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Pesquisa : J01.937.690 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29446289
[Au] Autor:Sudeikina NA; Kurenkova GV; Lemeshevskaya EP
[Ti] Título:[The impact of harmful occupational factors on the morbidity rate of workers of the railway-car repair plant].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(12):1150-4, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The rail transport is the one of the leading sectors of the national economy. More than 50% of the employees of the enterprises of the railway complex work under the unfavourable impact of hazardous and dangerous substances and occupational factors. In the literature issues of working conditions and health of employees of railway carrepairing plant are hardly highlighted. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the morbidity rate shaped under the influence of harmful occupational factors for the elaboration of preventive measures. In the work there were used generally accepted methods of hygienic studies, analysis of morbidity rate with temporary disability (TD), according to records of periodic medical examinations, occupational prevalence. The railway car-repairing plant was established to be characterized by the complex of harmful factors of the working environment and labor process: noise, local vibration, industrial aerosols of complex composition, chemicals, low light, hardness of the labor process. The levels of incidence with temporal disability in the studied groups, depending on the work seniority in the harmful labor conditions, significantly decrease with the experience from 5 to 9 years and increase with the experience more than 10 years. Executed in-depth analysis as of the both morbidity rate and TD, as well results of periodic medical examinations of workers of main shops shows that overall indices of the morbidity rate and TD are significantly higher than in the comparison group; levels of the morbidity rate and TD in the observed groups significantly decline depending on the length of service in hazardous working conditions with a length of the experience offrom 5 to 9 years and increase with the increase in the length of experience of 10 years or more. In the structure of morbidity and TD leading positions are occupied by diseases of the respiratory system, musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, circulatory system and digestive system, diseases of the eye and its appendages. The health damage risk coefficients in the studied groups of workers and the average losses of working time due to the morbidity with TD per 1 employee in all shops are higher than those in the comparison group. The level of the occupational morbidity rate is very low. Harmful working conditions contribute to the development of general and occupationally related diseases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Indústrias
Doenças Profissionais
Ferrovias
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Incidência
Indústrias/métodos
Indústrias/normas
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos
Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia
Doenças Profissionais/etiologia
Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ocupacional/análise
Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
Ferrovias/instrumentação
Ferrovias/métodos
Medição de Risco/métodos
Medição de Risco/normas
Fatores de Risco
Sibéria/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29446286
[Au] Autor:Kurenkova GV; Lemeshevskaya EP
[Ti] Título:[Formation of working conditions and the problems of hygienic assessment of industrial environmental factors in railway tunnels].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(12):1145-9, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Tunnels are an integral part of the ways and artificial constructions of the railway. Objective assessment of working conditions is important, because current regulations fail to allow to give a definite hygienic assessment of some factors of the production environment of the tunnels. Objective: to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of working conditions in railway tunnels with the subsequent hygienic assessment for the development of preventive measures. Measurement of the factors of working process and working environment is carried out with the use of the certified equipment for the approved the hygienic and sanitary-chemical methods in workplaces in tunnels of the East-Siberian railway. Specific conditions were shown to be formed due to constructive solutions, climate and geographical location, the length of railway tunnels, the composition of the rocks through which the tunnel, the nature of the maintenance tunnels, ventilation system, repetition rate and type of passing rolling stock. All employees from occupational groups from examined tunnels were established to be exposed to high concentrations of aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic action, noise levels, adverse climate (low positive and negative temperatures, high relative humidity and mobility of air), the lack of natural lighting, low levels of artificial light, hard exertion of labor (dynamic physical load, working position, the slopes of the body, movement in space). Additionally, high levels of the vibration, nonionizing and ionizing radiation were typical for jobs of the Baikal and the North-Muya tunnel. There is proposed the algorithm of hygienic assessment of the microclimate, light environment at the working places depending on the time of the works in the underground conditions and constructional features of tunnels, methods of accounting personnel dose rates from natural sources.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exposição Ocupacional
Ferrovias
Medição de Risco
Local de Trabalho
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ocupacional/análise
Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
Exposição Ocupacional/normas
Saúde Pública/métodos
Ferrovias/métodos
Ferrovias/normas
Medição de Risco/métodos
Medição de Risco/normas
Fatores de Risco
Sibéria/epidemiologia
Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
Local de Trabalho/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29480876
[Au] Autor:Tsuda K; Tanimoto T; Sakaue S; Sato T; Kouno K; Hamaki T; Hosoda K; Ohnishi M; Komatsu T; Kami M; Kusumi E
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Chiba.
[Ti] Título:Patients' demographics of a convenient clinic located in a large railway station in metropolitan Tokyo area.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(2):e9646, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Hidden barriers to visit a medical facility especially for young busy workers have been neglected in the aging society. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to analyze demographics of patients who had visited the first known convenient clinic located inside a railway station, which is adjusted to the lifestyle of working generations.We analyzed de-identified data of patients who had visited the department of internal medicine of a clinic, which is located inside a railway station building and offers primary care with after-hours accessibility in Tokyo, between August 2013 and June 2016. Data were collected on patients' sex, age, time of visit, waiting time, presence or absence of an appointment, diagnosis, and patients' addresses using the electronic health and billing records.Overall, 28,001 patients visited 87,126 times. Number of visits increased in winter season compared with the other seasons. Sixty-one percent were women and the median age of all patients was 38 years (range, 0-102). The number of visits on Mondays was the highest in a week and the most frequent visiting time was between 6 and 7 p.m. The number of visits of working generations (from 15 to 65 years old) and men increased after 6 p.m. and on weekends. The 3 most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (22,457), allergic rhinitis (20,916), and hypertension (4869). The number of individuals who were referred to other medical institutions was 1022 (1.2%). The median waiting time was 748 seconds (range, 2-5344). The number of visits from within 2-, 5-, and 10-mile radius from our clinic was 41,696 (50.6%), 63,190 (76.7%), and 75,015 (91.1%), respectively, and patients' addresses were mainly located along the railway network.The locational and temporal convenience of our clinic has attracted the unmet medical demands especially for young workers who have difficulty in visiting conventional medical institutions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/utilização
Atenção Primária à Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Emprego
Feminino
Geografia Médica
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Ferrovias
Fatores Sexuais
Fatores de Tempo
Tóquio
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180227
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000009646


