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[PMID]:28545485
[Au] Autor:Vakkamäki J; Taponen S; Heikkilä AM; Pyörälä S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Production Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Paroninkuja 20, 04920, Saarentaus, Finland. johanna.vakkamaki@helsinki.fi.
[Ti] Título:Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.
[So] Source:Acta Vet Scand;59(1):33, 2017 May 25.
[Is] ISSN:1751-0147
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. RESULTS: The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. CONCLUSIONS: The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present study, microbiological diagnosis was unequivocal in the great majority of samples where a single species or two species with one dominating were detected. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus were the most common species. S. aureus was also the most common pathogen among the culled cows, which emphasizes the importance of preventive measures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia
Leite/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais
Animais
Bovinos
Indústria de Laticínios
Feminino
Finlândia/epidemiologia
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia
Mastite Bovina/prevenção & controle
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170527
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13028-017-0301-4


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[PMID]:28532990
[Au] Autor:Millman C; Christley R; Rigby D; Dennis D; O'Brien SJ; Williams N
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Economics, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. Electronic address: caroline.millman@manchester.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:"Catch 22": Biosecurity awareness, interpretation and practice amongst poultry catchers.
[So] Source:Prev Vet Med;141:22-32, 2017 Jun 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-1716
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Campylobacter contamination of chicken on sale in the UK remains at high levels and has a substantial public health impact. This has prompted the application of many interventions in the supply chain, including enhanced biosecurity measures on-farm. Catching and thinning are acknowledged as threats to the maintenance of good biosecurity, yet the people employed to undertake this critical work (i.e. 'catchers') are a rarely studied group. This study uses a mixed methods approach to investigate catchers' (n=53) understanding of the biosecurity threats posed by the catching and thinning, and the barriers to good biosecurity practice. It interrogated the role of training in both the awareness and practice of good biosecurity. Awareness of lapses in biosecurity was assessed using a Watch-&-Click hazard awareness survey (n=53). Qualitative interviews (n=49 catchers, 5 farm managers) explored the understanding, experience and practice of catching and biosecurity. All of the catchers who took part in the Watch-&-Click study identified at least one of the biosecurity threats with 40% detecting all of the hazards. Those who had undergone training were significantly more likely to identify specific biosecurity threats and have a higher awareness score overall (48% compared to 9%, p=0.03). Crucially, the individual and group interviews revealed the tensions between the high levels of biosecurity awareness evident from the survey and the reality of the routine practice of catching and thinning. Time pressures and a lack of equipment rather than a lack of knowledge appear a more fundamental cause of catcher-related biosecurity lapses. Our results reveal that catchers find themselves in a 'catch-22' situation in which mutually conflicting circumstances prevent simultaneous completion of their job and compliance with biosecurity standards. Hence, although education about, and enforcement of, biosecurity protocols has been recommended, our findings suggest that further reforms, including changing the context in which catching occurs by improving the equipment and other resources available to catchers and providing more time for biosecurity, will be essential for successful implementation of existing biosecurity protocols.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abate de Animais
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Campylobacter
Galinhas/microbiologia
Fazendeiros
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Agricultura/métodos
Animais
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Indústria de Embalagem de Carne
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28207777
[Au] Autor:Bradbury NV; Probert WJ; Shea K; Runge MC; Fonnesbeck CJ; Keeling MJ; Ferrari MJ; Tildesley MJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Leicestershire, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Quantifying the Value of Perfect Information in Emergency Vaccination Campaigns.
[So] Source:PLoS Comput Biol;13(2):e1005318, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1553-7358
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries can lead to large economic costs and livestock losses but the use of vaccination has been contentious, partly due to uncertainty about emergency FMD vaccination. Value of information methods can be applied to disease outbreak problems such as FMD in order to investigate the performance improvement from resolving uncertainties. Here we calculate the expected value of resolving uncertainty about vaccine efficacy, time delay to immunity after vaccination and daily vaccination capacity for a hypothetical FMD outbreak in the UK. If it were possible to resolve all uncertainty prior to the introduction of control, we could expect savings of £55 million in outbreak cost, 221,900 livestock culled and 4.3 days of outbreak duration. All vaccination strategies were found to be preferable to a culling only strategy. However, the optimal vaccination radius was found to be highly dependent upon vaccination capacity for all management objectives. We calculate that by resolving the uncertainty surrounding vaccination capacity we would expect to return over 85% of the above savings, regardless of management objective. It may be possible to resolve uncertainty about daily vaccination capacity before an outbreak, and this would enable decision makers to select the optimal control action via careful contingency planning.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abate de Animais/economia
Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
Febre Aftosa/economia
Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Programas de Imunização/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais/estatística & dados numéricos
Animais
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/economia
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/utilização
Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia
Programas de Imunização/utilização
Vacinação em Massa/economia
Vacinação em Massa/utilização
Vigilância da População/métodos
Prevalência
Medição de Risco/economia
Medição de Risco/métodos
Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Vacinas Virais/economia
Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Viral Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005318


