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[PMID]:29458662
[Au] Autor:Li W; Ten LN; Lee SY; Kang IK; Jung HY
[Ad] Endereço:1​School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea.
[Ti] Título:Spirosoma horti sp. nov., isolated from apple orchard soil.
[So] Source:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol;68(3):930-935, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1466-5034
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A Gram-negative, motile by gliding, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated S7-3-19 , was isolated from apple orchard soil in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, Republic of Korea, and characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that strain S7-3-19 belonged to the family Cytophagaceae and was most closely related to Spirosoma linguale DSM 74 (96.38 %), Spirosoma fluviale MSd3 (96.38 %), Spirosoma pulveris JSH5-14 (96.35 %) and Spirosoma radiotolerans DG5A (96.24 %). Chemotaxonomic characteristics supported the classification of strain S7-3-19 within the genus Spirosoma. Summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c; 46.7 %) and C16 : 1ω5c (23.8 %) were the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminophospholipid, an unidentified phospholipid and two unidentified lipids were the major polar lipids. Menaquinone with seven isoprene units was the predominant respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain S7-3-19 was 48.6 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic properties, genotypic distinctiveness and chemotaxonomic features, strain S7-3-19 represents a novel species of the genus Spirosoma, for which the name Spirosomahorti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S7-3-19 (=KCTC 52728 =JCM 32131 ).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cytophagaceae/classificação
Fazendas
Malus
Filogenia
Microbiologia do Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana
Composição de Bases
Cytophagaceae/genética
Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Ácidos Graxos/química
Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química
Fosfolipídeos/química
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
República da Coreia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
Vitamina K 2/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Phosphatidylethanolamines); 0 (Phospholipids); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 11032-49-8 (Vitamin K 2); 39382-08-6 (phosphatidylethanolamine); 8427BML8NY (vitamin MK 7)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.002614


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[PMID]:29458546
[Au] Autor:Cui MD; Wang X; Jiang WK; Hu G; Yang ZG; Sun GJ; Zhu SJ; Zhou YD; Hong Q
[Ad] Endereço:1​Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of life sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Pedobacter agrisoli sp. nov., isolated from farmland soil.
[So] Source:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol;68(3):886-891, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1466-5034
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped bacterium, designated YHM-9 , was isolated from soil in Yangquan, Shanxi Province, PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YHM-9 belonged to the genus Pedobacter and shared the highest similarity (97.4 %) to the type strain Pedobacter lignilitoris W-WS13 . Strain YHM-9 exhibited low DNA-DNA relatedness with P. lignilitoris W-WS13 (21.7±1.3 %). The DNA G+C content was 38.9 mol%. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The respiratory quinone was MK-7, the major polyamine was sym-homospermidine and the major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain YHM-9 was recognized as a representative of a novel species within the genus Pedobacter, for which the name Pedobacteragrisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YHM-9 (=JCM 32093 =CCTCC AB 2017125 ).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fazendas
Pedobacter/classificação
Filogenia
Microbiologia do Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana
Composição de Bases
China
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Ácidos Graxos/química
Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico
Pedobacter/genética
Pedobacter/isolamento & purificação
Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Espermidina/análogos & derivados
Espermidina/química
Vitamina K 2/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Phosphatidylethanolamines); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 0IJ25X1H4R (sym-homospermidine); 11032-49-8 (Vitamin K 2); 39382-08-6 (phosphatidylethanolamine); U87FK77H25 (Spermidine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.002604


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[PMID]:29458527
[Au] Autor:Jiang WK; Lu MY; Cui MD; Wang X; Wang H; Yang ZG; Zhu SJ; Zhou YD; Hu G; Hong Q
[Ad] Endereço:1​Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environmental Microbiology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of life sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China.
[Ti] Título:Terrimonas soli sp. nov., isolated from farmland soil.
