Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : M01.526.799 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:27515802
[Au] Autor:Pradeilles R; Rousham EK; Norris SA; Kesten JM; Griffiths PL
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. rebecca.pradeilles@lshtm.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Community readiness for adolescents' overweight and obesity prevention is low in urban South Africa: a case study.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;16(1):763, 2016 Aug 11.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: South Africa is undergoing epidemiological and nutrition transitions with associated increases in the incidence of overweight, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. With the emergence of the nutrition transition in South Africa, there is an urgent need for interventions to prevent overweight and obesity in children and adolescents as risk factors for chronic diseases in adolescence may track throughout later life. This research explored the potential for faith-based organisations (FBOs) to be used as community organisations for overweight and obesity prevention interventions in adolescents by assessing the readiness of religious leaders to engage in such interventions. METHODS: Surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 51 religious leaders in Johannesburg and Soweto. The Community Readiness Model (CRM) survey was chosen to determine the stage of readiness of this community regarding overweight and obesity prevention. Six different dimensions were assessed in the CRM (community efforts, knowledge of efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge of the issue, resources). The surveys were scored according to the CRM protocol. The survey data were supplemented with findings from FGDs. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the FGDs. RESULTS: The mean community readiness score was 2.57 ± 0.76 which equates with the "denial/resistance stage". The mean readiness score for resources was the highest of all the dimensions (3.77 ± 0.28), followed by knowledge of the issue (3.20 ± 0.51). The lowest score was seen for community knowledge of efforts (1.77 ± 1.50), followed by community climate (2.00 ± 0.64). FGDs helped interpret the CRM scores. FGDs showed that religious leaders were enthusiastic and recognised that their role was not limited solely to spiritual guidance and mentoring, but also to physical well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Religious leaders recognised that they act as role models within the community and thus have a role to play in improving adolescent health. They have some knowledge about the overweight/obesity issue and some of the resources could be made available to support overweight/obesity prevention-related initiatives. However, the low community knowledge of efforts and the negative prevailing attitude of the community towards overweight and obesity highlight the need to increase awareness of this issue prior to implementing initiatives on overweight and obesity prevention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração
Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração
Religiosos/psicologia
Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Feminino
Grupos Focais
Seres Humanos
Liderança
Modelos Organizacionais
Estudos de Casos Organizacionais
Pesquisa Qualitativa
África do Sul
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160813
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-016-3451-9


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[PMID]:27312738
[Au] Autor:Arvanitakis Z; Capuano AW; Leurgans SE; Bennett DA; Schneider JA
[Ad] Endereço:Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: zarvanit@rush.edu.
[Ti] Título:Relation of cerebral vessel disease to Alzheimer's disease dementia and cognitive function in elderly people: a cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:Lancet Neurol;15(9):934-943, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1474-4465
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Few data on the pathology of cerebral vessel disease, dementia, and cognition are available. We examined the association of cerebral atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis neuropathology with probable and possible Alzheimer's disease dementia and cognitive function. