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[PMID]:29430905
[Au] Autor:Sbitnev AV; Vodianova MA; Kriatov IA; Donerian LG; Evseeva IS; Ushakova OV; Ushakov DI; Matveeva IS; Rodionova OM
[Ti] Título:[Methodological aspects of the assessment of phytotoxicic properties of ice-melter reagents].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(8):773-8, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:One of the main criteria which determine the possibility of the use of a particular type of ice-melter reagents (IMR) is the degree of their safety for the environment and human health, which is reflected in the establishment of safe doses and concentrations. In this regard, the current area of research is to improve the ecological and epidemiological principles of risk assessment of modern types of anti-icing agents. Currently available data concerning monitoring soil studies and the snow held in various cities of Russia, show that there is a process of accumulation of the main components of IMR - sodium and chlorine ions in the areas related to the roadway. The article is designated a problem of existing methodological approaches to the assessment of the phytotoxic impact in the investigation of anti-icing agents in the laboratory. There was executed the comparative characteristics of the results of the preliminary pilot studies on the phytotoxic properties of IMR under using different substrates for germination of seeds - soil and filter paper. The data obtained are characterized by differences in the degree of phytotoxic action of the same species depending upon ice-melter reagents methodical setting circuit laboratory experiment. As a result, there was shown the imperfection of the existing method of rapid analysis in relation to ice-melter materials (IMM).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Congelamento
Gelo
Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
Neve
Cloreto de Sódio
Poluentes do Solo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Poluição Ambiental/análise
Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
Seres Humanos
Federação Russa
Cloreto de Sódio/química
Cloreto de Sódio/toxicidade
Poluentes do Solo/química
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Solventes/química
Fenômenos Toxicológicos
Transportes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ice); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Solvents); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29335362
[Au] Autor:Hu G; Yin D
[Ad] Endereço:Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
[Ti] Título:China: a return to the "kingdom of bicycles"?
[So] Source:BMJ;360:k94, 2018 01 15.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ciclismo
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: China
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.k94


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[PMID]:27776000
[Au] Autor:Oyeyemi AL; Conway TL; Adedoyin RA; Akinroye KK; Aryeetey R; Assah F; Cain KL; Gavand KA; Kasoma SS; Kolbe-Alexander TL; Lambert EV; Larouche R; Moss SJ; Ocansey R; Onywera VO; Prista A; Tremblay MS; Sallis JF
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, NIGERIA; 2Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, SOUTH AFRICA; 3Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, CA; 4Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NIGERIA; 5Nigerian Heart Foundation, Lagos, NIGERIA; 6School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon Accra, GHANA; 7Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Public Health, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CAMEROON; 8Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biosciences, Makerere University, Kampala, UGANDA; 9Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA; 10Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA; 11Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, CANADA; 12Active Living and Wellness Alliance Group, Nungua, GHANA; 13Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, KENYA; 14Physical Activity and Health Research Group, CIDAF-FEFF, Universidade Pedagogica, Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE; and 15Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CANADA.
[Ti] Título:Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa.
[So] Source:Med Sci Sports Exerc;49(3):482-491, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0315
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, periurban, and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n = 469, 18-85 yr, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: The overall "walkability" index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (η = 0.020, P = 0.005) and recreation (η = 0.013, P = 0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger danger scales were positively related with transport walking (η = 0.020, P = 0.006 and η = 0.021, P = 0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (η = 0.016, P = 0.015), road/path connectivity (η = 0.025, P = 0.002), path infrastructure (η = 0.021, P = 0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (η = 0.012, P = 0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly nonsignificant except for South Africa and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Of 14 NEWS-Africa scales, 7 were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than those from other continents. Further study with larger and more diverse samples is needed to determine whether the instrument performs well in each country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento Ambiental
Distribuição Espacial da População
Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Recreação
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Autorrelato
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001131


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[PMID]:29293686
[Au] Autor:Tang J; Heinimann HR
[Ad] Endereço:ETH Zurich, Future Resilient Systems, Singapore-ETH Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
[Ti] Título:A resilience-oriented approach for quantitatively assessing recurrent spatial-temporal congestion on urban roads.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190616, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Traffic congestion brings not only delay and inconvenience, but other associated national concerns, such as greenhouse gases, air pollutants, road safety issues and risks. Identification, measurement, tracking, and control of urban recurrent congestion are vital for building a livable and smart community. A considerable amount of works has made contributions to tackle the problem. Several methods, such as time-based approaches and level of service, can be effective for characterizing congestion on urban streets. However, studies with systemic perspectives have been minor in congestion quantification. Resilience, on the other hand, is an emerging concept that focuses on comprehensive systemic performance and characterizes the ability of a system to cope with disturbance and to recover its functionality. In this paper, we symbolized recurrent congestion as internal disturbance and proposed a modified metric inspired by the well-applied "R4" resilience-triangle framework. We constructed the metric with generic dimensions from both resilience engineering and transport science to quantify recurrent congestion based on spatial-temporal traffic patterns and made the comparison with other two approaches in freeway and signal-controlled arterial cases. Results showed that the metric can effectively capture congestion patterns in the study area and provides a quantitative benchmark for comparison. Also, it suggested not only a good comparative performance in measuring strength of proposed metric, but also its capability of considering the discharging process in congestion. The sensitivity tests showed that proposed metric possesses robustness against parameter perturbation in Robustness Range (RR), but the number of identified congestion patterns can be influenced by the existence of ϵ. In addition, the Elasticity Threshold (ET) and the spatial dimension of cell-based platform differ the congestion results significantly on both the detected number and intensity. By tackling this conventional problem with emerging concept, our metric provides a systemic alternative approach and enriches the toolbox for congestion assessment. Future work will be conducted on a larger scale with multiplex scenarios in various traffic conditions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transportes
Urbanização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Modelos Teóricos
Fatores de Tempo
Viagem
Emissões de Veículos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Vehicle Emissions)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190616


