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[PMID]:29194680
[Au] Autor:Jenkins S; Ives J; Avery S; Draper H
[Ti] Título:Who gets the gametes? An argument for a points system for fertility patients.
[So] Source:Bioethics;32(1):16-26, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1467-8519
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper argues that the convention of allocating donated gametes on a 'first come, first served' basis should be replaced with an allocation system that takes into account more morally relevant criteria than waiting time. This conclusion was developed using an empirical bioethics methodology, which involved a study of the views of 18 staff members from seven U.K. fertility clinics, and 20 academics, policy-makers, representatives of patient groups, and other relevant professionals, on the allocation of donated sperm and eggs. Against these views, we consider some nuanced ways of including criteria in a points allocation system. We argue that such a system is more ethically robust than 'first come, first served', but we acknowledge that our results suggest that a points system will meet with resistance from those working in the field. We conclude that criteria such as a patient's age, potentially damaging substance use, and parental status should be used to allocate points and determine which patients receive treatment and in what order. These and other factors should be applied according to how they bear on considerations like child welfare, patient welfare, and the effectiveness of the proposed treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temas Bioéticos
Doação Dirigida de Tecido/ética
Células Germinativas
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética
Infertilidade
Reprodução/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Bioética
Dissidências e Disputas
Feminino
Fertilidade
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pais
Discriminação Social
Participação dos Interessados
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bioe.12411


  2 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29384345
[Au] Autor:Wardrope A
[Ti] Título:Autonomy as Ideology: Towards an Autonomy Worthy of Respect.
[So] Source:New Bioeth;21(1):56-70, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2050-2885
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent criticism of the role of respect for autonomy in bioethics has focused on that principle's status as 'dogma' or 'ideology'. I suggest that lying beneath many applications of respect for autonomy in medical ethics are some influential dogmas ­ propositions accepted, not as explicit premises or as a consequence of reasoned argument, but simply because moral problems are so frequently framed in such terms. Furthermore, I will argue that rejecting these dogmas is vital to secure and protect an autonomy worthy of respect. The concept of autonomy that is widely applied in clinical ethics emphasises decision-making competence, at the expense of considering the authenticity of those decisions. Respect for such autonomy is interpreted in largely synchronic and individual terms ­ concerned with the isolated decisions of individual agents ­ and thus neglects the diachronic and social dimensions of many moral dilemmas arising in the health care context. I will examine how these unwritten rules lead to an impoverished understanding of respect and a systematic neglect in bioethics of certain kinds of ethical consideration, and draw on insights from feminist and communitarian work on autonomy to sketch an alternative approach to understanding respect, modelled on the norms of respectful conversation ­ a respect that is firstly concerned with engaging with the another as a potential giver and bearer or reasons, and working with them to promote both individual and social flourishing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bioética
Autonomia Pessoal
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tomada de Decisões
Ética Médica
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29283239
[Au] Autor:Kopaladze RA
[Ti] Título:Diabetes, from the Origins of the Problem to the Nobel Prize. Bioethics.
[So] Source:Usp Fiziol Nauk;48(1):53-65, 2017 Jan-Mar.
[Is] ISSN:0301-1798
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Analysis of scientific works from the creation of an experimental model of diabetes before discovery insulin was done. Emphasized is the priority of the Russian pathologist L. W. Sobolew (1876-1919) in the discovery of the endocrine function of the pancreas in experimental animals - rabbits, dogs, cats. In 1923 Canadian scientists Banting and Macleod were awarded the Nobel prize for the discovery of insulin. However, the methods and the idea of Nobel laureates were the same that had been developed 20 years earlier by the Russian scientists. Currently, the incidence of diabetes and related pathologies of organs and systems are growing. The use of animals in experimental biology and medicine will continue for the foreseeable future. The benefits to science and medicine derived from the use of animals in research are undeniable, but this process inevitably increases the responsibility of researchers. It is required constant work on improvement of the experimental methods in order to minimize pain, stress, and the number of animals used in the experiment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bioética/história
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/história
Endocrinologia/história
Insulina/biossíntese
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Canadá
Gatos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia
Cães
Endocrinologia/ética
Endocrinologia/recursos humanos
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Insulina/farmacologia
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos
Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia
Prêmio Nobel
Coelhos
Federação Russa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insulin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171229
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29240762
[Au] Autor:Bert B; Dörendahl A; Leich N; Vietze J; Steinfath M; Chmielewska J; Hensel A; Grune B; Schönfelder G
[Ad] Endereço:German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), German Centre for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R), Berlin, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Rethinking 3R strategies: Digging deeper into AnimalTestInfo promotes transparency in in vivo biomedical research.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(12):e2003217, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the European Union (EU), animal welfare is seen as a matter of great importance. However, with respect to animal experimentation, European citizens feel quite uninformed. The European Directive 2010/63/EU for the protection of laboratory animals aims for greater transparency and requires that a comprehensible, nontechnical summary (NTS) of each authorised research project involving animals is published by the respective Member State. However, the NTSs remain sleeping beauties if their contents are not easily and systematically accessible. The German web-based NTS database AnimalTestInfo is a unique channel for scientists to communicate their work, and provides the opportunity for large-scale analyses of planned animal studies to inform researchers and the public. For an in-depth meta-analysis, we classified the duly completed NTSs submitted to AnimalTestInfo in 2014 and 2015 according to the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system. Indexing the NTSs with ICD codes provided a fine-grained overview of the prospective uses of experimental animals. Using this approach, transparency, especially for highly controversial animal research involving, for example, nonhuman primates, is fostered, as it enables pinpointing the envisaged beneficiary down to the level of the addressed disease. Moreover, research areas with many planned projects involving animals can be specified in detail. The development of 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement) measures in these research areas may be most efficient, as a large number of experimental animals would benefit from it. Indexing NTSs with ICD codes can support governments and funding agencies in advancing target-oriented funding of 3R research. Data drawn from NTSs can provide a basis for the development, validation, and implementation of directed 3R strategies as well as guidance for rethinking the role of animal research models.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Experimentação Animal
Bem-Estar do Animal
Pesquisa Biomédica
Projetos de Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência
Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Experimentação Animal/ética
Experimentação Animal/legislação & jurisprudência
Experimentação Animal/normas
Experimentação Animal/estatística & dados numéricos
Bem-Estar do Animal/ética
Bem-Estar do Animal/legislação & jurisprudência
Bem-Estar do Animal/normas
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos
Animais
Animais Domésticos
Animais de Laboratório
Animais Selvagens
Bioética
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas
Pesquisa Biomédica/estatística & dados numéricos
Alemanha/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Estudos Prospectivos
Projetos de Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos
Pesquisadores/ética
Pesquisadores/legislação & jurisprudência
Pesquisadores/normas
Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2003217


