Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : L01.559.598 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29447157
[Au] Autor:Collins KA; Clément R
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
[Ti] Título:An inconclusive study comparing the effect of concrete and abstract descriptions of belief-inconsistent information.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0189570, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Linguistic bias is the differential use of linguistic abstraction (as defined by the Linguistic Category Model) to describe the same behaviour for members of different groups. Essentially, it is the tendency to use concrete language for belief-inconsistent behaviours and abstract language for belief-consistent behaviours. Having found that linguistic bias is produced without intention or awareness in many contexts, researchers argue that linguistic bias reflects, reinforces, and transmits pre-existing beliefs, thus playing a role in belief maintenance. Based on the Linguistic Category Model, this assumes that concrete descriptions reduce the impact of belief-inconsistent behaviours while abstract descriptions maximize the impact of belief-consistent behaviours. However, a key study by Geschke, Sassenberg, Ruhrmann, and Sommer [2007] found that concrete descriptions of belief-inconsistent behaviours actually had a greater impact than abstract descriptions, a finding that does not fit easily within the linguistic bias paradigm. Abstract descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman is athletic) are, by definition, more open to interpretation than concrete descriptions (e.g. the elderly woman works out regularly). It is thus possible that abstract descriptions are (1) perceived as having less evidentiary strength than concrete descriptions, and (2) understood in context (i.e. athletic for an elderly woman). In this study, the design of Geschke et al. [2007] was modified to address this possibility. We expected that the differences in the impact of concrete and abstract descriptions would be reduced or reversed, but instead we found that differences were largely absent. This study did not support the findings of Geschke et al. [2007] or the linguistic bias paradigm. We encourage further attempts to understand the strong effect of concrete descriptions for belief-inconsistent behaviour.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguística
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Conscientização
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189570


  2 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29420564
[Au] Autor:Uy EJB; Bautista DC; Xin X; Cheung YB; Thio ST; Thumboo J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
[Ti] Título:Using best-worst scaling choice experiments to elicit the most important domains of health for health-related quality of life in Singapore.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0189687, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instruments are sometimes used without explicit understanding of which HRQOL domains are important to a given population. In this study, we sought to elicit an importance hierarchy among 27 HRQOL domains (derived from the general population) via a best-worst scaling survey of the population in Singapore, and to determine whether these domains were consistently valued across gender, age, ethnicity, and presence of chronic illnesses. We conducted a community-based study that sampled participants with quotas for gender, ethnicity, age, presence of chronic illness, and interview language. For the best-worst scaling exercise, we constructed comparison sets according to a balanced incomplete block design resulting in 13 sets of questions, each with nine choice tasks. Each task involved three HRQOL domains from which participants identified the most and least important domain. We performed a standard analysis of best-worst object scaling design (Case 1) using simple summary statistics; 603 residents participated in the survey. The three most important domains of health were: "the ability to take care of self without help from others" (best-worst score (BWS): 636), "healing and resistance to illness" (BWS: 461), and "having good relationships with family, friends, and others" (BWS: 373). The 10 top-ranked domains included physical, mental, and social health. The three least important domains were: "having a satisfying sex life" (BWS: -803), "having normal physical appearance" (BWS: -461), and "interacting with others (talking, shared activities, etc.)" (BWS: -444). Generally, top-ranked domains were consistently valued across gender, age, ethnicity, and presence of chronic illness. We conclude that the 10 top-ranked domains reflect physical, mental, and social dimensions of well-being suggesting that the sampled population's views on health are consistent with the World Health Organization's definition of health, "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity".
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Qualidade de Vida
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Linguística
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Singapura
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189687


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[PMID]:28463847
[Au] Autor:Benítez-Burraco A; Di Pietro L; Barba M; Lattanzi W
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Philology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Huelva, Huelva, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Schizophrenia and Human Self-Domestication: An Evolutionary Linguistics Approach.
[So] Source:Brain Behav Evol;89(3):162-184, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1421-9743
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Schizophrenia (SZ) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder that entails social and cognitive deficits, including marked language problems. Its complex multifactorial etiopathogenesis, including genetic and environmental factors, is still widely uncertain. SZ incidence has always been high and quite stable in human populations, across time and regardless of cultural implications, for unclear reasons. It has been hypothesized that SZ pathophysiology may involve the biological components that changed during the recent human evolutionary history, and led to our distinctive mode of cognition, which includes language skills. In this paper we explore this hypothesis, focusing on the self-domestication of the human species. This has been claimed to account for many human-specific distinctive traits, including aspects of our behavior and cognition, and to favor the emergence of complex languages through cultural evolution. The "domestication syndrome" in mammals comprises the constellation of traits exhibited by domesticated strains, seemingly resulting from the hypofunction of the neural crest. It is our intention to show that people with SZ exhibit more marked domesticated traits at the morphological, physiological, and behavioral levels. We also show that genes involved in domestication and neural crest development and function comprise nearly 20% of SZ candidates, most of which exhibit altered expression profiles in the brain of SZ patients, specifically in areas involved in language processing. Based on these observations, we conclude that SZ may represent an abnormal ontogenetic itinerary for the human faculty of language, resulting, at least in part, from changes in genes important for the domestication syndrome and primarily involving the neural crest.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Esquizofrenia/genética
Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Evolução Biológica
Encéfalo/patologia
Cognição/fisiologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia
Bases de Dados Genéticas
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética
Seres Humanos
Linguagem
Linguística/métodos
Crista Neural/fisiologia
Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1159/000468506


