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[PMID]:28800612
[Au] Autor:Balayssac D; Pereira B; Virot J; Collin A; Alapini D; Cuny D; Gagnaire JM; Authier N; Vennat B
[Ad] Endereço:Université Clermont Auvergne, Inserm U1107, NEURO-DOL, UFR de Pharmacie, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
[Ti] Título:Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182956, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. METHODS: This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. RESULTS: Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia
Ansiedade/epidemiologia
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia
Depressão/epidemiologia
Farmacêuticos/psicologia
Técnicos em Farmácia/psicologia
Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia
Adulto
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia
Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico
Ansiedade/economia
Ansiedade/psicologia
Esgotamento Profissional/tratamento farmacológico
Esgotamento Profissional/economia
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia
Comorbidade
Estudos Transversais
Depressão/tratamento farmacológico
Depressão/economia
Depressão/psicologia
Feminino
França/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Farmácias/recursos humanos
Prevalência
Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico
Estresse Psicológico/economia
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171004
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171004
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170812
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182956


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[PMID]:28720919
[Au] Autor:El-Awaisi A; Awaisu A; El Hajj MS; Alemrayat B; Al-Jayyousi G; Wong N; Verjee MA
[Ad] Endereço:College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
[Ti] Título:Delivering Tobacco Cessation Content in the Middle East Through Interprofessional Learning.
[So] Source:Am J Pharm Educ;81(5):91, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1553-6467
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To explore the attitudes of pharmacy, pharmacy technician, medical, and public health students before and after an IPE activity that focused on smoking cessation in the Middle East. A pre-post intervention research design using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was used for this study. The tool contained 20 items, categorized under the following subscales: teamwork and collaboration, professional identity, and patient-centeredness. A total of 47 out of 50 students from four different health disciplines in Qatar (medicine, pharmacy, pharmacy technician, and public health) who participated in the activity completed a pre- and post-intervention pre-validated questionnaire (94% response rate). Total attitude scores were calculated for all the 20 items along with attitudinal scores of the three domains. Most of the students reported having a positive attitude toward IPE; the number of students having a positive attitude toward IPE increased after the IPE session. The overall median (IQR) score increased from 82 (16) before the session to 84 (15) after the session. Students from different disciplines did not vary in their attitude scores. Health care professional students in Qatar perceived IPE positively, believing that it enhanced their communication skills, collaboration and appreciation of professional roles. This study has implication on developing effective methods to implement IPE in various health professional education curricula.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Atitude Frente à Saúde
Técnicos em Farmácia/psicologia
Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia
Estudantes de Saúde Pública/psicologia
Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Oriente Médio
Catar
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171030
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171030
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5688/ajpe81591


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[PMID]:28496264
[Au] Autor:Wadelin JW; Travlos DV; Janke KK; Zellmer WA; Vlasses PH
[Ad] Endereço:Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, Chicago, Illinois.
[Ti] Título:Current and Future Opportunities and Challenges in Continuing Pharmacy Education.
[So] Source:Am J Pharm Educ;81(3):44, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1553-6467
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) convened a consensus-seeking invitational conference on October 29-30, 2015, in Chicago, Ill. ACPE's desire to have stakeholder guidance on its role in the future of continuing pharmacy education and continuing professional development led to the convening of the conference. The purpose of this article is to summarize the proceedings of the conference, including the recommendations from the stakeholders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acreditação/normas
Educação Continuada em Farmácia/normas
Técnicos em Farmácia/educação
Farmácia/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Educação Continuada em Farmácia/tendências
Previsões
Seres Humanos
Técnicos em Farmácia/normas
Técnicos em Farmácia/tendências
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170513
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5688/ajpe81344


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[PMID]:28350827
[Au] Autor:De Weerdt E; De Rijdt T; Simoens S; Casteels M; Huys I
[Ad] Endereço:KU Leuven, Dept. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, Herestraat, Leuven, Belgium.
