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[PMID]:29381719
[Au] Autor:Vierimaa M; Bruner MW; Côté J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Positive youth development and observed athlete behavior in recreational sport.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191936, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Competence, confidence, connection, and character are regarded as outcomes of positive youth development (PYD) in sport. However, the specific athlete behaviors associated with different PYD profiles are not well understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between athletes' observed behavior during sport competitions and their perceptions of PYD outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with systematic behavioral observation. METHOD: Sixty-seven youth athletes were observed during basketball games near the end of their season, and the content of their behavior was systematically coded. Athletes also completed measures of the 4 Cs (competence, confidence connection, and character). A person-centered analysis approach was used to examine the relationship between PYD profiles and observed behavior. RESULTS: A cluster analysis identified two homogenous groups of athletes characterized by relatively high and low perceptions of confidence, connection, and character. A MANCOVA revealed that after controlling for gender and years of playing experience, the high Cs group engaged in more frequent sport communication with their coaches. CONCLUSIONS: Results re-affirm the critical role that coaches play in the developmental experiences of young athletes, and highlight the importance of contextual factors of the youth sport environment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Recreação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Análise por Conglomerados
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191936


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[PMID]:27776000
[Au] Autor:Oyeyemi AL; Conway TL; Adedoyin RA; Akinroye KK; Aryeetey R; Assah F; Cain KL; Gavand KA; Kasoma SS; Kolbe-Alexander TL; Lambert EV; Larouche R; Moss SJ; Ocansey R; Onywera VO; Prista A; Tremblay MS; Sallis JF
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, NIGERIA; 2Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, SOUTH AFRICA; 3Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, CA; 4Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NIGERIA; 5Nigerian Heart Foundation, Lagos, NIGERIA; 6School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon Accra, GHANA; 7Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Public Health, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CAMEROON; 8Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biosciences, Makerere University, Kampala, UGANDA; 9Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA; 10Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA; 11Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, CANADA; 12Active Living and Wellness Alliance Group, Nungua, GHANA; 13Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, KENYA; 14Physical Activity and Health Research Group, CIDAF-FEFF, Universidade Pedagogica, Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE; and 15Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CANADA.
[Ti] Título:Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa.
[So] Source:Med Sci Sports Exerc;49(3):482-491, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0315
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, periurban, and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n = 469, 18-85 yr, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: The overall "walkability" index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (η = 0.020, P = 0.005) and recreation (η = 0.013, P = 0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger danger scales were positively related with transport walking (η = 0.020, P = 0.006 and η = 0.021, P = 0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (η = 0.016, P = 0.015), road/path connectivity (η = 0.025, P = 0.002), path infrastructure (η = 0.021, P = 0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (η = 0.012, P = 0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly nonsignificant except for South Africa and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Of 14 NEWS-Africa scales, 7 were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than those from other continents. Further study with larger and more diverse samples is needed to determine whether the instrument performs well in each country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento Ambiental
Distribuição Espacial da População
Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Recreação
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Autorrelato
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001131