  4 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28462480
[Au] Autor:Williamson TJ; Stanton AL; Austin JE; Valdimarsdottir HB; Wu LM; Krull JL; Rini CM
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, University of California, 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
[Ti] Título:Helping Yourself by Offering Help: Mediators of Expressive Helping in Survivors of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant.
[So] Source:Ann Behav Med;51(5):683-693, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4796
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: A randomized experiment by Rini et al. (Health Psychol. 33(12):1541-1551, 2014) demonstrated that expressive helping, which involves three expressive writing sessions regarding hematopoietic stem cell transplant, followed by one writing session directed toward helping other stem cell transplant recipients, reduced psychological distress and bothersome physical symptoms among stem cell transplant recipients with elevated survivorship problems, relative to a neutral writing control condition. PURPOSE: The current study evaluated whether word use reflective of emotional expression, cognitive processing, and change in perspective mediates the effects of expressive helping. METHOD: The essays of 67 stem cell transplant recipients with high survivorship problems were analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Multiple mediation modeling was used to test the hypothesized mechanisms of expressive helping on distress and bothersome physical symptoms. RESULTS: Relative to the control condition, expressive helping produced significant reductions in psychological distress and marginal reductions in physical symptom bother in the analyzed subset of participants from the parent study. Results indicated that positive emotion word use significantly mediated effects of expressive helping on reduced distress, but only for participants who used average (compared to above or below average) rates of negative emotion words. Cognitive processing and change in perspective did not significantly mediate benefits of expressive helping. CONCLUSIONS: Expressive helping carried its positive effects on distress through participants' higher expression of positive emotions when coupled with moderate rates of negative emotions. Findings highlight the benefit of expressing both positive and negative emotions in stressful situations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia
Cognição
Emoções
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/psicologia
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos
Redação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Psicológica
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Linguística
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Psicológicos
Estresse Psicológico/complicações
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12160-017-9892-2


  5 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29287091
[Au] Autor:Madden-Lombardi C; Dominey PF; Ventre-Dominey J
[Ad] Endereço:Université Lyon 1, INSERM U1208, Stem Cell and Brain Research Institute, Integrative Neuroscience Department, Bron, France.
[Ti] Título:Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189919, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle) should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle) should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.). To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant). Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use) and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand) or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend previous research, showing how verb aspect drives not only the temporal structure of event representation, but also the focus on specific roles of the event. More generally, the findings of visual match during online sentence-picture processing are consistent with theories of perceptual simulation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguística
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tempo de Reação
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171230
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189919