[So] Source:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol;68(3):819-823, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1466-5034
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterium that produced yellow viscous colonies, designated FL-8 , was isolated from farmland soil in Chuzhou, Anhui province, PR China. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain FL-8 and the type strains of species of the genus Terrimonas with validly published names ranged from 94.6 to 96.1 %. Strain FL-8 contained iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the predominant fatty acids. The predominant polar lipid of strain FL-8 was phosphatidylethanolamine. The sole respiratory quinone of strain FL-8 was MK-7 and the DNA G+C content was 44.8 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, strain FL-8 is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Terrimonas, for which the name Terrimonassoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FL-8 (=CCTCC AB 2017059 =JCM 32095 ).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bacteroidetes/classificação
Fazendas
Filogenia
Microbiologia do Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana
Bacteroidetes/genética
Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação
Composição de Bases
China
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Ácidos Graxos/química
Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química
Pigmentação
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados
Vitamina K 2/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Phosphatidylethanolamines); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 11032-49-8 (Vitamin K 2); 39382-08-6 (phosphatidylethanolamine); 8427BML8NY (vitamin MK 7)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.002590


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[PMID]:29263292
[Au] Autor:Hyde RM; Remnant JG; Bradley AJ; Breen JE; Hudson CD; Davies PL; Clarke T; Critchell Y; Hylands M; Linton E; Wood E; Green MJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
[Ti] Título:Quantitative analysis of antimicrobial use on British dairy farms.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;181(25):683, 2017 12 23.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Antimicrobial resistance has been reported to represent a growing threat to both human and animal health, and concerns have been raised around levels of antimicrobial usage (AMU) within the livestock industry. To provide a benchmark for dairy cattle AMU and identify factors associated with high AMU, data from a convenience sample of 358 dairy farms were analysed using both mass-based and dose-based metrics following standard methodologies proposed by the European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption project. Metrics calculated were mass (mg) of antimicrobial active ingredient per population correction unit (mg/PCU), defined daily doses (DDDvet) and defined course doses (DCDvet). AMU on dairy farms ranged from 0.36 to 97.79 mg/PCU, with a median and mean of 15.97 and 20.62 mg/PCU, respectively. Dose-based analysis ranged from 0.05 to 20.29 DDDvet, with a median and mean of 4.03 and 4.60 DDDvet, respectively. Multivariable analysis highlighted that usage of antibiotics via oral and footbath routes increased the odds of a farm being in the top quartile (>27.9 mg/PCU) of antimicrobial users. While dairy cattle farm AMU appeared to be lower than UK livestock average, there were a selection of outlying farms with extremely high AMU, with the top 25 per cent of farms contributing greater than 50 per cent of AMU by mass. Identification of these high use farms may enable targeted AMU reduction strategies and facilitate a significant reduction in overall dairy cattle AMU.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
Indústria de Laticínios
Fazendas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Bovinos
Seres Humanos
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/vr.104614


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[PMID]:28454589
[Au] Autor:Beyene T; Hayishe H; Gizaw F; Beyi AF; Abunna F; Mammo B; Ayana D; Waktole H; Abdi RD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Addis Ababa University, Bishoftu, Ethiopia. takele.beyene@aau.edu.et.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus in dairy farms, abattoir and humans in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
[So] Source:BMC Res Notes;10(1):171, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1756-0500