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[PMID]:29293659
[Au] Autor:Alsanea M; Masuadi E; Hazwani T
[Ad] Endereço:College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
[Ti] Título:Use of child restraint system and patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190471, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. RESULTS: Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Condução de Veículo
Sistemas de Proteção para Crianças/utilização
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito
Adulto
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Arábia Saudita
Inquéritos e Questionários
Transportes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190471


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[PMID]:29406117
[Au] Autor:Phoungthong K; Shao LM; He PJ; Zhang H
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China; Institute of Waste Treatment and Reclamation, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address: khamphe@hotmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Phytotoxicity and groundwater impacts of leaching from thermal treatment residues in roadways.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);63:58-67, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The use of coal fly ash (CFA), municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) and flue gas desulfurization residue (FGDR) in road construction has become very common owing to its economical advantages. However, these residues may contain toxic constituents that pose an environmental risk if they leach out and flow through the soil, surface water and groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the ecotoxicity and groundwater impact of these residues before decisions can be made regarding their utilization for road construction. In this study, the physico-chemical characteristics, leaching and phytotoxicity of these residues were investigated. Specifically, multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the contributions of the leaching constituents of the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR leachates to the germination index of wheat seeds. B, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb were found to be more toxic to the wheat seeds than the other heavy metals. Furthermore, the leached concentrations of the constituents from the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR were below the regulatory threshold limits of the Chinese identification standard for hazardous wastes. Analyses conducted using a numerical groundwater model (WiscLEACH) indicated that the predicted field concentrations of metals from the CFA, MSWIBA and FGDR increased with time up to about 30years at the point of compliance, then decreased with time and distance. Overall, this study demonstrated that the risks resulting from MSWIBA, CFA and FGDR leaching could be assessed before its utilization for road construction, providing crucial information for the adoption of these alternative materials.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Materiais de Construção
Monitoramento Ambiental
Água Subterrânea/química
Transportes
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cinza de Carvão/química
Incineração
Metais Pesados/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coal Ash); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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Texto completo SciELO Saúde Pública
[PMID]:28453058
[Au] Autor:Temporelli KL; Viego VN
[Ad] Endereço:Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina, ktempo@criba.edu.ar.
[Ti] Título:[Socioeconomic factors conditioning obesity in adults. Evidence based on quantile regression and panel data].
[Ti] Título:Condicionantes socioeconómicos y obesidad en adultos: evidencia basada en regresiones por cuantiles y datos de panel..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(4):516-529, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objective To measure the effect of socioeconomic variables on the prevalence of obesity. Factors such as income level, urbanization, incorporation of women into the labor market and access to unhealthy foods are considered in this paper. Method Econometric estimates of the proportion of obese men and women by country were calculated using models based on panel data and quantile regressions, with data from 192 countries for the period 2002-2005.Levels of per capita income, urbanization, income/big mac ratio price and labor indicators for female population were considered as explanatory variables. Results Factors that have influence over obesity in adults differ between men and women; accessibility to fast food is related to male obesity, while the employment mode causes higher rates in women. The underlying socioeconomic factors for obesity are also different depending on the magnitude of this problem in each country; in countries with low prevalence, a greater level of income favor the transition to obesogenic habits, while a higher income level mitigates the problem in those countries with high rates of obesity. Discussion Identifying the socio-economic causes of the significant increase in the prevalence of obesity is essential for the implementation of effective strategies for prevention, since this condition not only affects the quality of life of those who suffer from it but also puts pressure on health systems due to the treatment costs of associated diseases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Obesidade/epidemiologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Fast Foods/provisão & distribuição
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Renda
Masculino
Obesidade/economia
Qualidade de Vida
Fatores Sexuais
Classe Social
Transportes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28453033
[Au] Autor:Hormiga-Sánchez CM; Alzate-Posada ML; Borrell C; Palència L; Rodríguez-Villamizar LA; Otero-Wandurraga JA
[Ad] Endereço:Universidad Nacional de Colombia, , cmhormigas@unal.edu.co.
