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[PMID]:28704764
[Au] Autor:Bright LK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Philosophy, Baker Hall 161, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890, USA; Department of Philosophy, Logic, and Scientific Method, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, Lakatos Building, United Kingdom. Electronic address: liamkbright@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Logical empiricists on race.
[So] Source:Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci;65:9-18, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2499
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética
Genética Populacional
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Empirismo
Ética Médica
Seres Humanos
Princípios Morais
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171023
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171023
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170714
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 303 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27523503
[Au] Autor:Kendler KS; Engstrom EJ
[Ad] Endereço:From the Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics and the Departments of Psychiatry and Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond; the Max Planck Institute for Psychiatry, Munich; and the Department of History, Humboldt University, Berlin.
[Ti] Título:Kahlbaum, Hecker, and Kraepelin and the Transition From Psychiatric Symptom Complexes to Empirical Disease Forms.
[So] Source:Am J Psychiatry;174(2):102-109, 2017 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1535-7228
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The nosology for major psychiatric disorders developed by Emil Kraepelin in the 1890s has substantially shaped psychiatry. His theories, however, did not arise de novo, being strongly influenced by Karl Kahlbaum and Ewald Hecker. From the 1860-1880s, they articulated a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychiatric diagnosis, from symptom-based syndromes, popular since the late 18th century, to proto-disease entities. This effort was influenced by parallel developments in general medicine, especially the rise of bacterial theories of disease where different syndromes had distinctive symptoms, courses, and etiologies. Their thinking was particularly shaped by the increasing understanding of general paresis of the insane. Indeed, this disorder, with its distinct course and characteristic symptoms, was paradigmatic for them. Their hope was that a similar progression of medical understanding would evolve for the other major psychiatric syndromes. Their thinking and its connection with Kraepelin's nosology are illustrated through a close reading of their essays on hebephrenia, catatonia, and cyclic insanity. Kahlbaum, Hecker, and Kraepelin shared both a commitment to a clinical research agenda for psychiatry (to utilize methods of clinical assessment and follow-up to help define disease forms) and a skepticism for the brain-based neuropathological paradigm of psychiatric research then dominant in most European centers. Understanding the historical origins of our key diagnostic concepts can help us to evaluate their strengths and limitations. It remains to be determined whether this "Kahlbaum-Hecker-Kraepelin paradigm"-defining disorders based on distinctive symptoms and course-will produce psychiatric syndromes of sufficient homogeneity to yield their etiologic secrets.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Empirismo/história
Transtornos Mentais/história
Psiquiatria/história
Transtornos Psicóticos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alemanha
História do Século XIX
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Kahlbaum K; Hecker E; Kraepelin E
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170501
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170501
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160816
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16030375


  3 / 303 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27352218
[Au] Autor:Grossman C; Keller N; Bornstein G; Ben-Zvi I; Koren-Morag N; Rahav G
[Ad] Endereço:a Internal Medicine F and the Rheumatology Unit , The Chaim Sheba Medical Center , Ramat-Gan , Israel.
[Ti] Título:Factors associated with suitability of empiric antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients with bloodstream infections.
[So] Source:J Chemother;29(3):159-163, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1973-9478
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Initiation of inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy is associated with a worse outcome. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and the factors associated with inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in patients hospitalized with bacteremia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during January 2010-December 2011 at the medical wards of the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Israel. The records of all patients with bacteremia were reviewed. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, bacteremic pathogens and antimicrobial agents were retrieved from the medical records. Factors associated with appropriateness of empiric antibiotic therapy were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 681 eligible adults were included in the study. Antibiotic therapy was found to be inappropriate in 138 (20.2%) patients (95% C.I. 17.2-23.2). The rate of appropriateness was not related to the type of antibiotic regimen and the type of bacteria. Patients with healthcare-associated infections were more likely to be administrated inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Patients with primary bloodstream infections were also more likely to be administrated inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Empiric combination therapy was more likely to be appropriate than monotherapy, except for an aminoglycosides-based combination. CONCLUSIONS: Combination empiric antibiotic therapy should be considered in patients with healthcare-associated infections and in those with primary bloodstream infections.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico
Quimioterapia Combinada
Empirismo
Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle
Padrões de Prática Médica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia
Bacteriemia/microbiologia
Estudos de Coortes
Comorbidade
Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico
Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia
Estudos Transversais
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla
Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos
Diagnóstico Precoce
Feminino
Hospitais Urbanos
Seres Humanos
Israel/epidemiologia
Masculino
Erros de Medicação/efeitos adversos
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/1120009X.2016.1182770