[Ti] Título:Time spent by Belgian hospital pharmacists on supply disruptions and drug shortages: An exploratory study.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0174556, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Supply problems of drugs are an increasing and worldwide problem, also in Belgium. Hospital pharmacists try to manage drug supply problems to minimize the impact on patient care. This study aims to quantify in a detailed manner how much time employees of 17 Belgian hospital pharmacies spend on drug supply problems. METHODS: During six months, employees of Belgian hospital pharmacies filled in the daily time spent on drug supply problems using a template containing all steps which can be executed to manage drug supply problems. Additionally, Belgian hospital pharmacists were asked to report the drugs which experienced drug supply problems together with the solution for this problem. RESULTS: Hospital pharmacists spent a median of 109 minutes a week on drug supply problems, with a minimum of 40 minutes per week and a maximum of 216 minutes per week. Fifty-nine percent of the total time spent on drug supply problems was executed by hospital pharmacists, 27% by pharmacy technicians; the rest was performed by logistic or administrative personnel. About one third of the total time spent was invested in gathering information on the supply problem. About two third of the supply disruptions caused drug shortages, meaning there was a need to switch to another (generic) therapeutic alternative. For most drug shortages, a Belgian generic medicine could be found. However in some cases, the alternative had to be ordered abroad or for some drug shortages, no alternative was available. CONCLUSION: These exploratory results on time spent by hospital pharmacists on drug supply problems in Belgium highlight the economic impact of drug supply problems for hospital pharmacies. A fully reliable, daily updated list on the federal agencies websites would be a major help to hospital pharmacists.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribuição
Farmacêuticos
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bélgica
Coleta de Dados/métodos
Indústria Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos
Medicamentos Genéricos/provisão & distribuição
Seres Humanos
Técnicos em Farmácia
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Drugs, Generic); 0 (Pharmaceutical Preparations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170831
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170831
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170329
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0174556


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[PMID]:28292508
[Au] Autor:Morton KJ; Harrand B; Floyd CC; Schaefer C; Acosta J; Logan BC; Clark K
[Ti] Título:Pharmacy-based statewide naloxone distribution: A novel "top-down, bottom-up" approach.
[So] Source:J Am Pharm Assoc (2003);57(2S):S99-S106.e5, 2017 Mar - Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1544-3450
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To highlight New Mexico's multifaceted approach to widespread pharmacy naloxone distribution and to share the interventions as a tool for improving pharmacy-based naloxone practices in other states. SETTING: New Mexico had the second highest drug overdose death rate in 2014 of which 53% were related to prescription opioids. Opioid overdose death is preventable through the use of naloxone, a safe and effective medication that reverses the effects of prescription opioids and heroin. Pharmacists can play an important role in providing naloxone to individuals who use prescription opioids. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: Not applicable. PRACTICE INNOVATIONS: Not applicable. INTERVENTIONS: A multifaceted approach was utilized in New Mexico from the top down with legislative passage of provisions for a statewide standing order and New Mexico Department of Health support for pharmacy-based naloxone delivery. A bottom up approach was also initiated with the development and implementation of a training program for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. EVALUATION: Naloxone Medicaid claims were used to illustrate statewide distribution and utilization of the pharmacist statewide standing order for naloxone. Percent of pharmacies dispensing naloxone in each county were calculated. Trained pharmacy staff completed a program evaluation form. Questions about quality of instruction and ability of trainer to meet stated objectives were rated on a Likert scale. RESULTS: There were 808 naloxone Medicaid claims from 100 outpatient pharmacies during the first half of 2016, a 9-fold increase over 2014. The "A Dose of R eality" training program evaluation indicated that participants felt the training was free from bias and met all stated objectives (4 out of 4 on Likert scale). CONCLUSIONS: A multi-pronged approach coupling state and community collaboration was successful in overcoming barriers and challenges associated with pharmacy naloxone distribution and ensured its success as an effective avenue for naloxone acquisition in urban and rural communities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos
Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico
Naloxona/administração & dosagem
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem
Comportamento Cooperativo
Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia
Educação Continuada em Farmácia/métodos
Avaliação Educacional
Seres Humanos
Medicaid
Naloxona/provisão & distribuição
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem
Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/provisão & distribuição
New Mexico
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/complicações
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/educação
Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid); 0 (Narcotic Antagonists); 36B82AMQ7N (Naloxone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170904
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170904
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170316
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28190480
[Au] Autor:Koehler T; Brown A
[Ad] Endereço:University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands. Electronic address: t.c.koehler@saxion.nl.
[Ti] Título:Documenting the evolution of the relationship between the pharmacy support workforce and pharmacists to support patient care.
