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[PMID]:28632770
[Au] Autor:Baez S; Flichtentrei D; Prats M; Mastandueno R; García AM; Cetkovich M; Ibáñez A
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience (LPEN), Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience (INCyT), INECO Foundation, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
[Ti] Título:Men, women…who cares? A population-based study on sex differences and gender roles in empathy and moral cognition.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179336, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Research on sex differences in empathy has revealed mixed findings. Whereas experimental and neuropsychological measures show no consistent sex effect, self-report data consistently indicates greater empathy in women. However, available results mainly come from separate populations with relatively small samples, which may inflate effect sizes and hinder comparability between both empirical corpora. To elucidate the issue, we conducted two large-scale studies. First, we examined whether sex differences emerge in a large population-based sample (n = 10,802) when empathy is measured with an experimental empathy-for-pain paradigm. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between empathy and moral judgment. In the second study, a subsample (n = 334) completed a self-report empathy questionnaire. Results showed some sex differences in the experimental paradigm, but with minuscule effect sizes. Conversely, women did portray themselves as more empathic through self-reports. In addition, utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas were less frequent in women, although these differences also had small effect sizes. These findings suggest that sex differences in empathy are highly driven by the assessment measure. In particular, self-reports may induce biases leading individuals to assume gender-role stereotypes. Awareness of the role of measurement instruments in this field may hone our understanding of the links between empathy, sex differences, and gender roles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Empatia
Princípios Morais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Identidade de Gênero
Seres Humanos
Julgamento
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Análise de Regressão
Autorrelato
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170621
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179336


  2 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28361721
[Au] Autor:Takala T
[Ti] Título:Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(2):239-245, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Esperança
Segurança
Biologia Sintética/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temas Bioéticos
Armas Biológicas
Teoria Ética
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
Biologia Sintética/economia
Biologia Sintética/tendências
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biological Warfare Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116000839


  3 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28361719
[Au] Autor:Heavey P
[Ti] Título:Consequentialism and the Synthetic Biology Problem.
[So] Source:Camb Q Healthc Ethics;26(2):206-229, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1469-2147
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article analyzes the ethics of synthetic biology (synbio) from a consequentialist perspective, examining potential effects on food and agriculture, and on medicine, fuel, and the advancement of science. The issues of biosafety and biosecurity are also examined. A consequentialist analysis offers an essential road map to policymakers and regulators as to how to deal with synbio. Additionally, the article discusses the limitations of consequentialism as a tool for analysing synbioethics. Is it possible to predict, with any degree of plausibility, what the consequences of synthetic biology will be in 50 years, or in 100, or in 500? Synbio may take humanity to a place of radical departure from what is known or knowable.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Teoria Ética
Biologia Sintética/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Previsões
Seres Humanos
Segurança
Biologia Sintética/legislação & jurisprudência
Biologia Sintética/tendências
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171109
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171109
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170401
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0963180116000815


  4 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28253882
[Au] Autor:Friedrich O; Hemmerling K; Kuehlmeyer K; Nörtemann S; Fischer M; Marckmann G
[Ad] Endereço:Institute for Ethics, History and Theory of Medicine at Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU), Lessingstr. 2, 80336, Munich, Germany. orsolya.friedrich@lrz.uni-muenchen.de.
[Ti] Título:Principle-based structured case discussions: do they foster moral competence in medical students? - A pilot study.
[So] Source:BMC Med Ethics;18(1):21, 2017 Mar 03.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6939
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that medical students' moral competence decreases throughout medical school. This pilot study gives preliminary insights into the effects of two educational interventions in ethics classes on moral competence among medical students in Munich, Germany. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, medical students were tested using Lind's Moral Competence Test (MCT) prior to and after completing different ethics classes. The experimental group (EG, N = 76) participated in principle-based structured case discussions (PBSCDs) and was compared with a control group with theory-based case discussions (TBCDs) (CG, N = 55). The pre/post C-scores were compared using a Wilcoxon Test, ANOVA and effect-size calculation. RESULTS: The C-score improved by around 3.2 C-points in the EG, and by 0.2 C-points in the CG. The mean C-score difference was not statistically significant for the EG (P = 0.14) or between the two groups (P = 0.34). There was no statistical significance for the teachers' influence (P = 0.54) on C-score. In both groups, students with below-average (M = 29.1) C-scores improved and students with above-average C-scores regressed. The increase of the C-Index was greater in the EG than in the CG. The absolute effect-size of the EG compared with the CG was 3.0 C-points, indicating a relevant effect. CONCLUSION: Teaching ethics with PBSCDs did not provide a statistically significant influence on students' moral competence, compared with TBCDs. Yet, the effect size suggests that PBSCDs may improve moral competence among medical students more effectively. Further research with larger and completely randomized samples is needed to gain definite explanations for the results.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação de Graduação em Medicina
Ética Médica/educação
Desenvolvimento Moral
Ética Baseada em Princípios
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas
Competência Profissional
Estudantes de Medicina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Currículo
Avaliação Educacional
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Alemanha
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Princípios Morais
Projetos Piloto
Resolução de Problemas
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170304
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12910-017-0181-1