  6 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27776281
[Au] Autor:Morgan E; Levy R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Linguistics, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0108, United States; Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155, United States. Electronic address: emily.morgan@tufts.edu.
[Ti] Título:Abstract knowledge versus direct experience in processing of binomial expressions.
[So] Source:Cognition;157:384-402, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model. In contrast, online processing of highly frequent binomials is primarily driven by direct experience, which we estimate from corpus frequency counts. We propose a trade-off wherein processing of novel expressions relies upon abstract knowledge, while reliance upon direct experience increases with increased exposure to an expression. Our findings support theories of language processing in which both compositional generation and direct, holistic reuse of multi-word expressions play crucial roles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Linguística
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
Modelos Estatísticos
Leitura
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771538
[Au] Autor:Carrigan EM; Coppola M
[Ad] Endereço:University of Connecticut, United States. Electronic address: emily.carrigan@uconn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Successful communication does not drive language development: Evidence from adult homesign.
[So] Source:Cognition;158:10-27, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Constructivist accounts of language acquisition maintain that the language learner aims to match a target provided by mature users. Communicative problem solving in the context of social interaction and matching a linguistic target or model are presented as primary mechanisms driving the language development process. However, research on the development of homesign gesture systems by deaf individuals who have no access to a linguistic model suggests that aspects of language can develop even when typical input is unavailable. In four studies, we examined the role of communication in the genesis of homesign systems by assessing how well homesigners' family members comprehend homesign productions. In Study 1, homesigners' mothers showed poorer comprehension of homesign descriptions produced by their now-adult deaf child than of spoken Spanish descriptions of the same events produced by one of their adult hearing children. Study 2 found that the younger a family member was when they first interacted with their deaf relative, the better they understood the homesigner. Despite this, no family member comprehended homesign productions at levels that would be expected if family members co-generated homesign systems with their deaf relative via communicative interactions. Study 3 found that mothers' poor or incomplete comprehension of homesign was not a result of incomplete homesign descriptions. In Study 4 we demonstrated that Deaf native users of American Sign Language, who had no previous experience with the homesigners or their homesign systems, nevertheless comprehended homesign productions out of context better than the homesigners' mothers. This suggests that homesign has comprehensible structure, to which mothers and other family members are not fully sensitive. Taken together, these studies show that communicative problem solving is not responsible for the development of structure in homesign systems. The role of this mechanism must therefore be re-evaluated in constructivist theories of language development.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Surdez/psicologia
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
Linguística
Linguagem de Sinais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Gestos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Mães/psicologia
Irmãos/psicologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  8 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29300756
[Au] Autor:Dawson C; Tervaniemi M; Aalto D
[Ad] Endereço:Cognitive Brain Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
[Ti] Título:Behavioral and subcortical signatures of musical expertise in Mandarin Chinese speakers.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190793, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Both musical training and native language have been shown to have experience-based plastic effects on auditory processing. However, the combined effects within individuals are unclear. Recent research suggests that musical training and tone language speaking are not clearly additive in their effects on processing of auditory features and that there may be a disconnect between perceptual and neural signatures of auditory feature processing. The literature has only recently begun to investigate the effects of musical expertise on basic auditory processing for different linguistic groups. This work provides a profile of primary auditory feature discrimination for Mandarin speaking musicians and nonmusicians. The musicians showed enhanced perceptual discrimination for both frequency and duration as well as enhanced duration discrimination in a multifeature discrimination task, compared to nonmusicians. However, there were no differences between the groups in duration processing of nonspeech sounds at a subcortical level or in subcortical frequency representation of a nonnative tone contour, for fo or for the first or second formant region. The results indicate that musical expertise provides a cognitive, but not subcortical, advantage in a population of Mandarin speakers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia
Linguagem
Música
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Adolescente
Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático
Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Linguística
Masculino
Música/psicologia
Fonética
Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
Psicoacústica
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190793


  9 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29324761
[Au] Autor:Strickland B; Chemla E
[Ad] Endereço:Département d'Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, Paris, France.
[Ti] Título:Cross-linguistic regularities and learner biases reflect "core" mechanics.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0184132, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent research in infant cognition and adult vision suggests that the mechanical object relationships may be more salient and naturally attention grabbing than similar but non-mechanical relationships. Here we examine two novel sources of evidence from language related to this hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, we show that adults preferentially infer that the meaning of a novel preposition refers to a mechanical as opposed to a non-mechanical relationship. Experiments 3 and 4 examine cross-linguistic adpositions obtained on a large scale from machines or from experts, respectively. While these methods differ in the ease of data collection relative to the reliability of the data, their results converge: we find that across a range of diverse and historically unrelated languages, adpositions (such as prepositions) referring to the mechanical relationships of containment (e.g "in") and support (e.g. "on") are systematically shorter than closely matched but not mechanical words such as "behind," "beside," "above," "over," "out," and "off." These results first suggest that languages regularly contain traces of core knowledge representations and that cross-linguistic regularities can therefore be a useful and easily accessible form of information that bears on the foundations of non-linguistic thought.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguística
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184132


  10 / 7168 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261710
[Au] Autor:Song Y; Hu J
[Ad] Endereço:School of Management and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, P. R. China.
[Ti] Título:Vector similarity measures of hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets and their applications.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189579, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In decision making, similarity measure and distance between two objects are crucial to be able to determine the relationship between those objects. Many researchers have received much attention for their research on this subject. In this study, we propose two novel similarity measures between hesitant fuzzy linguistic term sets (HFLTSs). In addition, two extensions of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) are proposed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic environments. Furthermore, an example of an application concerning traditional Chinese medical diagnosis and an MCDM problem have been given to illustrate the applicability and validation of these similarity measures of HFLTSs. Furthermore, the results of examples demonstrate that the Dice and Jaccard similarity measures are more reasonable than the cosine similarity measure with respect to HFLTSs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lógica Fuzzy
Linguística
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189579



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