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[PMID]:29424988
[Au] Autor:Fedotova IV; Chernikova EF
[Ti] Título:[Stress as an occupational risk factor among policemen of road patrol service].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(7):617-22, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:The hygienic evaluation of occupational factors which characterized working conditions of traffic policemen of road patrol service was performed. The authors found that along with high neuro-emotional occupational stress in traffic policemen, they exposed to unfavorable microclimate, higher level of noise, vibration and their work was classified as heavy. Also, traffic policemen presented subjective complaints about negative impact of polluted air of motorways on their health status. Prevalence of chronic diseases was analyzed in group of 431 traffic policemen. The authors revealed a leading role of the following diseases: musculoskeletal diseases, diseases of connective tissue, digestive diseases, diseases of the nerve system, circulation system; their portion in the morbidity structure was 86.0%. The association of these diseases with occupation was confirmed by the increasing of their incidence with increasing of length of duration of service. Calculation of indices of relative occupational risk showed (that especially important) the increase of the length of service led to the increase in the risk ofpathologies, in which stress played a significant role. In examined group, the authors revealed such diseases as hypertension, autonomous-vascular dystonia, gastric and duodenal ulcer. Risk of the development of these diseases in some age/length of service groups is classified as high and very high. Obtained results provide the evidence that measures aimed to the decrease of the exposure to occupational factors will promote prevention of stress-stipulated diseases among traffic policemen.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Estresse Ocupacional
Polícia/psicologia
Emissões de Veículos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle
Adulto
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ocupacional/análise
Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
Saúde do Trabalhador/normas
Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos
Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia
Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia
Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Vehicle Emissions)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29320548
[Au] Autor:Bejan V; Hickman M; Parkin WS; Pozo VF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Economics, Seattle University, Seattle, WA 98122, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Primed for death: Law enforcement-citizen homicides, social media, and retaliatory violence.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190571, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We examine whether retaliatory violence exists between law enforcement and citizens while controlling for any social media contagion effect related to prior fatal encounters. Analyzed using a trivariate dynamic structural vector-autoregressive model, daily time-series data over a 21-month period captured the frequencies of police killed in the line of duty, police deadly use of force incidents, and social media coverage. The results support a significant retaliatory violence effect against minorities by police, yet there is no evidence of retaliatory violence against law enforcement officers by minorities. Also, social media coverage of the Black Lives Matter movement increases the risk of fatal victimization to both law enforcement officers and minorities. Possible explanations for these results are based in rational choice and terror management theories.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Homicídio
Mídias Sociais
Violência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Vítimas de Crime
Seres Humanos
Polícia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180111
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190571


  3 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28557669
[Au] Autor:Martin JL; Wu D
[Ad] Endereço:a Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, IFSTTAR, UMRESTTE UMR_T 9405 , Lyon , France.
[Ti] Título:Pedestrian fatality and impact speed squared: Cloglog modeling from French national data.
[So] Source:Traffic Inj Prev;19(1):94-101, 2018 01 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-957X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The present study estimates pedestrians' risk of death according to impact speed when hit by a passenger car in a frontal collision. METHODS: Data were coded for all fatal crashes in France in 2011 and for a random sample of 1/20th of all road injuries for the same year and weighted to take into account police underreporting of mild injury. A cloglog model was used to optimize risk adjustment for high collision speeds. The fit of the model on the data was also improved by using the square of the impact speed, which best matches the energy dissipated in the collision. RESULTS: Modeling clearly demonstrated that the risk of death was very close to 1 when impact speeds exceeded 80 km/h. For speeds less than 40 km/h, because data representative of all crashes resulting in injury were used, the estimated risk of death was fairly low. However, although the curve seemed deceptively flat below 50 km/h, the risk of death in fact rose 2-fold between 30 and 40 km/h and 6-fold between 30 and 50 km/h. For any given speed, the risk of death was much higher for more elderly subjects, especially those over 75 years of age. These results concern frontal crashes involving a passenger car. Collisions involving trucks are far less frequent, but half result in the pedestrian being run over, incurring greater mortality. CONCLUSIONS: For impact speeds below 60 km/h, the shape of the curve relating probability of death to impact speed was very similar to those reported in recent rigorous studies. For higher impact speeds, the present model allows the curve to rise ever more steeply, giving a much better fit to observed data. The present results confirm that, when a pedestrian is struck by a car, impact speed is a major risk factor, thus providing a supplementary argument for strict speed limits in areas where pedestrians are highly exposed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aceleração
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos
Pedestres
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
França/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos Estatísticos
Polícia
Medição de Risco/métodos
Fatores de Risco
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180202
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180202
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170531
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/15389588.2017.1332408