  4 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28749452
[Au] Autor:Yokoshima S; Morihara T; Sato T; Yano T
[Ad] Endereço:Kanagawa Environmental Research Center, 1-3-39 Shinomiya, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 254-0014, Japan. yokoshima.7c7q@pref.kanagawa.jp.
[Ti] Título:Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;14(8), 2017 07 27.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
Ferrovias
Vibração/efeitos adversos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Afeto
Idoso
Meio Ambiente
Exposição Ambiental
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Japão
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29192613
[Au] Autor:Prendergast GP; Staff M
[Ad] Endereço:Northern Sydney Public Health Unit, Hornsby, NSW, Australia.
[Ti] Título:A Health-Based Metric for Evaluating the Effectiveness of Noise Barrier Mitigation Associated With Transport Infrastructure Noise.
[So] Source:Noise Health;19(87):51-57, 2017 Mar-Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1463-1741
[Cp] País de publicação:India
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: This study examines the use of the number of night-time sleep disturbances as a health-based metric to assess the cost effectiveness of rail noise mitigation strategies for situations, wherein high-intensity noises dominate such as freight train pass-bys and wheel squeal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty residential properties adjacent to the existing and proposed rail tracks in a noise catchment area of the Epping to Thornleigh Third Track project were used as a case study. Awakening probabilities were calculated for individual's awakening 1, 3 and 5 times a night when subjected to 10 independent freight train pass-by noise events using internal maximum sound pressure levels (LAFmax). RESULTS: Awakenings were predicted using a random intercept multivariate logistic regression model. With source mitigation in place, the majority of the residents were still predicted to be awoken at least once per night (median 88.0%), although substantial reductions in the median probabilities of awakening three and five times per night from 50.9 to 29.4% and 9.2 to 2.7%, respectively, were predicted. This resulted in a cost-effective estimate of 7.6-8.8 less people being awoken at least three times per night per A$1 million spent on noise barriers. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates that an easily understood metric can be readily used to assist making decisions related to noise mitigation for large-scale transport projects.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental
Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
Ruído dos Transportes/prevenção & controle
Ferrovias
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Materiais de Construção
Seres Humanos
New South Wales
Vibração
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_101_16