[Ti] Título:[Occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity: gender inequalities in Santander, Colombia].
[Ti] Título:Actividad física ocupacional, de transporte y de tiempo libre: Desigualdades según género en Santander, Colombia..
[So] Source:Rev Salud Publica (Bogota);18(2):201-213, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:0124-0064
[Cp] País de publicação:Colombia
[La] Idioma:spa
[Ab] Resumo:Objectives To estimate the prevalence of occupation-, transportation- and leisure-related physical activity, its compliance with recommendations, and to explore its association with demographic and socioeconomic variables in men and women of the Department of Santander (Colombia). Methods The sample consisted of 2421 people between 15 and 64 years of age, participants in the Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases of Santander cross-sectional study, developed in 2010. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for data collection. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated and multivariate analysis models were built by sex using robust Poisson regression. Results The prevalence of occupational and leisure physical activity and compliance with recommendations were lower in women. Sexual division of labor and a low socioeconomic level negatively influenced physical activity in women, limiting the possibility of practice of those principally engaged in unpaid work at home. Young or single men and those living in higher socioeconomic areas were more likely to practice physical activity in leisure time and meet recommendations. Conclusion Physical activity surveillance and related public policies should take into account the inequalities between the practice of men and women related to their socioeconomic conditions and the sexual division of labor.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exercício
Atividades de Lazer
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Colômbia
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Análise Multivariada
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos
Distribuição de Poisson
Fatores Sexuais
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29249477
[Au] Autor:Cepeda M; Schoufour J; Freak-Poli R; Koolhaas CM; Dhana K; Bramer WM; Franco OH
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: m.cepedagil@erasmusmc.nl.
[Ti] Título:Levels of ambient air pollution according to mode of transport: a systematic review.
[So] Source:Lancet Public Health;2(1):e23-e34, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2468-2667
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Controversy exists about the differences in air pollution exposure and inhalation dose between mode of transport. We aimed to review air pollution exposure and inhaled dose according to mode of transport and pollutant and their effect in terms of years of life expectancy (YLE). METHODS: In this systematic review, we searched ten online databases from inception to April 13, 2016, without language or temporal restrictions, for cohort, cross-sectional, and experimental studies that compared exposure to carbon monoxide, black carbon, nitrogen dioxide, and fine and coarse particles in active commuters (pedestrian or cyclist) and commuters using motorised transport (car, motorcycle, bus, or massive motorised transport [MMT-ie, train, subway, or metro]). We excluded studies that measured air pollution exposure exclusively with biomarkers or on the basis of simulated data, reviews, comments, consensuses, editorials, guidelines, in-vitro studies, meta-analyses, ecological studies, and protocols. We extracted average exposure and commuting time per mode of transport and pollutant to calculate inhaled doses. We calculated exposure and inhaled dose ratios using active commuters as the reference and summarised them with medians and IQRs. We also calculated differences in YLE due to fine particle inhaled dose and physical activity. FINDINGS: We identified 4037 studies, of which 39 were included in the systematic review. Overall, car commuters had higher exposure to all pollutants than did active commuters in 30 (71%) of 42 comparisons (median ratio 1·22 [IQR 0·90-1·76]), followed by those who commuted by bus in 57 (52%) of 109 (1·0 [0·79-1·41]), by motorcycle in 16 (50%) of 32 (0·99 [0·86-1·38]), by a car with controlled ventilation settings in 39 (45%) of 86 (0·95 [0·66-1·54]), and by MMT in 21 (38%) of 55 (0·67 [0·49-1·13]). Overall, active commuters had higher inhalation doses than did commuters using motorised transport (median ratio car with controlled ventilation settings 0·16 [0·10-0·28]; car 0·22 [0·15-0·30]; motorcycle 0·38 [0·26-0·78]; MMT 0·49 [0·34-0·81]; bus 0·72 [IQR 0·50-0·99]). Commuters using motorised transport lost up to 1 year in YLE more than did cyclists. INTERPRETATION: Proximity to traffic and high air interchange increased the exposure to air pollution of commuters using motorised transport. Larger inhalation rates and commuting time increased inhaled dose among active commuters. Benefits of active commuting from physical activity are larger than the risk from an increased inhaled dose of fine particles. FUNDING: Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación (COLCIENCIAS), National Health and Medical Research Council, Nestlé Nutrition (Nestec), Metagenics, and AXA.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluição do Ar/análise
Exposição por Inalação/análise
Transportes/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Expectativa de Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29298311
[Au] Autor:Espinosa S; Celis G; Branch LC
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México.
[Ti] Título:When roads appear jaguars decline: Increased access to an Amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189740, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Panthera
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Equador
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189740



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