Base de dados : MEDLINE
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[PMID]:29500234
[Au] Autor:Kapilashrami A; Schrecker T
[Ad] Endereço:University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK anuj.kapilashrami@ed.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Global Health Watch: Challenging entrenched ideas in global health.
[So] Source:BMJ;360:k956, 2018 03 02.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Saúde Global
Mudança Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Política de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.k956


  2 / 33775 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29431340
[Au] Autor:Kenessaryiev UI; Yerzhanova AE; Kenessary DU; Kenessary AU
[Ti] Título:[Trends of change in demographic indices of population in the area of oil and gas deposits of the republic of Kazakhstan].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(10):946-9, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:According to assured resources of hydrocarbons the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) is among ten largest oil countries in the world, trailing only some states of the Middle East, Latin America, as well Russia and the USA. Public health state is the one of most important indices of social development, the manifestation of the economic and sanitaryhygienic welfare, as well as national defense capability and cultural potential of the state. In relation with the intensive development of oil and gas fields the problems of environmental protection and healthcare of the population in these regions occur critically. Therefore, it causes keen interest both from the side of researches and practical health care workers. Rapid development of the oil and gas industry leads to changes in a medical and demographic situation of given regions that is related both with the natural migration of the population and other migratory processes. According to data of the Ministry of Energetics and natural resources of RK, the Karachaganak oil-gas condensate deposit is considered to be the one of the largest in the world. For the next 40 years, the field is becoming the stable financial donor of the country. Currently Karachaganak field is considered to be the one of the largest investment projects in Kazakhstan. The studied oil and gas condensate field is located in the Burlin district of West Kazakhstan region, which is 140 km far from the city of Uralsk and 160 km far from the city of Orenburg. The field was discovered in 1984.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos
Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/organização & administração
Saúde Pública
Regionalização/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Nível de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Desenvolvimento Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos
Cazaquistão/epidemiologia
Mortalidade
Campos de Petróleo e Gás
Dinâmica Populacional
Saúde Pública/métodos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 33775 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29414999
[Au] Autor:Carranza S; Xipell M; Tarroso P; Gardner A; Arnold EN; Robinson MD; Simó-Riudalbas M; Vasconcelos R; de Pous P; Amat F; Smíd J; Sindaco R; Metallinou M; Els J; Pleguezuelos JM; Machado L; Donaire D; Martínez G; Garcia-Porta J; Mazuch T; Wilms T; Gebhart J; Aznar J; Gallego J; Zwanzig BM; Fernández-Guiberteau D; Papenfuss T; Al Saadi S; Alghafri A; Khalifa S; Al Farqani H; Bait Bilal S; Alazri IS; Al Adhoobi AS; Al Omairi ZS; Al Shariani M; Al Kiyumi A; Al Sariri T; Al Shukaili AS; Al Akhzami SN
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, Barcelona, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata).
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190389, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the present work, we use an exceptional database including 5,359 records of 101 species of Oman's terrestrial reptiles together with spatial tools to infer the spatial patterns of species richness and endemicity, to infer the habitat preference of each species and to better define conservation priorities, with especial focus on the effectiveness of the protected areas in preserving this unique arid fauna. Our results indicate that the sampling effort is not only remarkable from a taxonomic point of view, with multiple observations for most species, but also for the spatial coverage achieved. The observations are distributed almost continuously across the two-dimensional climatic space of Oman defined by the mean annual temperature and the total annual precipitation and across the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the multivariate climatic space and are well represented within 17 out of the 20 climatic clusters grouping 10% of the explained climatic variance defined by PC1 and PC2. Species richness is highest in the Hajar and Dhofar Mountains, two of the most biodiverse areas of the Arabian Peninsula, and endemic species richness is greatest in the Jebel Akhdar, the highest part of the Hajar Mountains. Oman's 22 protected areas cover only 3.91% of the country, including within their limits 63.37% of terrestrial reptiles and 50% of all endemics. Our analyses show that large areas of the climatic space of Oman lie outside protected areas and that seven of the 20 climatic clusters are not protected at all. The results of the gap analysis indicate that most of the species are below the conservation target of 17% or even the less restrictive 12% of their total area within a protected area in order to be considered adequately protected. Therefore, an evaluation of the coverage of the current network of protected areas and the identification of priority protected areas for reptiles using reserve design algorithms are urgently needed. Our study also shows that more than half of the species are still pending of a definitive evaluation by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biodiversidade
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Répteis/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Clima
Ecossistema
Omã
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190389


