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[PMID]:29263292
[Au] Autor:Hyde RM; Remnant JG; Bradley AJ; Breen JE; Hudson CD; Davies PL; Clarke T; Critchell Y; Hylands M; Linton E; Wood E; Green MJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
[Ti] Título:Quantitative analysis of antimicrobial use on British dairy farms.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;181(25):683, 2017 12 23.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Antimicrobial resistance has been reported to represent a growing threat to both human and animal health, and concerns have been raised around levels of antimicrobial usage (AMU) within the livestock industry. To provide a benchmark for dairy cattle AMU and identify factors associated with high AMU, data from a convenience sample of 358 dairy farms were analysed using both mass-based and dose-based metrics following standard methodologies proposed by the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project. Metrics calculated were mass (mg) of antimicrobial active ingredient per population correction unit (mg/PCU), defined daily doses (DDDvet) and defined course doses (DCDvet). AMU on dairy farms ranged from 0.36 to 97.79 mg/PCU, with a median and mean of 15.97 and 20.62 mg/PCU, respectively. Dose-based analysis ranged from 0.05 to 20.29 DDDvet, with a median and mean of 4.03 and 4.60 DDDvet, respectively. Multivariable analysis highlighted that usage of antibiotics via oral and footbath routes increased the odds of a farm being in the top quartile (>27.9 mg/PCU) of antimicrobial users. While dairy cattle farm AMU appeared to be lower than UK livestock average, there were a selection of outlying farms with extremely high AMU, with the top 25 per cent of farms contributing greater than 50 per cent of AMU by mass. Identification of these high use farms may enable targeted AMU reduction strategies and facilitate a significant reduction in overall dairy cattle AMU.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
Indústria de Laticínios
Fazendas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Seres Humanos
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.104614


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[PMID]:28454560
[Au] Autor:Corbett CS; De Buck J; Orsel K; Barkema HW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Fecal shedding and tissue infections demonstrate transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in group-housed dairy calves.
[So] Source:Vet Res;48(1):27, 2017 04 28.
[Is] ISSN:1297-9716
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Current Johne's disease control programs primarily focus on decreasing transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from infectious adult cows to susceptible calves. However, potential transmission between calves is largely overlooked. The objective was to determine the extent of MAP infection in calves contact-exposed to infectious penmates. Thirty-two newborn Holstein-Friesian calves were grouped into 7 experimental groups of 4, consisting of 2 inoculated (IN) calves, and 2 contact-exposed (CE) calves, and 1 control pen with 4 non-exposed calves. Calves were group housed for 3 months, with fecal samples were collected 3 times per week, blood and environmental samples weekly, and tissue samples at the end of the trial. The IN calves exited the trial after 3 months of group housing, whereas CE calves were individually housed for an additional 3 months before euthanasia. Control calves were group-housed for the entire trial. All CE and IN calves had MAP-positive fecal samples during the period of group housing; however, fecal shedding had ceased at time of individual housing. All IN calves had MAP-positive tissue samples at necropsy, and 7 (50%) of the CE had positive tissue samples. None of the calves had a humoral immune response, whereas INF-γ responses were detected in all IN calves and 5 (36%) CE calves. In conclusion, new MAP infections occurred due to exposure of infectious penmates to contact calves. Therefore, calf-to-calf transmission is a potential route of uncontrolled transmission on cattle farms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Derrame de Bactérias
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão
Indústria de Laticínios
Fezes/microbiologia
Abrigo para Animais
Paratuberculose/transmissão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia
Feminino
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis
Paratuberculose/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13567-017-0431-8


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[PMID]:29391014
[Au] Autor:Torsein M; Lindberg A; Svensson C; Jensen SK; Berg C; Waller KP
[Ad] Endereço:Farm & Animal Health, Uddetorp Röda huset, 532 96, Skara, Sweden. maria.torsein@gardochdjurhalsan.se.
[Ti] Título:α-Tocopherol and ß-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality.
[So] Source:Acta Vet Scand;60(1):7, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1751-0147
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and ß-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or ß-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n = 9; n = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and ß-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. RESULTS: Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P < 0.001) and ß-carotene concentrations in colostrum (P < 0.001). A diet containing ≥ 20% (in kg dry matter) maize silage of the total ration was negatively associated with ß-carotene concentration in cow serum (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High calf mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum. In HM herds, evaluation of the calves' α-tocopherol status is recommended.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal
Colostro/química
Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos
Mortalidade
alfa-Tocoferol/análise
beta Caroteno/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal/análise
Animais
Bovinos/sangue
Bovinos/metabolismo
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Modelos Lineares
Suécia
alfa-Tocoferol/sangue
beta Caroteno/sangue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
01YAE03M7J (beta Carotene); H4N855PNZ1 (alpha-Tocopherol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13028-018-0361-0