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus species cause mastitis and wound infection in livestock and food poisoning in humans through ingestion of contaminated foods, including meat and dairy products. They are evolving pathogens in that they readily acquire drug resistance, and multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates are increasing in human and veterinary healthcare. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Staphylococci and their drug resistance in dairy farms and abattoir settings of Addis Ababa. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 193 samples of milk, meat, equipment and humans working in the dairy farms and abattoir were collected (dairy farms = 72 and abattoir sources = 121). Staphylococcus isolation and identification at the species level was done according to ISO-6888-3 using biochemical characteristics. An antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted for 43 of the isolates using 15 antimicrobial agents commonly used for humans and livestock by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Staphylococcus organism were isolated from 92 (47.7%) of the total 193 samples, 50% in the dairy farms and 46.3% in the abattoir. The isolated species were S. aureus (n = 31; 16.1%), S. intermedius (n = 21; 10.9%), S. hyicus (n = 16; 8.3%), and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CNS) (n = 24; 12.4%). Gentamycin was effective drug as all isolates (n = 43; 100%) were susceptible to it and followed by kanamycin (n = 39; 90.7%). However, the majority of the isolates showed resistance to penicillin-G (95.3%), nalidixic acid (88.4%), cloxacillin (79.1%), vancomycin (65.1%) and cefoxitin (55.8%). Of the 15 S. aureus tested for drug susceptibility, 73.3% of them were phenotypically resistant to vancomycin (VRSA) and all of the 15 isolates showed multi-drug resistance (MDR) to >3 drugs. Also, all of the tested CNS (100%), S. hyicus (100%) and the majority of S. intermedius isolates (88.9%) developed MDR. CONCLUSION: Alarmingly, the Staphylococcus isolates circulating in the dairy farms and abattoir in the study area harbor MDR. High level of Staphylococcus species isolation from personnel and equipment besides food (meat and milk) samples in dairy farms and abattoir settings reveals that the hygiene practice in the dairy farm and abattoir is substandard. Prudent drug use and improved hygienic practice is recommended in the dairy farms and abattoir to safeguard the public from the risk of acquiring infections and MDR pathogenic Staphylococcus.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
Mastite Bovina/epidemiologia
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética
Saúde do Trabalhador/educação
Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
Staphylococcus/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Matadouros
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana
Bovinos
Estudos Transversais
Etiópia/epidemiologia
Fazendas
Feminino
Gentamicinas/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Canamicina/farmacologia
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia
Mastite Bovina/transmissão
Carne/microbiologia
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Leite/microbiologia
Prevalência
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão
Staphylococcus/classificação
Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Gentamicins); 59-01-8 (Kanamycin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s13104-017-2487-y


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[PMID]:29322334
[Au] Autor:Furlan JPR; Stehling EG
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. do Café S/N. Monte Alegre, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Detection of ß-lactamase encoding genes in feces, soil and water from a Brazilian pig farm.
[So] Source:Environ Monit Assess;190(2):76, 2018 Jan 10.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2959
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:ß-lactam antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of different types of infections worldwide and the resistance to these antibiotics has grown sharply, which is of great concern. Resistance to ß-lactams in gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the production of ß-lactamases, which are classified according to their functional activities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of ß-lactamases encoding genes in feces, soil, and water from a Brazilian pig farm. Different ß-lactamases encoding genes were found, including bla , bla , bla , bla , bla , and bla . The bla and bla genes have been detected in all types of samples, indicating the spread of ß-lactam resistant bacteria among farm pigs and the environment around them. These results indicate that ß-lactamase encoding genes belonging to the cloxacillinase, ESBL, and carbapenemase and they have high potential to spread in different sources, due to the fact that genes are closely related to mobile genetic elements, especially plasmids.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
Genes Bacterianos
Poluentes do Solo/análise
Poluentes da Água/análise
beta-Lactamases/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Brasil
Monitoramento Ambiental
Fazendas
Fezes/química
Suínos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Bacterial Proteins); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Water Pollutants); EC 3.5.2.6 (beta-Lactamases)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10661-017-6453-x


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Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28453114
[Au] Autor:Leal-Bohórquez AF; Castro-Osorio CM; Wintaco-Martínez LM; Villalobos R; Puerto-Castro GM
[Ad] Endereço:Instituto Nacional de Salud. Bogotá. Colombia. andres_leal@yahoo.com; ccastro@ins.gov.co; mairawm@hotmail.com; gpuerto@ins.gov.co.
[Ti] Título:[Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in workers of bovine tuberculosis sanitation farms in Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca].