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[PMID]:29415031
[Au] Autor:Tensen L; Groom RJ; Khuzwayo J; Jansen van Vuuren B
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Ecological Genomics and Wildlife Conservation, Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:The genetic tale of a recovering lion population (Panthera leo) in the Savé Valley region (Zimbabwe): A better understanding of the history and managing the future.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190369, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The rapid decline of the African lion (Panthera leo) has raised conservation concerns. In the Savé Valley Conservancy (SVC), in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe, lions were presumably reduced to approximately 5 to 10 individuals. After ten lions were reintroduced in 2005, the population has recovered to over 200 lions in 2016. Although the increase of lions in the SVC seems promising, a question remains whether the population is genetically viable, considering their small founding population. In this study, we document the genetic diversity in the SVC lion population using both mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and compare our results to literature from other lion populations across Africa. We also tested whether genetic diversity is spatially structured between lion populations residing on several reserves in the Lowveld of Zimbabwe. A total of 42 lions were genotyped successfully for 11 microsatellite loci. We confirmed that the loss of allelic richness (probably resulting from genetic drift and small number of founders) has resulted in low genetic diversity and inbreeding. The SVC lion population was also found to be genetically differentiated from surrounding population, as a result of genetic drift and restricted natural dispersal due to anthropogenic barriers. From a conservation perspective, it is important to avoid further loss of genetic variability in the SVC lion population and maintain evolutionary potential required for future survival. Genetic restoration through the introduction of unrelated individuals is recommended, as this will increase genetic heterozygosity and improve survival and reproductive fitness in populations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Leões/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Zimbábue
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190369


  5 / 33775 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29381762
[Au] Autor:Villaseñor-Derbez JC; Faro C; Wright M; Martínez J; Fitzgerald S; Fulton S; Mancha-Cisneros MDM; McDonald G; Micheli F; Suárez A; Torre J; Costello C
[Ad] Endereço:Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:A user-friendly tool to evaluate the effectiveness of no-take marine reserves.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191821, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Marine reserves are implemented to achieve a variety of objectives, but are seldom rigorously evaluated to determine whether those objectives are met. In the rare cases when evaluations do take place, they typically focus on ecological indicators and ignore other relevant objectives such as socioeconomics and governance. And regardless of the objectives, the diversity of locations, monitoring protocols, and analysis approaches hinder the ability to compare results across case studies. Moreover, analysis and evaluation of reserves is generally conducted by outside researchers, not the reserve managers or users, plausibly thereby hindering effective local management and rapid response to change. We present a framework and tool, called "MAREA", to overcome these challenges. Its purpose is to evaluate the extent to which any given reserve has achieved its stated objectives. MAREA provides specific guidance on data collection and formatting, and then conducts rigorous causal inference analysis based on data input by the user, providing real-time outputs about the effectiveness of the reserve. MAREA's ease of use, standardization of state-of-the-art inference methods, and ability to analyze marine reserve effectiveness across ecological, socioeconomic, and governance objectives could dramatically further our understanding and support of effective marine reserve management.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Água do Mar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
Biologia Marinha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191821


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[PMID]:29258497
[Au] Autor:Granroth-Wilding H; Primmer C; Lindqvist M; Poutanen J; Thalmann O; Aspi J; Harmoinen J; Kojola I; Laaksonen T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. hanna@granroth-wilding.co.uk.
[Ti] Título:Non-invasive genetic monitoring involving citizen science enables reconstruction of current pack dynamics in a re-establishing wolf population.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):44, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Carnivores are re-establishing in many human-populated areas, where their presence is often contentious. Reaching consensus on management decisions is often hampered by a dispute over the size of the local carnivore population. Understanding the reproductive dynamics and individual movements of the carnivores can provide support for management decisions, but individual-level information can be difficult to obtain from elusive, wide-ranging species. Non-invasive genetic sampling can yield such information, but makes subsequent reconstruction of population history challenging due to incomplete population coverage and error-prone data. Here, we combine a collaborative, volunteer-based sampling scheme with Bayesian pedigree reconstruction to describe the pack dynamics of an establishing grey wolf (Canis lupus) population in south-west Finland, where wolf breeding was recorded in 2006 for the first time in over a century. RESULTS: Using DNA extracted mainly from faeces collected since 2008, we identified 81 individual wolves and assigned credible full parentages to 70 of these and partial parentages to a further 9, revealing 7 breeding pairs. Individuals used a range of strategies to obtain breeding opportunities, including dispersal to established or new packs, long-distance migration and inheriting breeding roles. Gene flow occurred between all packs but inbreeding events were rare. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that characterizing ongoing pack dynamics can provide detailed, locally-relevant insight into the ecology of contentious species such as the wolf. Involving various stakeholders in data collection makes these results more likely to be accepted as unbiased and hence reliable grounds for management decisions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Fluxo Gênico
Lobos/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Teorema de Bayes
Coleta de Dados
Feminino
Finlândia
Masculino
Linhagem
Dinâmica Populacional
Lobos/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0154-8


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[PMID]:28741747
[Au] Autor:Carroll C; Hartl B; Goldman GT; Rohlf DJ; Treves A; Kerr JT; Ritchie EG; Kingsford RT; Gibbs KE; Maron M; Watson JEM
[Ad] Endereço:Klamath Center for Conservation Research, Orleans, CA, 95556, U.S.A.
[Ti] Título:Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.
[So] Source:Conserv Biol;31(5):967-975, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1739
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Formulação de Políticas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Canadá
Seres Humanos
Políticas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180310
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180310
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cobi.12958