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[PMID]:27474186
[Au] Autor:Nassar D
[Ad] Endereço:Philosophy Department, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: dalia.nassar@sydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.
[So] Source:Stud Hist Philos Sci;58:57-66, 2016 08.
[Is] ISSN:0039-3681
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/história
Filosofia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Empirismo/história
História do Século XVIII
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Kant
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160731
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27474185
[Au] Autor:Gaukroger S; Nassar D
[Ad] Endereço:Unit for History & Philosophy of Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: stephen.gaukroger@sydney.edu.au.
[Ti] Título:Introduction: Kant and the empirical sciences.
[So] Source:Stud Hist Philos Sci;58:55-6, 2016 08.
[Is] ISSN:0039-3681
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Filosofia/história
Ciência/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Empirismo/história
História do Século XVIII
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; INTRODUCTORY JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Kant
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160731
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26863153
[Au] Autor:Wainwright MS; Hansen G; Piantino J
[Ad] Endereço:aDepartment of Pediatrics, Divisions of Neurology bCritical Care cRuth D. and Ken M. Davee Pediatric Neurocritical Care Program, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA dSection of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, and University of Manitoba, Children's Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada eDepartment of Pediatrics, Section in Child Neurology - Epilepsy, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
[Ti] Título:Pediatric neurocritical care in the 21st century: from empiricism to evidence.
[So] Source:Curr Opin Crit Care;22(2):106-12, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1531-7072
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately one in five children admitted to a pediatric ICU have a new central nervous system injury or a neurological complication of their critical illness. The spectrum of neurologic insults in children is diverse and clinical practice is largely empirical, as few randomized, controlled trials have been reported. This lack of data poses a substantial challenge to the practice of pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC). PNCC has emerged as a novel subspecialty, and its presence is expanding within tertiary care centers. This review highlights the recent advances in the field, with a focus on traumatic brain injury (TBI), cardiac arrest, and stroke as disease models. RECENT FINDINGS: Variable approaches to the structure of a PNCC service have been reported, comprising multidisciplinary teams from neurology, critical care, neurosurgery, neuroradiology, and anesthesia. Neurologic morbidity is substantial in critically ill children and the increased use of continuous electroencephalography monitoring has highlighted this burden. Therapeutic hypothermia has not proven effective for treatment of children with severe TBI or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, results of studies of severe TBI suggest that multidisciplinary care in the ICU and adherence to guidelines for care can reduce mortality and improve outcome. SUMMARY: There is an unmet need for clinicians with expertise in the practice of brain-directed critical care for children. Although much of the practice of PNCC may remain empiric, a focus on the regionalization of care, creating defined training paths, practice within multidisciplinary teams, protocol-directed care, and improved measures of long-term outcome to quantify the impact of such care can provide evidence to direct the maturation of this field.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/terapia
Cuidados Críticos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia
Neurologia
Pediatria
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Cuidados Críticos/normas
Cuidados Críticos/tendências
Estado Terminal
Empirismo
Fidelidade a Diretrizes
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde
Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade
Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica
Monitorização Fisiológica
Neurologia/educação
Neurologia/tendências
Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)
Pediatria/educação
Pediatria/tendências
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1612
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160211
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MCC.0000000000000288


  7 / 303 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26831307
[Au] Autor:Kravitz RL
[Ad] Endereço:Division of General Medicine, University of California Davis, 4150 V. Street, Suite 2400 PSSB, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA. rlkravitz@ucdavis.edu.
[Ti] Título:Empiricism as Change Agent.
[So] Source:J Gen Intern Med;31(4):359-60, 2016 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1525-1497
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Empirismo
Mudança Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1701
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170403
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170403
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160203
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11606-016-3595-4