[Ti] Título:Tuberculosis por Mycobacterium bovis en trabajadores de fincas en saneamiento para tuberculosis bovina, de Antioquia, Boyacá y Cundinamarca..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(5):727-737, 2016 Sep-Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective: To perform classic and molecular epidemiological surveillance of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in bovine supply chains at farms with PPD positive bovines in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca during a one-year period. Methods: Livestock farms with PPD positive bovines or buffalos were visited in the study departments according to information obtained in the "Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis bovina" (National program on bovine Tuberculosis) released by ICA (Colombian Agriculture and Livestock Institute). Data on socio-demographic information and tuberculosis risk factors associated to the occupation were collected through a survey applied to all workers at the visited farms. Sputum samples were obtained after informed consent. The sputa underwent microbiological and molecular testing to identify members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Results : Thirty-three livestock farms were visited and information of 164 workers from the bovine supply chain was collected. Staying in a PPD positive farm for more than a year, ignorance about the disease and the presence of possible vectors, like dogs and cats, were identified as possible risk factors for developing tuberculosis. No cases of tuberculosis caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis in workers of the visited farms were found. Conclusion : No cases of the disease caused by this zoonotic agent were documented in the departments of Antioquia, Boyacá and Cundinamarca.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/microbiologia
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Fazendas
Mycobacterium bovis
Tuberculose/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/diagnóstico
Animais
Gatos
Bovinos
Colômbia
Vetores de Doenças
Cães
Escolaridade
Seres Humanos
Meia-Idade
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Saneamento
Escarro/microbiologia
Tuberculose/diagnóstico
Tuberculose Bovina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27775658
[Au] Autor:Zaninelli M; Redaelli V; Tirloni E; Bernardi C; Dell'Orto V; Savoini G
[Ad] Endereço:Università Telematica San Raffaele Roma, Via di Val Cannuta 247, Rome 00166, Italy. mauro.zaninelli@unisanraffaele.gov.it.
[Ti] Título:First Results of a Detection Sensor for the Monitoring of Laying Hens Reared in a Commercial Organic Egg Production Farm Based on the Use of Infrared Technology.
[So] Source:Sensors (Basel);16(10), 2016 Oct 21.
[Is] ISSN:1424-8220
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The development of a monitoring system to identify the presence of laying hens, in a closed room of a free-range commercial organic egg production farm, was the aim of this study. This monitoring system was based on the infrared (IR) technology and had, as final target, a possible reduction of atmospheric ammonia levels and bacterial load. Tests were carried out for three weeks and involved 7 ISA (Institut de Sélection Animale) brown laying hens. The first 5 days was used to set up the detection sensor, while the other 15 days were used to evaluate the accuracy of the resulting monitoring system, in terms of sensitivity and specificity. The setup procedure included the evaluation of different color background (CB) thresholds, used to discriminate the information contents of the thermographic images. At the end of this procedure, a CB threshold equal to an increase of 3 °C from the floor temperature was chosen, and a cutoff level of 196 colored pixels was identified as the threshold to use to classify a positive case. The results of field tests showed that the developed monitoring system reached a fine detection accuracy (sensitivity = 97.9% and specificity = 94.9%) and the IR technology proved to be a possible solution for the development of a detection sensor necessary to reach the scope of this study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
Ovos
Espectrofotometria Infravermelho/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
Animais
Galinhas
Fazendas
Feminino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29346406
[Au] Autor:Aleza K; Villamor GB; Nyarko BK; Wala K; Akpagana K
[Ad] Endereço:West African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL) Graduate Research Programme, School of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.