  5 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28736424
[Au] Autor:Garland-Thomson R
[Ti] Título:Disability Bioethics: From Theory to Practice.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):323-339, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Bioética
Competência Cultural
Pessoas com Deficiência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comportamento de Escolha
Direitos Humanos
Seres Humanos
Preconceito
Justiça Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0020


  6 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28736423
[Au] Autor:Adams R
[Ti] Título:Choosing Disability, Visualizing Care.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):301-321, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article explores how visual images of dependency and care reflect and reinforce perceptions of people who are ill, disabled, or otherwise dependent, those who sustain them, and the meaning of the work they do. Scenes of care are a valuable index for understanding cultural assumptions about who is deserving of care, how and where care should be given, and who is obligated to serve as a giver of care. It positions these images in the context of the emphasis, within the disability rights movement, on independence. I argue that the insistence on independence entails a form of what Lauren Berlant calls "cruel optimism"-desire for the very things that undermine happiness and well-being-because they rely on a willful disregard of the inevitable interdependency that is a fact of all human existence, as well as the particular forms of dependency that pertain to many disabled bodies. The end of the article considers works of visual art that challenge dominant modes for representing how care is given and received. If the invisibility of caregiving is one aspect of our willful forgetting that all bodies are dependent, I'll argue that visual images of care are an essential resource for recognizing and reimagining its status in our society. One desired outcome of such reconsideration would be to complicate the meaning of autonomy-as it relates to choosing disability-as well as how the work of caregiving is acknowledged and valued.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude Frente à Saúde
Bioética
Cuidadores/psicologia
Comportamento de Escolha/ética
Dependência Mimética
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cultura
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0019