[So] Source:Res Social Adm Pharm;13(2):280-285, 2017 Mar - Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8150
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since 2009 there has been a focus on the relationship between pharmacy technicians, pharmacy support workforce cadres and pharmacists in the literature. 2009-2011 saw a framework of role evolution develop, with publications from 2012 to 2015 documenting further maturity in the development of practice models for improved patient care and optimal use of personnel. The dominant narrative in the published academic literature has been made by certain high- income countries (mainly Canada, Denmark, United Kingdom and the United States of America). In these countries there are significant numbers of pharmacists available and there has been an increasing interest to utilize pharmacy support workforce cadres to allow the extension of clinical roles of pharmacists in these contexts. This is not a systematic presentation of all the literature available but rather a commentary overview supported by key papers. Key points from this literature include: (To allow the reader to clearly understand the country of origin of the themes presented, care has been taken to note the country of origin of the papers used in this commentary).
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência ao Paciente/métodos
Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Modelos Organizacionais
Assistência Farmacêutica/recursos humanos
Assistência Farmacêutica/tendências
Farmacêuticos/tendências
Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/tendências
Papel Profissional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170904
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170904
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28190479
[Au] Autor:Koehler T; Brown A
[Ad] Endereço:University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands. Electronic address: t.c.koehler@saxion.nl.
[Ti] Título:A global picture of pharmacy technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres.
[So] Source:Res Social Adm Pharm;13(2):271-279, 2017 Mar - Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8150
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Understanding how pharmacy technicians and other pharmacy support workforce cadres assist pharmacists in the healthcare system will facilitate developing health systems with the ability to achieve universal health coverage as it is defined in different country contexts. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the present global variety in the technician and other pharmacy support workforce cadres considering; their scope, roles, supervision, education and legal framework. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A structured online survey instrument was administered globally using the Survey Monkey platform, designed to address the following topic areas: roles, responsibilities, supervision, education and legislation. The survey was circulated to International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) member organisations and a variety of global list serves where pharmaceutical services are discussed. RESULTS: 193 entries from 67 countries and territories were included in the final analysis revealing a vast global variety with respect to the pharmacy support workforce. ROLES AND COMPETENCY: From no pharmacy technicians or other pharmacy support workforce cadres in Japan, through a variety of cadre interactions with pharmacists, to the autonomous practice of pharmacy support workforce cadres in Malawi. RESPONSIBILITIES: From strictly supervised practice with a focus on supply, through autonomous practice for a variety of responsibilities, to independent practice. SUPERVISION: From complete supervision for all tasks, through geographical varied supervision, to independent practice. EDUCATION: From on the job training, through certificate level vocational courses, to 3-4 year diploma programs. LEGISLATION, REGULATION AND LIABILITY: From well-regulated and registered, through part regulation with weak implementation, to completely non-regulated contexts. CONCLUSION: This paper documents wide differences in supervision requirements, education systems and supportive legislation for pharmacy support workforce cadres globally. A more detailed understanding of specific country practice settings is required if the use of pharmacy support workforce cadres is to be optimized.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Certificação/métodos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos
Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Assistência Farmacêutica/recursos humanos
Técnicos em Farmácia/educação
Técnicos em Farmácia/legislação & jurisprudência
Papel Profissional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170904
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170904
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170214
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27061142
[Au] Autor:Schindel TJ; Yuksel N; Breault R; Daniels J; Varnhagen S; Hughes CA
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, 3-171 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, 11405 87 Avenue NW, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1C9, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Perceptions of pharmacists' roles in the era of expanding scopes of practice.