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[PMID]:29384342
[Au] Autor:Felzmann H
[Ti] Título:'Just a Bit of Fun': How Recreational is Direct-to-Customer Genetic Testing?
[So] Source:New Bioeth;21(1):20-32, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2050-2885
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Direct to consumer (DTC) genetic testing has given rise to much controversy, especially in relation to testing for health diagnostic purposes. This paper will consider whether consumers' use of DTC genetic testing should be understood as predominantly recreational. It will be argued that recreational testing can encompass all information domains, including most kinds of predictive health risk information. In relation to recreational testing the potential identity implications for the consumer become a significant concern, more so than the risks more traditionally associated with genetic testing. It will be concluded that while the DTC genetic testing sector is beset by numerous problems and an increase in consumers' genetic literacy is highly desirable, consumers' engagement with DTC genetic testing may be less problematic than sometimes assumed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor
Testes Genéticos
Recreação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27779567
[Au] Autor:Neilson HK; Farris MS; Stone CR; Vaska MM; Brenner DR; Friedenreich CM
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, CancerControl Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 2Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 3Knowledge Resource Service, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 4Department of Oncology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk, stratified by menopause status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:Menopause;24(3):322-344, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0374
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity increases postmenopausal and possibly premenopausal breast cancer risk, although different biologic mechanisms are proposed. Our primary objective was to estimate breast cancer risk associated with high versus low levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity, separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature published to July 2015. Included reports were cohort or case-control studies relating moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent ≥3.0) to breast cancer incidence, exclusively (≥90%) in premenopausal or postmenopausal women. We appraised study quality and performed meta-analyses using random effects modeling. Subgroup meta-analyses were based on tumor subtype, race, body mass index, parity, hormone therapy use, family history of cancer, and statistical adjustment for body fatness. Dose-response relations were examined. RESULTS: Pooled relative risks (RRs, 95% CI) for women with higher versus lower levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity were RR = 0.80 (0.74-0.87) and RR = 0.79 (0.74-0.84) for premenopausal (43 studies) and postmenopausal (58 studies) breast cancer, respectively, with high heterogeneity. Inverse associations were weaker among postmenopausal cohort studies (RR = 0.90 [0.85-0.95]) and studies that statistically adjusted for nonrecreational (eg, occupational, household) activity (RR = 0.91 [0.77-1.06] premenopausal, RR = 0.96 [0.86-1.08] postmenopausal). Risk estimates with versus without body fatness adjustment did not vary by menopause status, although other subgroup effects were menopause-dependent. Among studies of overweight/obese women, there was an inverse association with postmenopausal but not premenopausal breast cancer (RR = 0.88 [0.82-0.95] and RR = 0.99 [0.98-1.00], respectively). Dose-response curves were generally nonlinear. CONCLUSIONS: Although risk estimates may be similar for premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer, subgroup effects may be menopause-dependent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia
Exercício/fisiologia
Menopausa
Recreação/fisiologia
Comportamento de Redução do Risco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/GME.0000000000000745


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[PMID]:29346356
[Au] Autor:Roffe L; Pearson S; Sharr J; Ardagh M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch.
[Ti] Título:The effect of trampoline parks on presentations to the Christchurch Emergency Department.
[So] Source:N Z Med J;131(1468):43-53, 2018 01 19.
[Is] ISSN:1175-8716
[Cp] País de publicação:New Zealand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AIMS: To analyse trampoline-related injuries suffered after the opening of two new trampoline parks in Christchurch. METHODS: Data was collected from three 90-day periods. All trampoline-related injuries were collected from electronic documentation and coding. Those injured after both arenas opened were contacted and a semi-structured interview performed. RESULTS: In the 90 days after both parks opened there were 602 claims for trampoline-related injuries with 106 hospital presentations (55% male). This was a significant increase (p<0.01) from one year earlier (333 claims, 37 hospital presentations) and the 90 days prior to their opening (201 claims, 15 hospital presentations). Most injuries affected an older group of children, aged between 10-14 years (26%, n=28), compared to the other two periods (p<0.01). There was also a greater proportion of lower-limb injuries (52%, n=55) compared to the other two periods (p<0.01). Thirty-six required hospital admission, with 29 operations and an average length of stay of 2.11 days. One trampoline park allowed two or more people to use the same trampoline at the same time, and had over twice as many presentations (33%, n=35) than the other trampoline park (14%, n=15). CONCLUSIONS: Christchurch saw a significant increase in trampoline-related injuries after the opening of two new parks. These injuries involved an older group of children, affected predominantly the lower limbs and were more severe than those reported from the use of domestic trampolines. Consistent with past research, the trampoline park allowing multiple users had a higher proportion of presentations and more injuries requiring operative intervention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
Jogos e Brinquedos/lesões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos
Masculino
Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
Recreação
Estudos Retrospectivos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180119
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29241234
[Au] Autor:Massey H; Leach J; Davis M; Vertongen V
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Spinnaker Building, Cambridge Road, Portsmouth PO1 2ER, UK, heather.massey@port.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Lost at sea: the medicine, physiology and psychology of prolonged immersion.
[So] Source:Diving Hyperb Med;47(4):239-247, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1833-3516
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In most countries, immersion represents the second most common cause of accidental death in children and the third in adults. Between 2010 and 2013, 561 deaths worldwide involving recreational divers were recorded by the Divers Alert Network. Consequently, there is no room for complacency when diving. Being lost at sea is a diver's worst nightmare. In 2006, a diver was lost at sea off the coast of New Zealand for 75 hours. It is unprecedented that, after such a long time immersed in temperate (16-17°C) waters, he was found and survived. His case is presented and utilised to illustrate the many physiological and psychological factors involved in prolonged immersion and what might determine survival under such circumstances. We also briefly review options for enhancing diver location at sea and a few issues related to search and rescue operations are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mergulho/fisiologia
Mergulho/psicologia
Imersão/fisiopatologia
Sobrevivência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Constituição Corporal
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos
Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia
Família
Seres Humanos
Hipotermia/etiologia
Hipotermia/fisiopatologia
Imersão/efeitos adversos
Masculino
Nova Zelândia
Estado Nutricional/fisiologia
Roupa de Proteção
Recreação
Religião e Psicologia
Trabalho de Resgate
Choque/etiologia
Choque/fisiopatologia
Estresse Psicológico
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.28920/dhm47.4.239-247


