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[PMID]:29346363
[Au] Autor:Sparrow MJ
[Ad] Endereço:Retired Sexual Health Physician, Wellington.
[Ti] Título:Euthanasia and abortion.
[So] Source:N Z Med J;131(1468):94, 2018 01 19.
[Is] ISSN:1175-8716
[Cp] País de publicação:New Zealand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aborto Induzido
Eutanásia
Valor da Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180119
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28471614
[Au] Autor:Glick SM
[Ad] Endereço:Lord Rabbi Immanuel Jakobovits Center for Jewish Medical Ethics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Jewish Medical Ethics.
[So] Source:Isr Med Assoc J;18(10):577-580, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1565-1088
[Cp] País de publicação:Israel
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Jewish medical ethics is a term coined by the late Lord Rabbi Immanuel Jacobovits in the mid-20th century. Its principles and emphases differ in some significant ways from the currently accepted axioms in Western secular ethics. The emphasis is lesser on autonomy and more on the value of human life and on communitarianism. The Israel Patient's Rights Law reflects these differences from the Western norms.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ética Médica
Judaísmo
Direitos do Paciente/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Israel
Judaísmo/história
Direitos do Paciente/legislação & jurisprudência
Autonomia Pessoal
Responsabilidade Social
Valor da Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28813554
[Au] Autor:Kim ES; Kawachi I; Chen Y; Kubzansky LD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
[Ti] Título:Association Between Purpose in Life and Objective Measures of Physical Function in Older Adults.
[So] Source:JAMA Psychiatry;74(10):1039-1045, 2017 Oct 01.
[Is] ISSN:2168-6238
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: Higher purpose in life is hypothesized to reduce the likelihood of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed because purpose has been linked with a range of positive health behaviors and biological processes that are potentially protective against declining physical function. However, the association between purpose in life and objective physical function has not been examined. Objective: To assess whether higher purpose in life among adequately functioning older adults is associated with lower risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed over time. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for a longitudinal cohort study were collected in 2006 and again in 2010 from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of US adults older than 50 years. Data analysis was conducted from November 23, 2016, to June 2, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: The risk of developing weak grip strength (assessed as a binary yes or no outcome) or slow walking speed (yes or no) during the 4-year follow-up period. Grip strength was assessed using Smedley spring-type hand dynamometers, and walking speed was assessed by asking respondents to walk 2.5 m at their normal walking pace. Results: In this study, 4486 adults had grip scores at baseline indicating adequate function (2665 women and 1821 men; mean [SD] age, 63.0 [8.2] years) and 1461 adults had walking scores at baseline indicating adequate function (801 women and 660 men; mean [SD] age, 70.8 [6.5] years). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, each 1-SD increase in purpose was associated with a 13% decreased risk (95% CI, 1%-23%) of developing weak grip strength and a 14% decreased risk (95% CI, 8%-20%) of developing slow walking speed. Associations with walking speed were maintained in all covariate models (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.95), but associations with grip strength did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance after additionally adjusting for relevant baseline health factors, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors (fully adjusted model: risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.80-1.04). Conclusions and Relevance: Purpose in life was prospectively associated with a decreased risk of developing weak grip strength and slow walking speed, although the findings were more robust for walking speed than for grip strength. These findings suggest that a sense of purpose in life, a modifiable factor, may play an important role in maintaining physical function among older adults.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Envelhecimento
Força da Mão/fisiologia
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia
Otimismo/psicologia
Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Envelhecimento/fisiologia
Envelhecimento/psicologia
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Estudos Longitudinais
Masculino
Massachusetts
Meia-Idade
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Valor da Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171012
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171012
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.2145


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[PMID]:28635395
[Au] Autor:Schaber P
[Ad] Endereço:1 Ethik-Zentrum, Universität Zürich.
[Ti] Título:Gibt es ein Recht auf assistierten Suizid?.
[So] Source:Praxis (Bern 1994);106(13):711-713, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1661-8157
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:ger
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autonomia Pessoal
Direito a Morrer/ética
Direito a Morrer/legislação & jurisprudência
Suicídio Assistido/ética
Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência
Valor da Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ética Médica
Seres Humanos
Suíça
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170622
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1024/1661-8157/a002706