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[PMID]:28736420
[Au] Autor:Wasserman D
[Ti] Título:Better Parenting through Biomedical Modification: A Case for Pluralism, Deference, and Charity.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):217-247, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper, I will argue that the moral assessment of the prenatal selection and postnatal modification biotechnologies requires a nuanced approach, which pays close attention to the variety of sometimes conflicting parental roles and reasons involved in decisions for and against their use. I will focus on several related but distinct reasons that parents have, or give, for modifying existing children or selecting future children. Many of these reasons are expressed in terms of more effective parenting. Because there is a plurality of legitimate parental goals, I will conclude that assessing parental interventions requires us to adjudicate conflicts or tradeoffs among those goals.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamento de Escolha/ética
Anormalidades Congênitas/prevenção & controle
Terapias Fetais/ética
Melhoramento Genético/ética
Princípios Morais
Poder Familiar/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bioética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Ética Baseada em Princípios
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0016


  8 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28736419
[Au] Autor:Kittay EF
[Ti] Título:How Not to Argue for Selective Reproductive Procedures.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):185-215, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Many bioethicists try to secure a moral requirement to select against disability, while wishing to avoid denigrating disabled people. Dan Brock's arguments are representative of this attempt. Brock argues that the harm of giving birth to a disabled child when an able child could be had in its stead is a "nonperson-affecting harm." The harm is creating a world with less opportunity and more diminishment of opportunity. I argue that the presumptions that a life with disability is ceteris paribus a worse life, and that there is an inherent badness in living with a disability are contestable and fail to provide an argument that avoids the objections that disability scholars have voiced to reproductive selection against disability.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aborto Eugênico/ética
Atitude
Bioética
Comportamento de Escolha/ética
Anormalidades Congênitas
Crianças com Deficiência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Princípios Morais
Pessoalidade
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0015


  9 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28736418
[Au] Autor:Campbell SM; Stramondo JA
[Ti] Título:The Complicated Relationship of Disability and Well-Being.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):151-184, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:It is widely assumed that disability is typically a bad thing for those who are disabled. Our purpose in this essay is to critique this view and defend a more nuanced picture of the relationship between disability and well-being. We first examine four interpretations of the above view and argue that it is false on each interpretation. We then ask whether disability is thereby a neutral trait. Our view is that most disabilities are neutral in one sense, though we cannot make simple generalizations about disability's relationship to well-being in other important senses. After defending this view, we discuss its practical implications for selective abortion for disability, nondisabled people's interactions with disabled people, and the use of QALYs in health policy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude Frente à Saúde
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia
Qualidade de Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bioética
Seres Humanos
Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0014


  10 / 7142 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28736417
[Au] Autor:Parens E
[Ti] Título:Choosing Flourishing: Toward a More "Binocular" Way of Thinking about Disability.
[So] Source:Kennedy Inst Ethics J;27(2):135-150, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1054-6863
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:There is a long-standing debate between people who can seem to be arguing "for" and "against" disability. Those arguing for have often been disability scholars and those arguing against have often been utilitarian philosophers. At least since the mid-2000s, some on both sides have sought to move beyond that debate, but that has proved difficult. Here I seek two small steps forward. One step is critical, and is aimed at we who line up "for" disability. Specifically, I suggest that the phrase "choosing disability" is misleading in at least two ways. First, when someone argues that she should be able to gestate a child who is, e.g., deaf, she does not view deafness as a disability, but as something more like an enhancement. Second, when someone else argues that no one should selectively abort fetuses with traits like deafness, she is not arguing for choosing deafness, but against making a choice based on the presence of a disabling trait. The other step is constructive, and aimed at those lined up on both sides. I suggest that we should adopt a more "binocular" approach to thinking about disability: one which, using the social and medical "lenses" on disability, helps us see it in more depth. If we get better at having a conversation about what disability is, rather than arguing for or against it, we can get better at promoting the flourishing of people with disabilities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude Frente à Saúde
Bioética
Comportamento de Escolha/ética
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Cultura
Surdez/psicologia
Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia
Seres Humanos
Pessoalidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170912
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170912
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170725
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/ken.2017.0013



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