[So] Source:Res Social Adm Pharm;13(1):148-161, 2017 Jan - Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8150
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Alberta was the first province in Canada to enact legislative changes to permit expansion of pharmacists' scope of practice, including allowing pharmacists to prescribe. However, such changes to the scope of practice can blur professional boundaries and obscure the roles of pharmacists. Understanding perceptions about the pharmacist's role may provide insight into recent and historical changes in pharmacy practice. This study clarifies perceptions held by pharmacists and other stakeholders concerning the role of the pharmacist in society. OBJECTIVE: To understand the perceptions of pharmacists, pharmacy students, technicians, other health care professionals, and the public of the pharmacist's role in Alberta. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used: focus group sessions (n = 9) and individual interviews (n = 4) of pharmacists and other stakeholders were conducted and analyzed using qualitative-descriptive approach. A web-based survey of Alberta pharmacists (n = 416) explored pharmacists' perceptions of their own roles. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed the following: participants perceived that the pharmacist's role was transitioning to focus more on patient care; consistency in pharmacist uptake of this new role shaped the public's expectations; pharmacists with expanded scopes of practice were assuming greater responsibility; collaboration and relationships with other health care professionals were essential. The survey confirmed that changes in the roles of pharmacists were primarily related to patient care. CONCLUSION: Following legislative changes and implementation of a compensation framework for pharmacy services, pharmacists and other stakeholders perceived the pharmacist's role to be shifting toward patient care. Periodic revisiting of pharmacists' roles and professional activities is needed to evaluate changes over time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/psicologia
Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Alberta
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Comportamento Cooperativo
Feminino
Grupos Focais
Ocupações em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Assistência ao Paciente/métodos
Farmacêuticos/psicologia
Papel Profissional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160411
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26935794
[Au] Autor:Patterson BJ; Bakken BK; Doucette WR; Urmie JM; McDonough RP
[Ad] Endereço:GlaxoSmithKline, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Informal learning processes in support of clinical service delivery in a service-oriented community pharmacy.
[So] Source:Res Social Adm Pharm;13(1):224-232, 2017 Jan - Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8150
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração
Modelos Teóricos
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Iowa
Propriedade
Assistência ao Paciente/métodos
Técnicos em Farmácia/organização & administração
Papel Profissional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160304
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26827123
[Au] Autor:Schafheutle EI; Jee SD; Willis SC
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Pharmacy Workforce Studies, Manchester Pharmacy School, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. Electronic address: ellen.schafheutle@manchester.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Fitness for purpose of pharmacy technician education and training: The case of Great Britain.
[So] Source:Res Social Adm Pharm;13(1):88-97, 2017 Jan - Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1934-8150
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: To enable pharmacists to become increasingly patient-centered, clinical professionals, they need to work with suitably trained and competent support staff; pharmacy technicians (PTs) may be the most appropriate to take on additional roles and responsibilities. However, clarity on PT roles, particularly in community pharmacy, is lacking, and pharmacists may be reluctant to delegate due to concerns over PTs' competence. OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to explore the fitness for purpose of PT education and training in Great Britain. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in 2013-14. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with face-to-face and distance education providers; and different types of community (n = 16) and hospital pharmacy (n = 15) employers. Interviews explored views on education delivery, work-based learning and assessment, and quality assurance; they were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Interviews informed a questionnaire that was piloted and distributed (with reminders) to all 1457 recently registered PTs. Survey data were analyzed using SPSS v20, employing comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U, Chi-Square). University ethics approval was obtained. RESULTS: Staff in 17 Further Education (FE) colleges, 6 distance providers, 16 community pharmacies and 15 NHS organizations were interviewed. Participants from different sectors, education providers and employing organizations questioned whether standards met current practice requirements. Certain topics were considered as redundant or over-taught whereas others, such as professionalism (attitudes, behaviors), were perceived to be lacking. Hospital interviewees felt that PT education and training lacked clinical detail, whereas many community interviewees felt that requirements for PTs were more advanced than required. Various comments suggested that PTs' roles in community pharmacy were not clearly defined or sufficiently different from other support staff. In order to define appropriate and up-to-date education and training standards, comments suggested the role of PTs in all sectors of practice needed to be clearly defined. There were usable responses of the questionnaire returned from 632 PTs. Three-quarters (475; 75.9%) of respondents had trained in community. The majority (n = 550; 88.0%) were female, with a significantly larger proportion of females in community pharmacy (90.7%) than hospital (77.4% - X = 20.021, P < .001). The average age of respondents was 35.26 ± 10.22. Respondents working in hospital were more likely to agree (n = 121; 84.0%) that their role in the workplace was clearly defined (U = 10740.500, Z = -2.563, P = .010) than their community colleagues (n = 303; 73.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Role clarity is required for PTs so that regulatory standards can be designed to meet current and future practice needs. This will support effective skill mix configurations to enable pharmacists, particularly in community, to take on extended, clinical roles.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Competência Clínica
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração
Farmacêuticos/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/educação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/organização & administração
Técnicos em Farmácia/normas
Projetos Piloto
Papel Profissional
Profissionalismo/educação
Inquéritos e Questionários
Reino Unido
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170719
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170719
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160201
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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