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[PMID]:26856049
[Au] Autor:Sammern R
[Ti] Título:Red, White and Black: Colors of Beauty, Tints of Health and Cosmetic Materials in Early Modern English Art Writing.
[So] Source:Early Sci Med;20(4-6):397-427, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:1383-7427
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Alongside Richard Haydocke's translation of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo's treatise on painting (1598), the article examines concepts of color concerning cosmetics, painting and complexion as they relate to aesthetics, artistic and medical practice in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Beginning with white and red as ideal colors of beauty in Agnolo Firenzuola's Discourse on the beauty of women (1541), the essay places color in relation to major issues in art, medicine and empiricism by discussing beauty as a quality of humoral theory and its colors as visual results of physiological processes. Challenging the relation of art and nature, gender and production, Lomazzo's account of complexion and Haydocke's additions on cosmetic practices and face-painting provide key passages that shed light on the relation of cosmetics colors, art writing and artistic practices at the convergence of the body, art and medicine in the context of the emerging English virtuosi around 1600.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arte/história
Beleza
Cor
Cosméticos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Corantes/história
Empirismo/história
Inglaterra
Feminino
História da Medicina
História do Século XVI
História do Século XVII
Seres Humanos
Mulheres
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Coloring Agents); 0 (Cosmetics)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1603
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26630820
[Au] Autor:Kenney M
[Ti] Título:Counting, accounting, and accountability: Helen Verran's relational empiricism.
[So] Source:Soc Stud Sci;45(5):749-71, 2015 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0306-3127
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Helen Verran uses the term 'relational empiricism' to describe situated empirical inquiry that is attentive to the relations that constitute its objects of study, including the investigator's own practices. Relational empiricism draws on and reconfigures Science and Technology Studies' traditional concerns with reflexivity and relationality, casting empirical inquiry as an important and non-innocent world-making practice. Through a reading of Verran's postcolonial projects in Nigeria and Australia, this article develops a concept of empirical and political 'accountability' to complement her relational empiricism. In Science and an African Logic, Verran provides accounts of the relations that materialize her empirical objects. These accounts work to decompose her original objects, generating new objects that are more promising for the specific postcolonial contexts of her work. The process of decomposition is part of remaining accountable for her research methods and accountable to the worlds she is working in and writing about. This is a practice of narrating relations and learning to tell better technoscientific stories. What counts as better, however, is not given, but is always contextual and at stake. In this way, Verran acts not as participant-observer, but as participant-storyteller, telling stories to facilitate epistemic flourishing within and as part of a historically located community of practice. The understanding of accountability that emerges from this discussion is designed as a contribution, both practical and evocative, to the theoretical toolkit of Science and Technology Studies scholars who are interested in thinking concretely about how we can be more accountable to the worlds we study.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação/história
Empirismo
Responsabilidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colonialismo
Empatia
Feminismo
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Nigéria
Política
Ciência/ética
Tecnologia/ética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Verran H
[Em] Mês de entrada:1512
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151204
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 303 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:26452775
[Au] Autor:Nicholson DJ; Gawne R
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for the Study of Life Sciences (Egenis), University of Exeter, Byrne House, St. German's Road, Exeter, EX4 4PJ, UK. dan.j.nicholson@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Neither logical empiricism nor vitalism, but organicism: what the philosophy of biology was.
[So] Source:Hist Philos Life Sci;37(4):345-81, 2015 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:0391-9714
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Philosophy of biology is often said to have emerged in the last third of the twentieth century. Prior to this time, it has been alleged that the only authors who engaged philosophically with the life sciences were either logical empiricists who sought to impose the explanatory ideals of the physical sciences onto biology, or vitalists who invoked mystical agencies in an attempt to ward off the threat of physicochemical reduction. These schools paid little attention to actual biological science, and as a result philosophy of biology languished in a state of futility for much of the twentieth century. The situation, we are told, only began to change in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when a new generation of researchers began to focus on problems internal to biology, leading to the consolidation of the discipline. In this paper we challenge this widely accepted narrative of the history of philosophy of biology. We do so by arguing that the most important tradition within early twentieth-century philosophy of biology was neither logical empiricism nor vitalism, but the organicist movement that flourished between the First and Second World Wars. We show that the organicist corpus is thematically and methodologically continuous with the contemporary literature in order to discredit the view that early work in the philosophy of biology was unproductive, and we emphasize the desirability of integrating the historical and contemporary conversations into a single, unified discourse.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biologia/história
Filosofia/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Empirismo
História do Século XX
Vitalismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1603
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151201
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151201
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:151011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s40656-015-0085-7



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