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[PMID]:29241231
[Au] Autor:Jansen S; Boor M; Meyer MF; Pracht ED; Volland R; Klünter HD; Hüttenbrink KB; Beutner D; Grosheva M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Influence of repetitive diving in freshwater on pressure equalization and Eustachian tube function in recreational scuba divers.
[So] Source:Diving Hyperb Med;47(4):223-227, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1833-3516
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: We investigated the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during freshwater dives on Eustachian tube function and the middle ear, assessed by the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT). METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included 23 divers over three consecutive days of diving in freshwater lakes in Nordhausen, Germany. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp). The peak pressure difference between the R-tymp and the V-tymp (R-V ) defined effectiveness of pressure equalization after Valsalva manoeuvres. We evaluated the change in compliance and peak pressure and correlated the results to the otoscopic findings and diving experience. RESULTS: Twenty-three divers performed 144 dives. Middle ear barotrauma was assessed using the Edmonds modification of the TEED scoring system. In the ETFT, the R-tymp peak pressure displayed a negative shift from day one to three (P = 0.001) and differed significantly between the experience groups (P = 0.01). R-V did not change significantly on any of the three days of diving (all P > 0.05). Participants without MEBt showed significantly lower R-tymp values than did those with barotrauma (P = 0.019). CONCLUSION: Repetitive pressure exposure during three consecutive days of freshwater diving led to a negative shift of the peak pressure in the middle ear. Less experienced divers showed significantly higher middle ear peak pressure and higher pressure differences after equalization manoeuvres. Higher middle ear peak pressure was also associated with a higher prevalence of barotrauma.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Testes de Impedância Acústica/métodos
Mergulho/fisiologia
Tuba Auditiva/fisiologia
Água Doce
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Complacência (Medida de Distensibilidade)
Mergulho/estatística & dados numéricos
Orelha Média/fisiologia
Estudos de Viabilidade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Otoscopia
Pressão
Estudos Prospectivos
Recreação
Fatores de Tempo
Manobra de Valsalva/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.28920/dhm47.4.223-227


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[PMID]:29241230
[Au] Autor:Meyer MF; Boor M; Jansen S; Pracht ED; Felsch M; Klünter HD; Hüttenbrink KB; Beutner D; Grosheva M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Kerpener Straße 62, 50937 Cologne, Germany, moritz.meyer@uk-koeln.de.
[Ti] Título:Influence of repetitive diving in saltwater on pressure equalization and Eustachian tube function in recreational scuba divers.
[So] Source:Diving Hyperb Med;47(4):214-215, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1833-3516
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: We investigated in a prospective, observational trial the feasibility of using the Eustachian tube function test (ETFT) to measure the effect of repetitive pressure exposure during open seawater dives on Eustachian tube function. METHODS: The study included 28 adult divers during six consecutive days of diving in the Red Sea. Participants underwent otoscopy and ETFT before the first dive, between each dive and after the last dive. ETFT included regular tympanometry (R-tymp), tympanometry after Valsalva (V-tymp) and after swallowing (S-tymp). The R-tymp was obtained as 'baseline' peak pressure. After a Valsalva, the peak pressure should shift (positively), revealing a positive shift of the tympanic membrane. This pressure shift is defined here as R-V . The changes in compliance and peak pressure were recorded and correlated with otoscopic findings and diving experience. Middle ear barotrauma was scored using the Edmonds modified TEED scale. RESULTS: The 28 participants performed 437 dives. Positive shift of pressure in the middle ear was evident with significant changes from day one to day three (P < 0.0001). Divers with barotrauma showed significantly lower values of R-tymp peak pressure and significantly higher negative R-V , compared to divers with normal otoscopic findings (P < 0.05). Diving experience significantly correlated with R-tymp peak pressure and prevalence of middle ear barotrauma. CONCLUSION: Significant changes in middle ear pressure and pressure equalization from repeated pressure exposure in saltwater were seen using ETFT. Repetitive, multi-day diving led to significantly decreased compliance and increased R-tymp peak pressure (overpressure) in the middle ear. Most profound changes were observed in less and intermediate experienced divers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Testes de Impedância Acústica/métodos
Mergulho/fisiologia
Tuba Auditiva/fisiologia
Água do Mar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Barotrauma/fisiopatologia
Deglutição
Mergulho/estatística & dados numéricos
Orelha Média/fisiologia
Estudos de Viabilidade
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Oceano Índico
Masculino
Otoscopia
Pressão
Estudos Prospectivos
Recreação
Fatores de Tempo
Manobra de Valsalva/fisiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.28920/dhm47.4.216-222


