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Pesquisa : L01.559.598.901 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 9281 [refinar]
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  1 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27776281
[Au] Autor:Morgan E; Levy R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Linguistics, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0108, United States; Department of Psychology, Tufts University, 490 Boston Ave, Medford, MA 02155, United States. Electronic address: emily.morgan@tufts.edu.
[Ti] Título:Abstract knowledge versus direct experience in processing of binomial expressions.
[So] Source:Cognition;157:384-402, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model. In contrast, online processing of highly frequent binomials is primarily driven by direct experience, which we estimate from corpus frequency counts. We propose a trade-off wherein processing of novel expressions relies upon abstract knowledge, while reliance upon direct experience increases with increased exposure to an expression. Our findings support theories of language processing in which both compositional generation and direct, holistic reuse of multi-word expressions play crucial roles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Compreensão
Linguística
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Modelos Psicológicos
Modelos Estatísticos
Leitura
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27771539
[Au] Autor:Medimorec S; Young TP; Risko EF
[Ad] Endereço:University of Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address: smedimorec@uwaterloo.ca.
[Ti] Título:Disfluency effects on lexical selection.
[So] Source:Cognition;158:28-32, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:1873-7838
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Recent research has suggested that introducing a disfluency in the context of written composition (i.e., typing with one hand) can increase lexical sophistication. In the current study, we provide a strong test between two accounts of this phenomenon, one that attributes it to the delay caused by the disfluency and one that attributes it to the disruption of typical finger-to-letter mappings caused by the disfluency. To test between these accounts, we slowed down participants' typewriting by introducing a small delay between keystrokes while individuals wrote essays. Critically, this manipulation did not disrupt typical finger-to-letter mappings. Consistent with the delay-based account, our results demonstrate that the essays written in this less fluent condition were more lexically diverse and used less frequent words. Implications for the temporal dynamics of lexical selection in complex cognitive tasks are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cognição
Vocabulário
Redação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Desempenho Psicomotor
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29303712
[Au] Autor:The Lancet
[Ti] Título:Dangerous words.
[So] Source:Lancet;390(10114):2740, 2018 12 23.
[Is] ISSN:1474-547X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Política de Saúde
Vocabulário
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Linguagem
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29244824
[Au] Autor:Davis CJ; Lupker SJ
[Ad] Endereço:University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:A backwards glance at words: Using reversed-interior masked primes to test models of visual word identification.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189056, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The experiments reported here used "Reversed-Interior" (RI) primes (e.g., cetupmor-COMPUTER) in three different masked priming paradigms in order to test between different models of orthographic coding/visual word recognition. The results of Experiment 1, using a standard masked priming methodology, showed no evidence of priming from RI primes, in contrast to the predictions of the Bayesian Reader and LTRS models. By contrast, Experiment 2, using a sandwich priming methodology, showed significant priming from RI primes, in contrast to the predictions of open bigram models, which predict that there should be no orthographic similarity between these primes and their targets. Similar results were obtained in Experiment 3, using a masked prime same-different task. The results of all three experiments are most consistent with the predictions derived from simulations of the Spatial-coding model.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia
Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia
Leitura
Semântica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Teorema de Bayes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
Vocabulário
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189056


  5 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29186175
[Au] Autor:Gomes-Koban C; Simpson IC; Valle A; Defior S
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Developmental and Educational Psychology, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Oral vocabulary training program for Spanish third-graders with low socio-economic status: A randomized controlled trial.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188157, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although the importance of vocabulary training in English speaking countries is well recognized and has been extensively studied, the same is not true for Spanish-few evidence based vocabulary studies for Spanish-speaking children have been reported. Here, two rich oral vocabulary training programs (definition and context), based on literature about vocabulary instruction for English-speaking children, were developed and applied in a sample of 100 Spanish elementary school third-graders recruited from areas of predominantly low socio-economic status (SES). Compared to an alternative read-aloud method which served as the control, both explicit methods were more effective in teaching word meanings when assessed immediately after the intervention. Nevertheless, five months later, only the definition group continued to demonstrate significant vocabulary knowledge gains. The definition method was more effective in specifically teaching children word meanings and, more broadly, in helping children organize and express knowledge of words. We recommend the explicit and rich vocabulary instruction as a means to fostering vocabulary knowledge in low SES children.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Classe Social
Vocabulário
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188157


  6 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29186141
[Au] Autor:Yan E; Williams J; Chen Z
[Ad] Endereço:College of Computing and Informatics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0187762, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Educação
Editoração
Vocabulário
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0187762