[Ti] Título:Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn C. F.) fruit yield assessment and management by farm households in the Atacora district of Benin.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190234, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn C. F.), or shea tree, remains one of the most valuable trees for farmers in the Atacora district of northern Benin, where rural communities depend on shea products for both food and income. To optimize productivity and management of shea agroforestry systems, or "parklands," accurate and up-to-date data are needed. For this purpose, we monitored120 fruiting shea trees for two years under three land-use scenarios and different soil groups in Atacora, coupled with a farm household survey to elicit information on decision making and management practices. To examine the local pattern of shea tree productivity and relationships between morphological factors and yields, we used a randomized branch sampling method and applied a regression analysis to build a shea yield model based on dendrometric, soil and land-use variables. We also compared potential shea yields based on farm household socio-economic characteristics and management practices derived from the survey data. Soil and land-use variables were the most important determinants of shea fruit yield. In terms of land use, shea trees growing on farmland plots exhibited the highest yields (i.e., fruit quantity and mass) while trees growing on Lixisols performed better than those of the other soil group. Contrary to our expectations, dendrometric parameters had weak relationships with fruit yield regardless of land-use and soil group. There is an inter-annual variability in fruit yield in both soil groups and land-use type. In addition to observed inter-annual yield variability, there was a high degree of variability in production among individual shea trees. Furthermore, household socioeconomic characteristics such as road accessibility, landholding size, and gross annual income influence shea fruit yield. The use of fallow areas is an important land management practice in the study area that influences both conservation and shea yield.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ericales
Fazendas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Benin
Características da Família
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180119
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190234


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[PMID]:29274798
[Au] Autor:Velasco H; Astorga RT; Joseph D; Antoine JS; Mabit L; Toloza A; Dercon G; Walling DE
[Ad] Endereço:GEA - Grupo de Estudios Ambientales - Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San Luis (IMASL) - Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, CCT-San Luis, San Luis, Argentina. Electronic address: rh.velasco@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Adapting the Caesium-137 technique to document soil redistribution rates associated with traditional cultivation practices in Haiti.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;183:7-16, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Large-scale deforestation, intensive land use and unfavourable rainfall conditions are responsible for significant continuous degradation of the Haitian uplands. To develop soil conservation strategies, simple and cost-effective methods are needed to assess rates of soil loss from farmland in Haiti. The fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ( Cs) provides one such means of documenting medium-term soil redistribution rates. In this contribution, the authors report the first use in Haiti of Cs measurements to document soil redistribution rates and the associated pattern of erosion/sedimentation rates along typical hillslopes within a traditional upland Haitian farming area. The local Cs reference inventory, measured at an adjacent undisturbed flat area, was 670 Bq m (SD = 100 Bq m , CV = 15%, n = 7). Within the study area, where cultivation commenced in 1992 after deforestation, three representative downslope transects were sampled. These were characterized by Cs inventories ranging from 190 to 2200 Bq m . Although, the study area was cultivated by the local farmers, the Cs depth distributions obtained from the area differed markedly from those expected from a cultivated area. They showed little evidence of tillage mixing within the upper part of the soil or, more particularly, of the near-uniform activities normally associated with the plough layer or cultivation horizon. They were very similar to that found at the reference site and were characterized by high Cs activities at the surface and much lower activities at greater depths. This situation is thought to reflect the traditional manual tillage practices which cause limited disturbance and mixing of the upper part of the soil. It precluded the use of the conversion models normally used to estimate soil redistribution rates from Cs measurements on cultivated soils and the Diffusion and Migration conversion model frequently used for uncultivated soils was modified for application to the cultivated soils of the study area, in order to take account of the unusual local conditions. The model was also modified to take account of the fact that cultivation in the study area commenced in 1992, rather than predating the period of weapons test fallout which extended from the mid 1950s to the 1970s. Erosion rates on the upper parts of the hillside involved in the study were found to be relatively high and ca. -23 t ha y with low spatial variability. In the lower, flatter areas at the bottom of the slope, deposition occurred. Deposition rates were characterized by high spatial variability, ranging from 6.0 to 71 t ha y . Soil redistribution rates of this magnitude are a cause for concern and there is an urgent need to implement soil conservation measures to ensure the longer-term sustainability of the local agricultural practices.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Agricultura/métodos
Radioisótopos de Césio/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Fazendas
Haiti
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cesium Radioisotopes); 0 (Cesium-137); 0 (Soil Pollutants, Radioactive)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180130
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180130
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171225
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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