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[PMID]:29325588
[Au] Autor:Nørstebø H; Rachah A; Dalen G; Rønningen O; Whist AC; Reksen O
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 8146 Dep, 0033, Oslo, Norway. havard.norstebo@nmbu.no.
[Ti] Título:Milk-flow data collected routinely in an automatic milking system: an alternative to milking-time testing in the management of teat-end condition?
[So] Source:Acta Vet Scand;60(1):2, 2018 Jan 11.
[Is] ISSN:1751-0147
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Having a poor teat-end condition is associated with increased mastitis risk, hence avoiding milking machine settings that have a negative effect on teat-end condition is important for successful dairy production. Milking-time testing (MTT) can be used in the evaluation of vacuum conditions during milking, but the method is less suited for herds using automatic milking systems (AMS) and relationships with teat end condition is poorly described. This study aimed to increase knowledge on interpretation of MTT in AMS and to assess whether milk-flow data obtained routinely by an AMS can be useful for the management of teat-end health. A cross-sectional study, including 251 teats of 79 Norwegian Red cows milked by AMS was performed in the research herd of the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The following MTT variables were obtained at teat level: Average vacuum level in the short milk tube during main milking (MTVAC), average vacuum in the mouthpiece chamber during main milking and overmilking, teat compression intensity (COMPR) and overmilking time. Average and peak milk flow rates were obtained at quarter level from the AMS software. Teat-end callosity thickness and roughness was registered, and teat dimensions; length, and width at apex and base, were measured. Interrelationships among variables obtained by MTT, quarter milk flow variables, and teat dimensions were described. Associations between these variables and teat-end callosity thickness and roughness, were investigated. RESULTS: Principal component analysis showed clusters of strongly related variables. There was a strong negative relationship between MTVAC and average milk flow rate. The variables MTVAC, COMPR and average and peak milk flow rate were associated with both thickness and roughness of the callosity ring. CONCLUSIONS: Quarter milk flow rate obtained directly from the AMS software was useful in assessing associations between milking machine function and teat-end condition; low average milk flow rates were associated with a higher likelihood of the teat having a thickened or roughened teat-end callosity ring. Since information on milk flow rate is readily available from the herd management system, this information might be used when evaluating causes for impaired teat-end condition in AMS.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Calosidades/prevenção & controle
Indústria de Laticínios/métodos
Lactação/fisiologia
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Calosidades/etiologia
Calosidades/patologia
Bovinos
Estudos Transversais
Indústria de Laticínios/instrumentação
Feminino
Análise de Componente Principal
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13028-018-0356-x


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[PMID]:29373601
[Au] Autor:Rosa F; Busato S; Avaroma FC; Linville K; Trevisi E; Osorio JS; Bionaz M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Transcriptional changes detected in fecal RNA of neonatal dairy calves undergoing a mild diarrhea are associated with inflammatory biomarkers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191599, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:After birth, a newborn calf has to adapt to an extrauterine life characterized by several physiological changes. In particular, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract in a new environment loaded with potential pathogens, which can predispose neonatal calves to develop diarrhea, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during the first 4 wks of life. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory adaptations at a transcriptomic level in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to a mild diarrhea in neonatal dairy calves using RNA isolated from fresh fecal samples. Eight newborn Jersey male calves were used from birth to 5 wks of age and housed in individual pens. After birth, calves received 1.9 L of colostrum from their respective dams. Calves had ad-libitum access to water and starter grain (22% CP) and were fed twice daily a total of 5.6 L pasteurized whole milk. Starter intake, body weight (BW), fecal score, withers height (WH), and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples were collected weekly for metabolic and inflammatory profiling from wk 0 to wk 5. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly and immediately flash frozen until RNA was extracted using a Trizol-based method, and subsequently, an RT-qPCR analysis was performed. Orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate linear or quadratic effects over time. Starter intake, BW, and WH increased over time. Fecal score was greatest (2.6 ± 0.3) during wk 2. The concentrations of IL-6, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin had a positive quadratic effect with maximal concentrations during wk 2, which corresponded to the maximal fecal score observed during the same time. The concentration of serum amyloid A decreased over time. The mRNA expression of the proinflammatory related genes TLR4, TNFA, IL8, and IL1B had a positive quadratic effect of time. A time effect was observed for the cell membrane sodium-dependent glucose transporter SLC5A1, for the major carbohydrate facilitated transporter SLC2A2, and water transport function AQP3, where SLC5A1 and AQP3 had a negative quadratic effect over time. Our data support the use of the fecal RNA as a noninvasive tool to investigate intestinal transcriptomic profiling of dairy calves experiencing diarrhea, which would be advantageous for future research including nutritional effects and health conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Recém-Nascidos
Biomarcadores/análise
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética
Indústria de Laticínios
Diarreia/veterinária
Fezes
Inflamação/metabolismo
RNA/isolamento & purificação
Transcrição Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Diarreia/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 63231-63-0 (RNA)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191599