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[PMID]:28100768
[Au] Autor:Busch F; Bannerman F; Liggett S; Griffin F; Clarke J; Lyashchenko KP; Rhodes S
[Ad] Endereço:Animal and Plant Health Agency, Surrey, UK.
[Ti] Título:Control of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed red deer herd in England.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;180(3):68, 2017 Jan 21.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This report describes how Mycobacterium bovis infection was controlled and eventually eradicated in a farmed red deer herd in the north of England, following sustained tuberculin skin testing supplemented with serological (antibody) tests over a period of approximately two years. By taking advantage of the anamnestic antibody response produced by the skin test to detect skin test-negative, antibody-positive infected individuals, a total of 35 additional animals were identified, including 2 with gross visible lesions typical of bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Without detection and removal, these animals would have posed a continued risk of BTB persistence within the herd and potentially contributed to the spread of infection from deer into wildlife and surrounding cattle farms in an area of low BTB incidence. This case supports the use of ancillary diagnostic serological tests to speed up the resolution of incidents of BTB caused by M bovis in captive deer herds.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cervos/microbiologia
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos
Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação
Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
Tuberculose/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais
Animais
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Inglaterra/epidemiologia
Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária
Tuberculose/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.103930


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[PMID]:27707658
[Au] Autor:Maffey G; Irvine RJ; Reed M; van der Wal R
[Ad] Endereço:dot.rural, RCUK Digital Economy Research, MacRobert Building, King's College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 5UA, United Kingdom. Electronic address: ginazoo@outlook.com.
[Ti] Título:Can digital reinvention of ecological monitoring remove barriers to its adoption by practitioners? A case study of deer management in Scotland.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;184(Pt 2):186-195, 2016 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Monitoring is one of the key tools employed to help understand the condition of the natural environment and inform the development of appropriate management actions. While international conventions encourage the use of standardised methods, the link between the information monitoring provides and local management needs is frequently overlooked. This problem is further exacerbated when monitoring is employed in areas where there are divergent interests among stakeholders in land use and management. Such problems are found in the management of wild deer across Scotland, where monitoring, in the form of habitat impact assessments, have been introduced as an innovation in sustainable deer management. However, the uptake of habitat impact assessments has been limited. We used deer management in Scotland as a case study to explore whether reinventing habitat impact assessments, and hosting the system on a familiar digital platform (a mobile phone) could help to remove perceived barriers to the implementation of assessments. Using the diffusion of innovations as a theoretical framework three sets of workshops were conducted with participants representing different stakeholder interests. While the proposed digital system did address perceived barriers to the conduct of habitat monitoring, in addition it revealed underlying concerns on the use and purpose of habitat monitoring as a tool in land management. Such concerns indicate friction between scientific and management perspectives, which need to be considered and addressed if monitoring is to become more widely acceptable as a tool to inform the management of natural resources.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abate de Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Comportamento Cooperativo
Cervos
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Escócia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161007
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27634864
[Au] Autor:Wensley S
[Ad] Endereço:President, BVA, 7 Mansfield Street, London W1G 9NQ.
[Ti] Título:BVA position on bovine TB and badger culls.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;179(11):288, 2016 Sep 17.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abate de Animais/legislação & jurisprudência
Mustelidae
Sociedades
Tuberculose Bovina/prevenção & controle
Medicina Veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais/métodos
Animais
Bovinos
Seres Humanos
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160917
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.i4948


