plastic phenotypes. By contrast, the biological context of expression bias did not broadly affect methylation or the rate of evolution. The faster rate of evolution and greater variability of expression of caste-biased genes indicate that caste-biased genes evolve from loosely regulated genes that can be co-opted for caste-specific tasks because of the lax control over their expression.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fatores Etários
Formigas/genética
Evolução Molecular
Hierarquia Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Comportamento Animal
Análise por Conglomerados
Ilhas de CpG
Metilação de DNA
Feminino
Expressão Gênica
Genes de Insetos
Transcriptoma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.14256


  6 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29016648
[Au] Autor:Neves FM; Viana RL; Pie MR
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Recurrence analysis of ant activity patterns.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185968, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, we used recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and recurrence plots (RPs) to compare the movement activity of individual workers of three ant species, as well as a gregarious beetle species. RQA and RPs quantify the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system, including a detailed quantification of signals that could be stochastic, deterministic, or both. First, we found substantial differences between the activity dynamics of beetles and ants, with the results suggesting that the beetles have quasi-periodic dynamics and the ants do not. Second, workers from different ant species varied with respect to their dynamics, presenting degrees of predictability as well as stochastic signals. Finally, differences were found among minor and major caste of the same (dimorphic) ant species. Our results underscore the potential of RQA and RPs in the analysis of complex behavioral patterns, as well as in general inferences on animal behavior and other biological phenomena.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Formigas/fisiologia
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Coleópteros/fisiologia
Comportamento Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Hierarquia Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185968


  7 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28939335
[Au] Autor:Gonçalves WG; Fernandes KM; Santana WC; Martins GF; Zanuncio JC; Serrão JE
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 36570-900 Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address: wagner.gonzaga@ufv.br.
[Ti] Título:Post-embryonic changes in the hindgut of honeybee Apis mellifera workers: Morphology, cuticle deposition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation.
[So] Source:Dev Biol;431(2):194-204, 2017 11 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-564X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae. In L5S larvae and prepupae, the hindgut undergoes cell proliferation in the anterior and posterior ends. In the pupae, the pylorus, ileum, and rectum regions are differentiated, and cell proliferation ceases in dark-brown-eyed pupae. Apoptosis occurs in the hindgut from the L5S larval to the pink-eyed pupal stage. In light-brown- and dark-brown-eyed pupae, the ileum epithelium changes from pseudostratified to simple only after the production of the basal lamina, whereas the rectal epithelium is always flattened. In black-eyed pupae, ileum epithelial cells have large vacuoles and subcuticular spaces, while in adult forager workers these cells have long invaginations in the cell apex and many mitochondria, indicating a role in the transport of compounds. Our findings show that hindgut morphogenesis is a dynamic process, with tissue remodeling and cellular events taking place for the formation of different regions of the organ, the reconstruction of a new cuticle, and the remodeling of visceral muscles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Apoptose
Abelhas/anatomia & histologia
Abelhas/embriologia
Sistema Digestório/citologia
Sistema Digestório/embriologia
Hierarquia Social
Tegumento Comum/anatomia & histologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Autofagia
Abelhas/ultraestrutura
Caspase 3/metabolismo
Proliferação Celular
Sistema Digestório/ultraestrutura
Histonas/metabolismo
Larva/citologia
Larva/ultraestrutura
Pupa/citologia
Pupa/ultraestrutura
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Histones); EC 3.4.22.- (Caspase 3)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171111
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171111
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170924
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28926644
[Au] Autor:Barker TH; George RP; Howarth GS; Whittaker AL
[Ad] Endereço:School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Adelaide, Roseworthy Campus, Wasleys, South Australia, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Assessment of housing density, space allocation and social hierarchy of laboratory rats on behavioural measures of welfare.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0185135, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Minimum space allowances for laboratory rats are legislated based on weight and stocking rates, with the understanding that increased housing density encourages crowding stress. However, there is little evidence for these recommendations, especially when considering positive welfare outcomes. This study consisted of two experiments which investigated the effects of housing density (rats per cage), space allocation (surface area per rat) and social rank (dominance hierarchy) on the ability to perform simple behavioural tests. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (n = 64) were allocated to either high-density (n = 8) or low-density (n = 8) cages. The second experiment investigated the effects of surface area. SD rats (n = 40) were housed in dyads in either the large (n = 10) or small (n = 10) cage. In both experiments, animals were tested on a judgment bias paradigm, with their responses to an ambiguous stimulus being ascribed as optimistic or pessimistic. Animals were also tested on open-field, novel-object recognition and social-interaction tests. Recordings were taken from 1700-2100h daily for rat observation and social rank establishment. Dominant animals responded with significantly more optimistic decisions compared to subordinates for both the housing density (p<0.001) and space allocation (p = 0.0015) experiment. Dominant animals responded with increased social affiliative behaviours in the social-interaction test, and spent more time in the centre of the open-field test for both experiments. No significance was detected between housing density or space allocation treatments. These findings suggest that social rank is a significantly greater modifier of affective state than either housing density or space allocation. This finding has not yet been reported and suggests that future drafts of housing guidelines should consider animal social status in addition to floor space requirements.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal/fisiologia
Hierarquia Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ansiedade
Abrigo para Animais
Masculino
Densidade Demográfica
Ratos
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Meio Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171020
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171020
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170920
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185135