  5 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28235413
[Au] Autor:Bernstein J; LeBrun D; MacCourt D; Ahn J
[Ad] Endereço:University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA. Joseph.bernstein@uphs.upenn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Presumed consent: licenses and limits inferred from the case of geriatric hip fractures.
[So] Source:BMC Med Ethics;18(1):17, 2017 Feb 24.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6939
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Hip fractures are common and serious injuries in the geriatric population. Obtaining informed consent for surgery in geriatric patients can be difficult due to the high prevalence of comorbid cognitive impairment. Given that virtually all patients with hip fractures eventually undergo surgery, and given that delays in surgery are associated with increased mortality, we argue that there are select instances in which it may be ethically permissible, and indeed clinically preferable, to initiate surgical treatment in cognitively impaired patients under the doctrine of presumed consent. In this paper, we examine the boundaries of the license granted by presumed consent and use the example of geriatric hip fracture to build an ethical framework for understanding the doctrine of presumed consent. DISCUSSION: The license to act under presumed consent requires three factors: patient incapacity, clinical urgency and clarity on the correct course of action. All three can apply to geriatric hip fracture. The typical patient frequently lacks capacity. Delays in initiating surgical treatment are associated with markedly increased mortality rates. Last, there appears to be consensus that surgery is the preferred treatment. Nonetheless, because there is a window of safe delay during which treating physicians can stabilize the patient, address reversible causes of cognitive impairment and identify surrogate decision makers, presumed consent should be invoked only as a method of last resort. CONCLUSIONS: A medical situation need not be characterized by risk of imminent and certain death for presumed consent to be relevant. Rather, there are two distinct windows that must be considered: the time interval in which action may be delayed without danger, and the time interval needed to obtain a better form of consent. Presumed consent is appropriate only when the latter exceeds the former.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tomada de Decisões/ética
Ética Médica
Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia
Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética
Consentimento Presumido/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Fatores Etários
Idoso
Teoria Ética
Seres Humanos
Competência Mental
Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:E; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170226
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12910-017-0180-2