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[PMID]:27773436
[Au] Autor:Oxburgh L; Gabbert F; Milne R; Cherryman J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths University of London, UK.
[Ti] Título:Police officers' perceptions and experiences with mentally disordered suspects.
[So] Source:Int J Law Psychiatry;49(Pt A):138-146, 2016 Sep - Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6386
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Despite mentally disordered suspects being over-represented within the criminal justice system, there is a dearth of published literature that examines police officers' perceptions when interviewing this vulnerable group. This is concerning given that police officers are increasingly the first point of contact with these individuals. Using a Grounded Theory approach, this study examined 35 police officers' perceptions and experiences when interviewing mentally disordered suspects. Current safeguards, such as Appropriate Adults, and their experiences of any training they received were also explored. A specially designed questionnaire was developed and distributed across six police forces in England and Wales. Nine conceptual categories emerged from the data that highlighted how police officers' level of experience impacted upon their perceptions when dealing with this cohort. As a consequence, a new model grounded within Schema Theory has emerged termed Police Experience Transitional Model. Implications include the treatment and outcome of mentally disordered suspects being heavily dependent on whom they encounter within the criminal justice system.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Transtornos Mentais/psicologia
Polícia/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Atitude Frente à Saúde
Direito Penal/métodos
Inglaterra
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos
Inquéritos e Questionários
País de Gales
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  5 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29210547
[Au] Autor:Wirth SR
[Ti] Título:Police Transports: MCI plans should consider alternatives to EMS transport.
[So] Source:JEMS;42(3):17, 2017 03.
[Is] ISSN:0197-2510
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços Médicos de Emergência/recursos humanos
Incidentes com Feridos em Massa
Polícia/utilização
Transporte de Pacientes/recursos humanos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171207
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29206403
[Au] Autor:Leggio W; Snodgrass A
[Ti] Título:Small Town, Big Commitment. Public safety agencies in Nebraska City, Neb., worked together to save their own.
[So] Source:JEMS;42(1):38-40, 2017 01.
[Is] ISSN:0197-2510
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/normas
Comportamento Cooperativo
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração
Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia
Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração
Polícia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Nebraska
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  7 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29048954
[Au] Autor:McCauley EJ
[Ad] Endereço:Erin J. McCauley is with Policy Analysis and Management, College of Human Ecology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY.
[Ti] Título:The Cumulative Probability of Arrest by Age 28 Years in the United States by Disability Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender.
[So] Source:Am J Public Health;107(12):1977-1981, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0048
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cumulative probability (c) of arrest by age 28 years in the United States by disability status, race/ethnicity, and gender. METHODS: I estimated cumulative probabilities through birth cohort life tables with data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. RESULTS: Estimates demonstrated that those with disabilities have a higher cumulative probability of arrest (c = 42.65) than those without (c = 29.68). The risk was disproportionately spread across races/ethnicities, with Blacks with disabilities experiencing the highest cumulative probability of arrest (c = 55.17) and Whites without disabilities experiencing the lowest (c = 27.55). Racial/ethnic differences existed by gender as well. There was a similar distribution of disability types across race/ethnicity, suggesting that the racial/ethnic differences in arrest may stem from racial/ethnic inequalities as opposed to differential distribution of disability types. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of arrest for those with disabilities was higher than expected. Police officers should understand how disabilities may affect compliance and other behaviors, and likewise how implicit bias and structural racism may affect reactions and actions of officers and the systems they work within in ways that create inequities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Polícia/psicologia
Probabilidade
Política Pública
Papel (Figurativo)
Fatores Sexuais
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171020
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304095


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[PMID]:28934260
[Au] Autor:Isaiah A; Hoffmann AR; Kelley R; Mundell P; Steiner JM; Suchodolski JS
[Ad] Endereço:Gastrointestinal Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Characterization of the nasal and oral microbiota of detection dogs.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184899, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (P<0.01). Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were higher in nasal samples, while Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes were higher in oral samples. Bacterial diversity was not significantly different based on the detection job. No significant difference in beta diversity was observed in the nasal samples based on the detection job. In oral samples, however, ANOSIM suggested a significant difference in bacterial communities based on job category albeit with a small effect size (R = 0.1079, P = 0.02). Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities using LEfSe showed that within the nasal samples, Cardiobacterium and Riemerella were higher in VWD-E dogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial data also shows that there is a temporal variation in alpha diversity in nasal samples in detection canines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cães/microbiologia
Microbiota
Boca/microbiologia
Nariz/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Estudos de Coortes
Análise Discriminante
Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes
Substâncias Explosivas
Feminino
Modelos Lineares
Masculino
Microbiota/genética
Militares
Animais de Estimação/microbiologia
Polícia
RNA Bacteriano/genética
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Olfato
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Explosive Agents); 0 (RNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171024
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171024
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170922
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184899