  7 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28470910
[Au] Autor:Schaars MMH; Segers E; Verhoeven L
[Ad] Endereço:Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Word Decoding Development during Phonics Instruction in Children at Risk for Dyslexia.
[So] Source:Dyslexia;23(2):141-160, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1099-0909
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the present study, we examined the early word decoding development of 73 children at genetic risk of dyslexia and 73 matched controls. We conducted monthly curriculum-embedded word decoding measures during the first 5 months of phonics-based reading instruction followed by standardized word decoding measures halfway and by the end of first grade. In kindergarten, vocabulary, phonological awareness, lexical retrieval, and verbal and visual short-term memory were assessed. The results showed that the children at risk were less skilled in phonemic awareness in kindergarten. During the first 5 months of reading instruction, children at risk were less efficient in word decoding and the discrepancy increased over the months. In subsequent months, the discrepancy prevailed for simple words but increased for more complex words. Phonemic awareness and lexical retrieval predicted the reading development in children at risk and controls to the same extent. It is concluded that children at risk are behind their typical peers in word decoding development starting from the very beginning. Furthermore, it is concluded that the disadvantage increased during phonics instruction and that the same predictors underlie the development of word decoding in the two groups of children. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguagem Infantil
Dislexia/psicologia
Fonética
Leitura
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conscientização
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Criança
Currículo
Dislexia/genética
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Linguagem
Linguística
Masculino
Memória de Curto Prazo
Fatores de Risco
Instituições Acadêmicas
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/dys.1556


  8 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28813074
[Au] Autor:Ganthous G; Rossi NF; Giacheti CM
[Ad] Endereço:Universidade Estadual Paulista - UNESP - Marília (SP), Brasil.
[Ti] Título:Oral narrative of individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.
[Ti] Título:Narrativa oral de indivíduos com Transtorno do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal..
[So] Source:Codas;29(4):e20170012, 2017 Aug 10.
[Is] ISSN:2317-1782
[Cp] País de publicação:Brazil
[La] Idioma:por; eng
[Ab] Resumo:Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level. Measures regarding the macrostructure included the presence of typical structural elements of storytelling, while the microstructural aspects included words (total and different words), communication units (C-Units), lexical diversity, and mean length of C-Units. Results: Low performance was found in the FASD group for all macrostructural aspects, with the exception of linguistic markers. Among the microstructural aspects, lexical diversity and incomplete C-Units were different between the FASD and TLD groups. The FASD group presented lower global coherence level compared to the TLD group. Negative correlations were found between macrostructural aspects, facial characteristics, and Central Nervous System impairment. Conclusion: Restricted use of typical structural elements of storytelling with lower levels of coherence and reduced vocabulary distinguished the FASD from the TDL group. Future studies may explore whether the association between narrative performance and the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code items present predictive values in the narrative performance of individuals with FASD.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico
Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/fisiopatologia
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia
Narração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia
Criança
Feminino
Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia
Seres Humanos
Testes de Linguagem
Masculino
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Valores de Referência
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28806417
[Au] Autor:Wong P; Strange W
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
[Ti] Título:Phonetic complexity affects children's Mandarin tone production accuracy in disyllabic words: A perceptual study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182337, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones. Children's tones were judged with significantly lower accuracy than mothers' productions. Tone accuracy improved, while cross subject variability in tone accuracy decreased, with age. Children's tone accuracy was affected by the articulatory complexity of phonetic contexts. Children made more errors in tone combinations with more complex fundamental frequency (F0) contours than tone sequences with simpler F0 changes. When producing disyllabic tone sequences with complex F0 contours, children tended to shift the F0 contour of the first tone to reduce the F0 change, resulting in more tone errors in the first syllable than in the second syllable and showing substantially more anticipatory coarticulation than adults. The results provide further evidence that acquisition of lexical tones is a protracted process in children. Tones produced accurately by children in one phonetic context may not be produced correctly in another phonetic context. Children demonstrate more anticipatory coarticulation in their disyllabic productions than adults, which may be attributed to children's immature speech motor control in tone production, and is presumably a by-product of their inability to accomplish complex F0 changes within the syllable time-frame.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Linguagem
Fonética
Nível de Percepção Sonora
Vocabulário
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Estimulação Acústica
Adulto
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Estatística como Assunto
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170815
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182337


  10 / 9281 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28806413
[Au] Autor:McAndrew TC; Guseva EA; Bagrow JP
[Ad] Endereço:Mathematics & Statistics, Vermont Complex Systems Center, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Reply & Supply: Efficient crowdsourcing when workers do more than answer questions.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182662, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Crowdsourcing works by distributing many small tasks to large numbers of workers, yet the true potential of crowdsourcing lies in workers doing more than performing simple tasks-they can apply their experience and creativity to provide new and unexpected information to the crowdsourcer. One such case is when workers not only answer a crowdsourcer's questions but also contribute new questions for subsequent crowd analysis, leading to a growing set of questions. This growth creates an inherent bias for early questions since a question introduced earlier by a worker can be answered by more subsequent workers than a question introduced later. Here we study how to perform efficient crowdsourcing with such growing question sets. By modeling question sets as networks of interrelated questions, we introduce algorithms to help curtail the growth bias by efficiently distributing workers between exploring new questions and addressing current questions. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that these algorithms can efficiently explore an unbounded set of questions without losing confidence in crowd answers.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comunicação
Crowdsourcing
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Simulação por Computador
Internet
Modelos Teóricos
Probabilidade
Interface Usuário-Computador
Vocabulário
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170815
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182662



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