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[PMID]:28065775
[Au] Autor:Nash K; Baumgartner T; Knoch D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience, Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, Switzerland; Center for Cognition, Learning and Memory, University of Bern, Switzerland; University of Canterbury, Department of Psychology, Christchurch, New Zealand. Electronic address: kyle.nash@canterbury.ac.nz.
[Ti] Título:Group-focused morality is associated with limited conflict detection and resolution capacity: Neuroanatomical evidence.
[So] Source:Biol Psychol;123:235-240, 2017 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6246
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences. Examining neuroanatomy thus affords an objective and non-biased opportunity to contrast these influential theories. Here, we report that increased adherence to group-focused moral foundations was strongly associated (whole-brain corrected) with reduced gray matter volume in key regions of the conflict detection and resolution system (anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex). Because reduced gray matter is reliably associated with reduced neural and cognitive capacity, these findings support the idea outlined in the model of motivated social cognition that belief in group-focused moral values is associated with reduced conflict detection and resolution capacity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conflito (Psicologia)
Processos Grupais
Princípios Morais
Motivação/fisiologia
Negociação/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Substância Cinzenta/fisiologia
Voluntários Saudáveis
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170110
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28054817
[Au] Autor:Sabo JS; Giner-Sorolla R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of Kent.
[Ti] Título:Imagining wrong: Fictitious contexts mitigate condemnation of harm more than impurity.
[So] Source:J Exp Psychol Gen;146(1):134-153, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1939-2222
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character. For Experiment 1, an undergraduate sample (N = 250) evaluated 9 vignettes depicting an agent committing either violations of harm or purity in real life, watching them in films, or imagining them. For Experiments 2 and 3, online participants (N = 375 and N = 321, respectively) evaluated a single vignette depicting an agent committing a violation of harm or purity that either occurred in real life, was imagined, watched in a film, or performed in a video game. Experiment 4 (N = 348) used an analysis of moderated mediation to demonstrate that the perceived wrongness of fictional purity violations is explained both by the extent to which they are seen as a cue to, and a cause of, a poor moral character. Lastly, Experiment 5 (N = 484) validated our manipulations and included the presumption of desire as an additional mediator of the fictive pass asymmetry effects. We discuss implications for moral theories of act and character, anger and disgust, and for media use and regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Delusões
Imaginação
Julgamento
Meios de Comunicação de Massa
Princípios Morais
Opinião Pública
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Ira
Caráter
Sinais (Psicologia)
Cultura
Teoria Ética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Teste de Realidade
Responsabilidade Social
Jogos de Vídeo
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1037/xge0000251


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[PMID]:27986147
[Au] Autor:Grant-Kels JM; Stoff B
[Ad] Endereço:Dermatology Department, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut. Electronic address: grant@uchc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Total body skin exams (TBSEs): Saving lives or wasting time?
[So] Source:J Am Acad Dermatol;76(1):183-185, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6787
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dermatologia/ética
Dermatologia/métodos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Beneficência
Temas Bioéticos
Dermatologia/organização & administração
Teoria Ética
Seres Humanos
Prática Associada/ética
Preferência do Paciente
Exame Físico/ética
Exame Físico/métodos
Fatores de Tempo
Carga de Trabalho
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161218
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27986145
[Au] Autor:Stoff BK; Grant-Kels JM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Electronic address: bstoff@emory.edu.
[Ti] Título:Valuable or vain: An ethical analysis of free skin cancer screening.
[So] Source:J Am Acad Dermatol;76(1):177-180, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1097-6787
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dermatologia/ética
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/ética
Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia
Teoria Ética
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Área Carente de Assistência Médica
Relações Médico-Paciente/ética
Justiça Social/ética
Responsabilidade Social
Voluntários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170817
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170817
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161218
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 3138 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27975156
[Au] Autor:Gray B
[Ad] Endereço:Otago University Wellington, 23A Mein Street, Newtown, Wellington, 6021, New Zealand. ben.gray@otago.ac.nz.
[Ti] Título:How Should We Respond to Non-Dominant Healing Practices, the Example of Homeopathy.
[So] Source:J Bioeth Inq;14(1):87-96, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1176-7529
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The debate around the ethics of homeopathy in recent issues of the journal has been approached as a binary question; is homeopathy ethical or not? This paper suggests that this is an unhelpful question and instead discusses a framework to establish the extent to which the dominant (medical) culture should tolerate non-dominant health practices such as homeopathy. This requires a sophisticated understanding of the placebo effect, a critical evaluation of what evidence is available, a consideration of the harm that the non-dominant practice might cause, and a consideration of how this might be affected by the culture of the patient. This is presented as a matter of cultural competence. At a clinical level clinicians need to respect the values and beliefs of their patients and communicate with all the practitioners involved in a patient's care. At a societal level there are a number of factors to be considered when a community decides which practices to tolerate and to what extent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Competência Cultural/ética
Homeopatia
Preferência do Paciente/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Teoria Ética
Ética Médica
Medicina Baseada em Evidências
Homeopatia/ética
Seres Humanos
Nova Zelândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171105
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171105
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11673-016-9760-y



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