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:27598014
[Au] Autor:Bortoletto DV; Utsunomiya YT; Perri SH; Ferreira F; Nunes CM
[Ad] Endereço:Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Age structure of owned dogs under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area.
[So] Source:Cad Saude Publica;32(8):e00026115, 2016 Sep 05.
[Is] ISSN:1678-4464
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The age structure of the dog population is essential for planning and evaluating control programs for zoonotic diseases. We analyzed data of an owned-dog census in order to characterize, for the first time, the structure of a dog population under compulsory culling in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area (Panorama, São Paulo State, Brazil) that recorded a dog-culling rate of 28% in the year of the study. Data on 1,329 households and 1,671 owned dogs revealed an owned dog:human ratio of 1:7. The mean age of dogs was estimated at 1.73 years; the age pyramid indicated high birth and mortality rates at the first year of age with an estimated cumulative mortality of 78% at the third year of age and expected life span of 2.75 years. In spite of the high mortality, a growth projection simulation suggested that the population has potential to grow in a logarithmic scale over the years. The estimated parameters can be further applied in models to maximize the impact and minimize financial inputs of visceral leishmaniasis control measures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição por Idade
Abate de Animais
Censos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia
Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais/estatística & dados numéricos
Animais
Brasil/epidemiologia
Doenças do Cão/mortalidade
Cães
Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia
Leishmaniose Visceral/mortalidade
Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos
Previsões Demográficas/métodos
Taxa de Sobrevida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1703
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160907
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27132864
[Au] Autor:Sherwin VE; Hudson CD; Henderson A; Green MJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Veterinary Medicine and Science,University of Nottingham,Sutton Bonington,LE12 5RD,UK.
[Ti] Título:The association between age at first calving and survival of first lactation heifers within dairy herds.
[So] Source:Animal;10(11):1877-1882, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this research was to evaluate the survival rate of primiparous heifers within a large sample of herds across the United Kingdom and specifically to assess the association between age at first calving (AFC) on their survival. Data from 437 herds were re-structured for analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and a multilevel logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with the risk of first lactation culling. Potential explanatory variables included AFC, herd size, culling rate within the whole herd, calving season, herd mean 305-day yield and herd mean calving interval. The mean within-herd culling rate for the primiparous heifers was 15.9%. The mean within-herd AFC was 29.6 months, with 35.9% of heifers having an AFC >30 months of age. Multivariable analysis revealed a negative association between survival rate of primiparous heifers and increasing AFC, and also associations with herd culling rate in older cows and calving season. This study highlights the importance of AFC for survival of primiparous heifers, as well as the need to address heifer wastage in herds with high culling rates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Abate de Animais/estatística & dados numéricos
Animais Lactentes/fisiologia
Bovinos/fisiologia
Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos
Lactação
Idade Materna
Paridade/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier
Estações do Ano
Taxa de Sobrevida
Reino Unido/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160503
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26998675
[Au] Autor:Bothmann J; Magnus F; Hasseler W; Kossen T; Fürll M
[Ti] Título:[Metabolic monitoring on small and medium sized dairy farms in Emsland, Germany].
[Ti] Título:Stoffwechselmonitoring in kleinen und mittelgroßen Milchrindbetrieben im Emsland..
[So] Source:Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere;44(2):83-91, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1434-1220
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:ger
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate metabolic analyses on small dairy farms regarding indications, realization, and results over 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 793 serum samples (122 submissions from 53 farms) originating from cows of different lactation stages and from heifers, the parameters free fatty acids (FFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, glucose, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, liver enzymes, creatine kinase (CK), ß-carotene, electrolytes and trace elements were analyzed. RESULTS: In 20% of cases, investigations were initiated to control for the metabolic status. Further reasons for laboratory diagnostics were consistent with the culling causes. FFA with 56.7% displayed the most frequent deviations from the normal range during the lactation ante partum. At 8 weeks post partum (p. p.) it fell to 36-38% and later to < 11%. The BHB deviations from the normal range exceeded 68% throughout the whole lactation. During the middle and late lactation, 40-50% of the measured urea concentrations were above the upper reference limit. Hypocalcemia occurred during the first week p. p. to 13.2% and hypophosphatemia to 6.6%. For CK, deviations from the reference value of 60.4-90.0% were determined. Selenium and copper deficiencies were present in approximately 15% of cases. Heifers more frequently displayed a copper deficiency (21.3%) than cows. ß-carotene deficiency was measured ante partum at 50% and p. p. at 47.1-77.8%. Adverse deviations increased between 2006 and 2011 for FFS, urea, ß-carotene, and selenium in correlation with a reduction in the milk price between 2009 and 2010. Deviations from the normal range for BHB, CK, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphate remained constant. On 80% of the farms, the metabolic status improved during the investigation period. CONCLUSION: Even on smaller farms, peripartal metabolic screenings enable early discovery of causes of the most common culling reasons and provide options for corrective action.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bovinos/metabolismo
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos
Lactação/metabolismo
Metaboloma/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais/métodos
Animais
Bovinos/sangue
Feminino
Alemanha
Lactação/sangue
Período Periparto/metabolismo
Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1611
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160322
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15653/TPG-151032


  10 / 76 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26974962
[Au] Autor:Fernández-Gil A; Naves J; Ordiz A; Quevedo M; Revilla E; Delibes M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Sevilla, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.
[So] Source:PLoS One;11(3):e0151541, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Carnivoridade/fisiologia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Ursidae/fisiologia
Lobos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Abate de Animais
Animais
Feminino
Geografia
Gado
Modelos Teóricos
Comportamento Predatório
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160324
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160324
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0151541



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