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[PMID]:29351973
[Au] Autor:Volkmann N; Kemper N
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Animal Hygiene, Animal Welfare and Farm Animal Behaviour (ITTN), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Claw condition and claw health in dairy cows: how important is access to pasture?
[So] Source:Vet Rec;182(3):76-78, 2018 01 20.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Casco e Garras
Coxeadura Animal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos
Indústria de Laticínios
Feminino
Doenças do Pé/veterinária
Lactação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.k193


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[PMID]:29305474
[Au] Autor:Montiani-Ferreira F
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Rua dos Funcionários, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Investigating the decision-making processes of vets: keratoconjuctivitis sicca and glaucoma.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;182(1):18-20, 2018 01 06.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Indústria de Laticínios
Médicos Veterinários
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tomada de Decisões
Glaucoma
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.k5


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[PMID]:29304106
[Au] Autor:Anderson RC; MacGibbon AKH; Haggarty N; Armstrong KM; Roy NC
[Ad] Endereço:Food Nutrition & Health Team, Food & Bio-based Products Group, AgResearch Grasslands, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Bovine dairy complex lipids improve in vitro measures of small intestinal epithelial barrier integrity.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190839, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation is essential for absorbing nutrients and preventing pathogens and toxins from entering the body. Compared to breast-fed infants, formula-fed infants are more susceptible to barrier dysfunction-associated illnesses. In infant formula dairy lipids are usually replaced with plant lipids. We hypothesised that dairy complex lipids improve in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. We tested milkfat high in conjugated linoleic acid, beta serum (SureStart™Lipid100), beta serum concentrate (BSC) and a ganglioside-rich fraction (G600). Using Caco-2 cells as a model of the human small intestinal epithelium, we analysed the effects of the ingredients on trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), mannitol flux, and tight junction protein co-localisation. BSC induced a dose-dependent improvement in TEER across unchallenged cell layers, maintained the co-localisation of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells with increased permeability, and mitigated the TEER-reducing effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). G600 also increased TEER across healthy and LPS-challenged cells, but it did not alter the co-location of tight junction proteins in TNFα-challenged cells. SureStart™Lipid100 had similar TEER-increasing effects to BSC when added at twice the concentration (similar lipid concentration). Ultimately, this research aims to contribute to the development of infant formulas supplemented with dairy complex lipids that support infant intestinal barrier maturation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos
Lipídeos/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Transporte Biológico
Células CACO-2
Bovinos
Indústria de Laticínios
Seres Humanos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia
Intestino Delgado/fisiologia
Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lipids); 0 (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190839


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[PMID]:29263291
[Au] Autor:Coyne L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Leahurst Campus, Chester High Road, Neston CH64 7TE, UK.
[Ti] Título:Antimicrobial use in dairy cattle: 'what gets measured gets improved'.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;181(25):681-682, 2017 12 23.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos
Anti-Infecciosos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Doenças dos Bovinos
Indústria de Laticínios
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Anti-Infective Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.j5788


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[PMID]:29346399
[Au] Autor:Rørvang MV; Herskin MS; Jensen MB
[Ad] Endereço:Aarhus University, Department of Animal Science, Tjele, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191128, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento Animal
Indústria de Laticínios
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Feminino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191128



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