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[PMID]:28886163
[Au] Autor:Scantlebury A; Fairhurst C; Booth A; McDaid C; Moran N; Parker A; Payne R; Scott WJ; Torgerson D; Webber M; Hewitt C
[Ad] Endereço:York Trials Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, England.
[Ti] Título:Effectiveness of a training program for police officers who come into contact with people with mental health problems: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184377, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Police officers frequently come into contact with individuals with mental health problems. Specialist training in this area for police officers may improve how they respond to individuals with mental health problems; however, evidence to support this is sparse. This study evaluated the effectiveness of one bespoke mental health training package for frontline police officers relative to routine training. DESIGN: Pragmatic, two-armed cluster randomised controlled trial in one police force in England. Police stations in North Yorkshire were randomised with frontline police officers receiving either a bespoke mental health training package or routine training. The primary outcome was the number of incidents which resulted in a police response reported to the North Yorkshire Police control room up to six months after delivery of training. Secondary outcomes included: likelihood of incidents using Section 136 of the Mental Health Act; likelihood of incidents having a mental health tag applied; and number of individuals with a mental health warning marker involved in incidents. The appropriateness of mental health tags applied to a random sample of incidents was checked by an independent mental health professional. Routinely collected data were used. RESULTS: Twelve police stations were recruited and randomised (Intervention group n = 6; Control group n = 6), and 249 officers received the bespoke mental health training intervention. At follow-up, a median of 397 incidents were assigned to trial stations in the intervention group, and 498 in the control group. There was no evidence of a difference in the number of incidents with a police response (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.38, p = 0.69), or in the number of people with mental health warning markers involved in incidents (adjusted IRR 1.39, 95% CI 0.91 to 2.10, p = 0.13) between the intervention and control groups up to six months following the intervention; however, incidents assigned to stations in the intervention group were more likely to have a mental health tag applied to them than incidents assigned to control stations (adjusted odds ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.71, p = 0.001). The review of 100 incidents suggests that there may be incidents involving individuals with mental health issues that are not being recorded as such (Kappa coefficient 0.65). There was no statistically significant difference in the likelihood of Section 136 of the Mental Health Act being applied to an incident. CONCLUSIONS: The bespoke one day mental health training delivered to frontline officers by mental health professionals did not reduce the number of incidents reported to the police control room up to six months after its delivery; however training may have a positive effect on how the police record incidents involving individuals with mental health problems. Our trial has shown that conducting pragmatic trials within the police setting is feasible and acceptable. There is a wealth of routinely collected police data that can be utilised for research and further collaboration between police forces and academia is encouraged. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN (ISRCTN11685602). The authors confirm that all ongoing and related trials for this drug/intervention are registered.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Capacitação em Serviço
Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes
Polícia/educação
Relações Profissional-Paciente
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Comunicação
Inglaterra
Seres Humanos
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170909
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184377


  10 / 4180 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28880946
[Au] Autor:Pehrson S; Devaney L; Bryan D; Blaylock DL
[Ad] Endereço:School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Beyond group engagement: Multiple pathways from encounters with the police to cooperation and compliance in Northern Ireland.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184436, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In a sample of young people in Northern Ireland (N = 819), we examine the relationships between the quality of experience with police officers and police legitimacy. We examine potential pathways through which experiences may either support or undermine the legitimacy of the police, and thus cooperation and compliance with them. We find evidence that perceptions of the police as having goals that align with those of wider society, and as being fair in general, mediate relations between the quality of encounters and legitimacy, which in turn mediates the relation with cooperation and compliance. Identification with wider society was not a reliable mediator, contrary to our predictions based on the Group Engagement Model. Moreover, our analysis of the structure of police fairness perceptions finds no support for the distinction between procedural and distributive police fairness as usually conceived. Implications for the social psychological understanding of legitimate authority are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Polícia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Irlanda do Norte
Justiça Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170908
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184436



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