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[PMID]:28467949
[Au] Autor:Pouwels R; Sierdsema H; Foppen RPB; Henkens RJHG; Opdam PFM; van Eupen M
[Ad] Endereço:Wageningen Environmental Research (Alterra), Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: rogier.pouwels@wur.nl.
[Ti] Título:Harmonizing outdoor recreation and bird conservation targets in protected areas: Applying available monitoring data to facilitate collaborative management at the regional scale.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;198(Pt 1):248-255, 2017 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In protected areas managers have to achieve conservation targets while providing opportunities for outdoor recreation. This dual mandate causes conflicts in choosing between management options. Furthermore, the persistence of a protected species within the management unit often depends on how conservation areas elsewhere in the region are managed. We present an assessment procedure to guide groups of managers in aligning outdoor recreation and bird conservation targets for a regional scale protected area in the Netherlands. We used existing bird monitoring data and simulated visitor densities to statistically model the impact of outdoor recreation on bird densities. The models were used to extrapolate the local impacts for other parts of the area, but also to assess the impact on conservation targets at the regional level that were determined by the national government. The assessment shows impacts of outdoor recreation on Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), Stonechat (Saxicola torquata) and Woodlark (Lullula arborea), reducing the regional population by up to 28 percent. The Woodlark population size was reduced below the level of the politically determined conservation target. The output of the regression models provides information that connects implications of local management to regional scale conservation targets. The spatial maps of bird densities can help in deciding where reducing visitor disturbance is expected to result in increasing bird populations, or where alternative measures, such as improving the habitat conditions, could be effective. We suggest that by using our assessment procedure collaborative decision making is facilitated.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Recreação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Aves
Ecossistema
Países Baixos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180124
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180124
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29261690
[Au] Autor:Shan G; Gerstenberger S
[Ad] Endereço:School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Fisher's exact approach for post hoc analysis of a chi-squared test.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188709, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This research is motivated by one of our survey studies to assess the potential influence of introducing zebra mussels to the Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Nevada. One research question in this study is to investigate the association between the boating activity type and the awareness of zebra mussels. A chi-squared test is often used for testing independence between two factors with nominal levels. When the null hypothesis of independence between two factors is rejected, we are often left wondering where does the significance come from. Cell residuals, including standardized residuals and adjusted residuals, are traditionally used in testing for cell significance, which is often known as a post hoc test after a statistically significant chi-squared test. In practice, the limiting distributions of these residuals are utilized for statistical inference. However, they may lead to different conclusions based on the calculated p-values, and their p-values could be over- o6r under-estimated due to the unsatisfactory performance of asymptotic approaches with regards to type I error control. In this article, we propose new exact p-values by using Fisher's approach based on three commonly used test statistics to order the sample space. We theoretically prove that the proposed new exact p-values based on these test statistics are the same. Based on our extensive simulation studies, we show that the existing asymptotic approach based on adjusted residual is often more likely to reject the null hypothesis as compared to the exact approach due to the inflated family-wise error rates as observed. We would recommend the proposed exact p-value for use in practice as a valuable post hoc analysis technique for chi-squared analysis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dreissena
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado
Seres Humanos
Nevada
Recreação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188709



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