  6 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29190682
[Au] Autor:Xu G; Zhao S; Shi F; Zhang F
[Ad] Endereço:School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.
[Ti] Título:Cell transmission model of dynamic assignment for urban rail transit networks.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188874, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For urban rail transit network, the space-time flow distribution can play an important role in evaluating and optimizing the space-time resource allocation. For obtaining the space-time flow distribution without the restriction of schedules, a dynamic assignment problem is proposed based on the concept of continuous transmission. To solve the dynamic assignment problem, the cell transmission model is built for urban rail transit networks. The priority principle, queuing process, capacity constraints and congestion effects are considered in the cell transmission mechanism. Then an efficient method is designed to solve the shortest path for an urban rail network, which decreases the computing cost for solving the cell transmission model. The instantaneous dynamic user optimal state can be reached with the method of successive average. Many evaluation indexes of passenger flow can be generated, to provide effective support for the optimization of train schedules and the capacity evaluation for urban rail transit network. Finally, the model and its potential application are demonstrated via two numerical experiments using a small-scale network and the Beijing Metro network.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Teóricos
Ferrovias
Urbanização
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188874


  7 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28981508
[Au] Autor:Liu BZ; Ge YE; Cao K; Jiang X; Meng L; Liu D; Gao Y
[Ad] Endereço:School of Transportation and Logistics, Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology; Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.
[Ti] Título:Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0184815, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transportes/economia
Viagem/economia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Veículos Automotores/economia
Ferrovias/economia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171021
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171021
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184815


  8 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28863175
[Au] Autor:Li M; Wang Y; Jia L
[Ad] Endereço:State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Título:The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184131, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Movimento
Ferrovias
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Pequim
Comportamento de Escolha
Simulação por Computador
Seres Humanos
Modelos Estatísticos
Software
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170902
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184131


  9 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28829818
[Au] Autor:Benedetti Y; Morelli F
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Applied Geoinformatics and Spatial Planning Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
[Ti] Título:Spatial mismatch analysis among hotspots of alien plant species, road and railway networks in Germany and Austria.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0183691, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Road and railway networks are pervasive elements of all environments, which have expanded intensively over the last century in all European countries. These transportation infrastructures have major impacts on the surrounding landscape, representing a threat to biodiversity. Roadsides and railways may function as corridors for dispersal of alien species in fragmented landscapes. However, only few studies have explored the spread of invasive species in relationship to transport network at large spatial scales. We performed a spatial mismatch analysis, based on a spatially explicit correlation test, to investigate whether alien plant species hotspots in Germany and Austria correspond to areas of high density of roads and railways. We tested this independently of the effects of dominant environments in each spatial unit, in order to focus just on the correlation between occurrence of alien species and density of linear transportation infrastructures. We found a significant spatial association between alien plant species hotspots distribution and roads and railways density in both countries. As expected, anthropogenic landscapes, such as urban areas, harbored more alien plant species, followed by water bodies. However, our findings suggested that the distribution of neobiota is strongest correlated to road/railways density than to land use composition. This study provides new evidence, from a transnational scale, that alien plants can use roadsides and rail networks as colonization corridors. Furthermore, our approach contributes to the understanding on alien plant species distribution at large spatial scale by the combination with spatial modeling procedures.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Espécies Introduzidas
Plantas
Ferrovias
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Áustria
Alemanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170823
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0183691


  10 / 2551 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28771536
[Au] Autor:Liu C; Lin B; Wang J; Xiao J; Liu S; Wu J; Li J
[Ad] Endereço:School of Traffic and Transportation, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, China.
[Ti] Título:Flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting bulk freight from road to railway.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182179, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since railway transport possesses the advantage of high volume and low carbon emissions, diverting some freight from road to railway will help reduce the negative environmental impacts associated with transport. This paper develops a flow assignment model for quantitative analysis of diverting truck freight to railway. First, a general network which considers road transportation, railway transportation, handling and transferring is established according to all the steps in the whole transportation process. Then general functions which embody the factors which the shippers will pay attention to when choosing mode and path are formulated. The general functions contain the congestion cost on road, the capacity constraints of railways and freight stations. Based on the general network and general cost function, a user equilibrium flow assignment model is developed to simulate the flow distribution on the general network under the condition that all shippers choose transportation mode and path independently. Since the model is nonlinear and challenging, we adopt a method that uses tangent lines to constitute envelope curve to linearize it. Finally, a numerical example is presented to test the model and show the method of making quantitative analysis of bulk freight modal shift between road and railway.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Teóricos
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Carbono/análise
Veículos Automotores
Ferrovias
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
7440-44-0 (Carbon)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170804
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182179



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