  5 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28284471
[Au] Autor:Maxson T; Mabry CD; Sutherland MJ; Robertson RD; Booker JO; Collins T; Spencer HJ; Rinker CF; Sanddal TL; Sanddal ND
[Ti] Título:Does the Institution of a Statewide Trauma System Reduce Preventable Mortality and Yield a Positive Return on Investment for Taxpayers?
[So] Source:J Am Coll Surg;224(4):489-499, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1190
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: In July 2009, Arkansas began to annually fund $20 million for a statewide trauma system (TS). We studied injury deaths both pre-TS (2009) and post-TS (2013 to 2014), with attention to causes of preventive mortality, societal cost of those preventable mortality deaths, and benefit to tax payers of the lives saved. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-specialty trauma-expert panel met and reviewed records of 672 decedents (290 pre-TS and 382 post-TS) who met standardized inclusion criteria, were judged potentially salvageable, and were selected by a proportional sampling of the roughly 2,500 annual trauma deaths. Deaths were adjudicated into sub-categories of nonpreventable and preventable causes. The value of lives lost was calculated for those lives potentially saved in the post-TS period. RESULTS: Total preventable mortality was reduced from 30% of cases pre-TS to 16% of cases studied post-TS, a reduction of 14%. Extrapolating a 14% reduction of preventable mortality to the post-TS study period, using the same inclusion criteria of the post-TS, we calculate that 79 lives were saved in 2013 to 2014 due to the institution of a TS. Using a minimal standard estimate of $100,000 value for a life-year, a lifetime value of $2,365,000 per person was saved. This equates to an economic impact of the lives saved of almost $186 million annually, representing a 9-fold return on investment from the $20 million of annual state funding invested in the TS. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a TS in Arkansas during a 5-year period resulted in a reduction of the preventable death rate to 16% post-TS, and a 9-fold return on investment by the tax payer. Additional life-saving gains can be expected with ongoing financial support and additional system performance-improvement efforts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
Investimentos em Saúde
Melhoria de Qualidade/economia
Impostos
Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração
Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Arkansas/epidemiologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração
Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos
Valor da Vida/economia
Ferimentos e Lesões/economia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170809
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170809
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170313
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28170066
[Au] Autor:Åstrand P
[Ti] Título:Apropå! Rätten att värdera ett liv..
[So] Source:Lakartidningen;114, 2017 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1652-7518
[Cp] País de publicação:Sweden
[La] Idioma:swe
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Prioridades em Saúde/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Recursos em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Valor da Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28008642
[Au] Autor:Lovering R
[Ti] Título:The Substance View: A Critique (Part 3).
[So] Source:Bioethics;31(4):305-312, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1467-8519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In my articles 'The Substance View: A Critique' and 'The Substance View: A Critique (Part 2),' I raise objections to the substance view (naturally), a theory of intrinsic value and moral standing defended by a number of contemporary moral philosophers, including Robert P. George, Patrick Lee, Christopher Tollefsen, and Francis Beckwith. In part one of my critique of the substance view, I raise reductio-style objections to the substance view's conclusion that the standard human fetus has the same intrinsic value and moral standing as the standard adult human being, among other human beings. In part two, I raise objections to some of the premises invoked in support of that conclusion. Here, in part three, I raise objections to Henrik Friberg-Fernros's attempt to rebut some of the aforementioned objections.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aborto Induzido/ética
Feto
Princípios Morais
Pessoalidade
Valor da Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Direitos Humanos
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170913
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170913
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bioe.12330