  9 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28859085
[Au] Autor:Zhu K; Liu M; Fu Z; Zhou Z; Kong Y; Liang H; Lin Z; Luo J; Zheng H; Wan P; Zhang J; Zen K; Chen J; Hu F; Zhang CY; Ren J; Chen X
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute for Life Sciences, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.
[Ti] Título:Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development.
[So] Source:PLoS Genet;13(8):e1006946, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7404
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The major environmental determinants of honeybee caste development come from larval nutrients: royal jelly stimulates the differentiation of larvae into queens, whereas beebread leads to worker bee fate. However, these determinants are not fully characterized. Here we report that plant RNAs, particularly miRNAs, which are more enriched in beebread than in royal jelly, delay development and decrease body and ovary size in honeybees, thereby preventing larval differentiation into queens and inducing development into worker bees. Mechanistic studies reveal that amTOR, a stimulatory gene in caste differentiation, is the direct target of miR162a. Interestingly, the same effect also exists in non-social Drosophila. When such plant RNAs and miRNAs are fed to Drosophila larvae, they cause extended developmental times and reductions in body weight and length, ovary size and fecundity. This study identifies an uncharacterized function of plant miRNAs that fine-tunes honeybee caste development, offering hints for understanding cross-kingdom interaction and co-evolution.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Hierarquia Social
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
MicroRNAs/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos
Abelhas/genética
Drosophila/genética
Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem
Ácidos Graxos/genética
Feminino
Alimentos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Larva/genética
MicroRNAs/administração & dosagem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (MicroRNAs); L497I37F0C (royal jelly)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170918
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170918
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170901
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006946


  10 / 2005 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28658299
[Au] Autor:Bijleveld E; Baalbergen J
[Ad] Endereço:Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Prenatal exposure to testosterone (2D:4D) and social hierarchy together predict voice behavior in bankers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0180008, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Prohibitive voice behaviors are employees' expressions of concern about practices, incidents, or behaviors that may potentially harm the organization. In this study, we examined a potential biological correlate of prohibitive voice: prenatal exposure to testosterone. In a sample of bankers, we used 2D:4D (i.e., the ratio of the length of the index finger to the length of the ring finger) as a marker for prenatal exposure to testosterone (lower 2D:4D suggests higher prenatal exposure to testosterone). We used a self-report scale to measure prohibitive voice. For low-ranked employees, lower 2D:4D was related to using less voice. No such relation was found for high-ranked employees. Conclusions should be drawn with caution, because the findings only applied to voice regarding the organization as a whole (and not to voice regarding the own team), and because of methodological limitations. However, the findings are consistent with the ideas that (a) people low in 2D:4D tend to strive to attain and maintain social status and that (b) remaining silent about perceived problems in the organization is-at least for low-ranked employees-a means to achieve this goal.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Administração Financeira
Dedos/anatomia & histologia
Hierarquia Social
Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia
Testosterona/farmacologia
Denúncia de Irregularidades
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conta Bancária
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Gravidez
Fatores Sexuais
Denúncia de Irregularidades/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
3XMK78S47O (Testosterone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0180008



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