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included men and women aged 65 years or older who had yearly clinical assessments and had agreed to brain autopsy at the time of death, as part of one of two cohort studies of ageing (The Religious Orders Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project). Individuals without dementia or with Alzheimer's disease dementia, and with complete neuropathological data, are included in our analyses. We used neuropsychological data proximate to death to create summary measures of global cognition and cognitive domains. Clinical data recorded between 1994 and 2015 were used to determine presence of Alzheimer's disease dementia. Systematic neuropathological assessments documented the severity of cerebral large vessel (atherosclerosis) and small vessel (arteriolosclerosis) disease. By use of regression analyses adjusted for demographics, gross and microscopic infarcts, and Alzheimer's disease pathology, we examined associations of vessel disease severity (mild, moderate, and severe) with odds of probable and possible Alzheimer's disease dementia and cognitive function. FINDINGS: Study enrolment began in January, 1994, and two cohort studies are ongoing. 1143 individuals were included in our analyses (median age at death 88·8 years; 478 [42%] with Alzheimer's disease dementia). Moderate-to-severe atherosclerosis was present in 445 (39%) individuals, and arteriolosclerosis in 401 (35%) individuals. Each level increase in the severity of atherosclerosis or arteriolosclerosis was associated with significantly higher odds of Alzheimer's disease dementia (odds ratio [OR] for atherosclerosis 1·33, 95% CI 1·11-1·58; OR for arteriolosclerosis 1·20, 1·04-1·40). Atherosclerosis was associated with lower scores for global cognition (estimate -0·10 [SE 0·04], p=0·0096) and four cognitive domains (episodic memory -0·10 [0·04], p=0·017; semantic memory -0·11 [0·05], p=0·018; perceptual speed -0·14 [0·04], p=0·00080; and visuospatial abilities -0·13 [0·04], p=0·0080), but not working memory (-0·05 [0·04], p=0·21). Arteriolosclerosis was associated with lower scores for global cognition (estimate -0·10 [0·03], p=0·0015) and four domains (episodic memory -0·12 [0·04], p=0·00090; semantic memory -0·10 [0·04], p=0·013; working memory -0·07 [0·03], p=0·045; perceptual speed -0·12 [0·04], p=0·0012), and a non-significant association was noted for visuospatial abilities (-0·07 [0·03], p=0·052). Findings were unchanged in analyses controlling for the presence of APOE ε4 allele or vascular risk factors. INTERPRETATION: Cerebral atherosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis are associated with Alzheimer's disease dementia, and are also associated with low scores in most cognitive domains. Cerebral vessel pathology might be an under-recognised risk factor for Alzheimer's disease dementia. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença de Alzheimer/patologia
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/complicações
Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia
Avaliação Geriátrica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia
Estudos de Coortes
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Testes Neuropsicológicos
PubMed/estatística & dados numéricos
Religiosos
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170801
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170801
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160618
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27017855
[Au] Autor:Kiss L
[Ad] Endereço:SK-93 008 Csilizradvány 284., Szlovákia.
[Ti] Título:[The aversion of the Church to blood - since when?].
[Ti] Título:Ecclesia abhorret a sanguine - mikortól is?.
[So] Source:Orv Hetil;157(14):554-7, 2016 Apr 03.
[Is] ISSN:0030-6002
[Cp] País de publicação:Hungary
[La] Idioma:hun
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Autopsia/história
Catolicismo/história
Religião e Medicina
Religiosos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cadáver
Europa (Continente)
França
História do Século XVIII
História Antiga
História Medieval
Seres Humanos
Hungria
Religião/história
Religiosos/legislação & jurisprudência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1607
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160328
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160328
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160329
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1556/650.2016.HO2541


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[PMID]:26754123
[Au] Autor:Ogunmoroti O; Utuama O; Spatz ES; Rouseff M; Parris D; Das S; Younus A; Guzman H; Tran T; Agatston A; Feldman T; Virani SS; Maziak W; Veledar E; Nasir K
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Healthcare Advancement and Outcomes, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, Florida; Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, Florida.
[Ti] Título:Trends in Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Among Employees of a Large Healthcare Organization (from the Baptist Health South Florida Employee Study).