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[PMID]:27387836
[Au] Autor:Barnes SM; Bahraini NH; Forster JE; Stearns-Yoder KA; Hostetter TA; Smith G; Nagamoto HT; Nock MK
[Ad] Endereço:Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Denver, CO, USA.
[Ti] Título:Moving Beyond Self-Report: Implicit Associations about Death/Life Prospectively Predict Suicidal Behavior among Veterans.
[So] Source:Suicide Life Threat Behav;47(1):67-77, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1943-278X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Reliance on self-report limits clinicians' ability to accurately predict suicidal behavior. In this study the predictive validity of an objective measure, the death/suicide Implicit Association Test (d/sIAT), was tested among psychiatrically hospitalized veterans. Following acute stabilization, 176 participants completed the d/sIAT and traditional suicide risk assessments. Participants had similar d/sIAT scores regardless of whether they had recently attempted suicide. However, d/sIAT scores significantly predicted suicide attempts during the 6-month follow-up above and beyond other known risk factors for suicidal behavior (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.15-3.12; based on 1SD increase). The d/sIAT may augment the accuracy of suicide risk assessment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude Frente à Morte
Suicídio
Valor da Vida
Veteranos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Prognóstico
Testes Psicológicos
Medição de Risco/métodos
Fatores de Risco
Autorrelato
Ideação Suicida
Suicídio/prevenção & controle
Suicídio/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171011
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171011
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160709
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/sltb.12265


  9 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28533497
[Au] Autor:Manninen BA
[Ti] Título:Sustaining a Pregnant Cadaver for the Purpose of Gestating a Fetus: A Limited Defense.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;26(4):399-430, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:I argue that there are times it is morally permissible to keep a brain-dead pregnant woman on life support for the sole purpose of allowing her fetus to gestate until it is able to be born as healthy as possible. While a woman should not be kept on such support if she has clearly expressed that this would contradict her wishes, she may be kept on such support if she did not make her wishes known at all. Moreover, there are reasons why her family's wishes alone may not suffice to override the fetus' interest in continued existence. The most difficult case to assess is when the woman had previously made it known she would not want to be sustained on artificial life support, but was not explicit concerning whether she would maintain that stance in the event of her pregancy. Finally, I will show why my position is compatible with a pro-abortion-choice perspective.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Morte Encefálica
Feto
Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética
Mães
Resultado da Gravidez
Gestantes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cadáver
Tomada de Decisões
Ética Médica
Relações Familiares
Feminino
Direitos Humanos
Seres Humanos
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido
Princípios Morais
Gravidez
Complicações na Gravidez
Valor da Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170619
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170619
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170524
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2016.0036


  10 / 5555 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27931215
[Au] Autor:Basu Roy R; Brandt N; Moodie N; Motlagh M; Rasanathan K; Seddon JA; Detjen AK; Kampmann B
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for International Child Health, Department of Paediatrics 2nd Floor, Medical School Building, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, London, W2 1PG, UK. r.basu-roy@imperial.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Why the Convention on the Rights of the Child must become a guiding framework for the realization of the rights of children affected by tuberculosis.
[So] Source:BMC Int Health Hum Rights;16(1):32, 2016 Dec 08.
[Is] ISSN:1472-698X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Until recently, paediatric tuberculosis (TB) has been relatively neglected by the broader TB and the maternal and child health communities. Human rights-based approaches to children affected by TB could be powerful; however, awareness and application of such strategies is not widespread. DISCUSSION: We summarize the current challenges faced by children affected by TB, including: consideration of their family context; the limitations of preventive, diagnostic and treatment options; paucity of paediatric-specific research; failure in implementation of interventions; and stigma. We examine the articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and relate them to childhood TB. Specifically, we focus on the five core principles of the CRC: children's inherent right to life and States' duties towards their survival and development; children's right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health; non-discrimination; best interests of the child; and respect for the views of the child. We highlight where children's rights are violated and how a human rights-based approach should be used as a tool to help children affected by TB, particularly in light of the Sustainable Development Goals and their focus on universality and leaving no one behind. The article aims to bridge the gap between those providing paediatric TB clinical care and conducting research, and those working in the fields of human rights policy and advocacy to promote a human rights-based approach for children affected by TB based upon the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente
Serviços de Saúde da Criança
Bem-Estar da Criança
Direitos Humanos
Cooperação Internacional
Políticas
Tuberculose
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Ética Clínica
Ética em Pesquisa
Governo
Equidade em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Pediatria
Pessoalidade
Responsabilidade Social
Estigma Social
Nações Unidas
Valor da Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161210
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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