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[PMID]:28464290
[Au] Autor:Connell SD; Fernandes M; Burnell OW; Doubleday ZA; Griffin KJ; Irving AD; Leung JYS; Owen S; Russell BD; Falkenberg LJ
[Ad] Endereço:Southern Seas Ecology Laboratories, School of Biological Sciences and The Environment Institute, North Terrace, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Testing for thresholds of ecosystem collapse in seagrass meadows.
[So] Source:Conserv Biol;31(5):1196-1201, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:1523-1739
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the public desire for healthy environments is clear-cut, the science and management of ecosystem health has not been as simple. Ecological systems can be dynamic and can shift abruptly from one ecosystem state to another. Such unpredictable shifts result when ecological thresholds are crossed; that is, small cumulative increases in an environmental stressor drive a much greater change than could be predicted from linear effects, suggesting an unforeseen tipping point is crossed. In coastal waters, broad-scale seagrass loss often occurs as a sudden event associated with human-driven nutrient enrichment (eutrophication). We tested whether the response of seagrass ecosystems to coastal nutrient enrichment is subject to a threshold effect. We exposed seagrass plots to different levels of nutrient enrichment (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) for 10 months and measured net production. Seagrass response exhibited a threshold pattern when nutrient enrichment exceeded moderate levels: there was an abrupt and large shift from positive to negative net leaf production (from approximately 0.04 leaf production to 0.02 leaf loss per day). Epiphyte load also increased as nutrient enrichment increased, which may have driven the shift in leaf production. Inadvertently crossing such thresholds, as can occur through ineffective management of land-derived inputs such as wastewater and stormwater runoff along urbanized coasts, may account for the widely observed sudden loss of seagrass meadows. Identification of tipping points may improve not only adaptive-management monitoring that seeks to avoid threshold effects, but also restoration approaches in systems that have crossed them.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ecossistema
Eutrofização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Oceanos e Mares
Poaceae
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180310
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180310
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/cobi.12951


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[PMID]:29193832
[Au] Autor:Kurth M; Fox-Lent C; Golan M; Linkov I
[Ad] Endereço:Contractor, US Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, Mississippi.
[Ti] Título:Decision making for independent municipal action.
[So] Source:Integr Environ Assess Manag;14(2):194-197, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1551-3793
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Municipalities and cities face myriad challenges with regard to planning; decisions that will have long-standing consequences need to be made in the context of pressing present concerns, constrained budgets, and uncertainty about the future under climate changes. Compounding the challenge may be a lack of clear signals from the state and federal leadership on investment priorities. This paper contends that existing strategies from decision science can prove useful for local governments as they seek actions that are robust despite uncertain futures and broadly beneficial across sectors and time horizons. An illustrative example of decision making with scenario analysis demonstrates how a city can prioritize funding and elevate the baseline functionality of its infrastructure and the well-being of its residents, regardless of when and how climate hazards occur. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:194-197. Published 2017. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cidades
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Monitoramento Ambiental
Política Ambiental
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Mudança Climática
Tomada de Decisões
Seres Humanos
Incerteza
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ieam.2013


  10 / 33775 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29193745
[Au] Autor:Park DJ
[Ad] Endereço:Communications Department, Florida International University, North Miami, Florida, USA.
[Ti] Título:United States news media and climate change in the era of US President Trump.
[So] Source:Integr Environ Assess Manag;14(2):202-204, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1551-3793
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Donald J Trump administration's strategy to disengage and downplay the Paris Climate Agreement will likely result in a slight decrease in the already low levels of US news media global warming coverage. This is because significant limitations with the news media's ability to adequately cover climate change predated the administration. First, studies indicate that advertising interests and editors have always challenged journalists' abilities to adequately report on climate change issues. Instead of climate change stories, editors often prefer more sensational topics that garner higher ratings and approval with advertisers. Second, the journalistic norm of balance and the role of sourcing give climate skeptics exceptional media exposure, which creates a "false balance" or equivalency between skeptics and scientists. Third, the massive power and influence of the fossil fuel industry's public relations arm has also had a tremendous impact on public (mis)understanding of climate change. Fourth, a trend toward declining climate change coverage and "climate silence" in US media is developing. Media corporations have substantially eliminated the number of environmental journalists that cover climate change. The overall effect of these limitations distorts public understanding of climate change and delays potential government action. Moving away from a predominantly commercial media system to one with a substantial noncommercial component can improve US journalism, whereas using advertising to increase rates for environmentally unsound products and services may also help mitigate global warming. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:202-204. © 2018 SETAC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Aquecimento Global
Meios de Comunicação de Massa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunicação
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Política Ambiental
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ieam.2011



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