[So] Source:Am J Cardiol;117(5):787-93, 2016 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1913
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The American Heart Association (AHA)'s 2020 goal is to improve the cardiovascular health (CVH) of people living in the United States (US) by 20% and reduce mortality from cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%. Given that 155 million adults are in the US workforce, and >60% have employee-based insurance, workplace studies provide an important opportunity to assess and potentially advance CVH through the use of comprehensive workplace wellness programs. Among a cohort of employees of the Baptist Health System, CVH was assessed annually during voluntary health fairs and health risk assessments (HRA) from 2011 to 2014 using the AHA's 7 CVH metrics: smoking, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, diet, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and blood glucose. Each metric was categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor according to the AHA criteria. Cochrane-Armitage test was used to detect trends in CVH by year. Ideal CVH, defined as meeting ideal criteria for all 7 metrics, was assessed and compared across years. The overall cohort was 34,746 with 4,895 employees in 2011, 10,724 in 2012, 9,763 in 2013, and 9,364 in 2014. Mean age (SD) was between 43 (±12) and 46 years (±12). Female to male ratio was 3:1. The prevalence of study participants who met the ideal criteria for diet, physical activity, and blood pressure increased significantly from 2011 to 2014 but for BMI, total cholesterol, and blood glucose, a significant decrease was noticed. In addition, the prevalence of study participants in ideal CVH although low, increased significantly over time (0.3% to 0.6%, p <0.0001). In conclusion, this study shows the trends of the AHA's CVH metrics in a large health care organization. The positive findings noted for the metrics of smoking, physical activity, total cholesterol, and blood glucose should be reinforced. However, the metrics of diet, BMI, and blood pressure need more attention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
Pessoal de Saúde
Promoção da Saúde/métodos
Saúde do Trabalhador
Protestantismo
Religiosos
Medição de Risco/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Florida/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Morbidade/tendências
Prevalência
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1606
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160113
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:26725413
[Au] Autor:Meyer M
[Ti] Título:"Of Grand Intentions" and "Opaque Structures": Managing the Hospício Pedro II during Brazil's Second Empire (1852-90).
[So] Source:Bull Hist Med;89(4):733-60, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:0007-5140
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This article chronicles contestations between religious actors, represented by the Brazilian Santa Casa de Misericórdia Catholic lay brotherhood and the French nun order, the Daughters of Charity, on one hand, and emergent psychiatrists, on the other, over the governance of the Hospício Pedro II, Brazil's first public asylum. It investigates how psychiatrists, as apostles of professional rationality, developed their ideas about reason and bureaucratic power in a contested site of religious charity during Brazil's Second Empire (1852-90). Apart from sharing ideological ground about the need to seclude the insane in the asylum, I argue that these groups brought divergent and entangled epistemologies about the constructions of madness, its treatment, and its bureaucratic governance.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história
Psiquiatria/história
Religiosos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Brasil
Catolicismo
História do Século XIX
Hospitais Psiquiátricos/organização & administração
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1602
[Cu] Atualização por classe:160104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
160104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1353/bhm.2015.0106


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[PMID]:25254333
[Au] Autor:Ozdemir R; Ak M; Karatas M; Ozer A; Dogan DG; Karadag A
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.
[Ti] Título:Human milk banking and milk kinship: perspectives of religious officers in a Muslim country.
[So] Source:J Perinatol;35(2):137-41, 2015 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1476-5543
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine the knowledge, attitudes and views of the Muslim religious officers regarding infant feeding, breast milk, wet nursing, milk kinship and human milk banks (HMBs). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 401 religious officers were included in the study. Participants included 355 community service religious officers and 46 faculty religious officers. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-four (63.3%) participants were in favor of administering donor human milk when breast milk is not available from the mothers. To the question 'What kind of human milk bank would you approve as far as the religious sensitivity is concerned?' a majority of the religious officers (71.3%) responded that they would only approve if the milk pool contained a restricted HMB where a limited number of recipients were allowed to use the mixtures in these milk pools. Only 7 (1.7%) participants advocated initiating Western-style HMBs in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Turkish religious officers have revealed that they would only approve the establishment of an alternative HMB by a maximum three donors where up to three recipients whose identities are known by one another are allowed to use donor milk from each milk pool.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Islamismo/psicologia
Bancos de Leite
Leite Humano
Religião
Religiosos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Bancos de Leite/ética
Bancos de Leite/organização & administração
Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
Opinião Pública
Religiosos/psicologia
Religiosos/estatística & dados numéricos
Percepção Social
Inquéritos e Questionários
Turquia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1510
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140926
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/jp.2014.177


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[PMID]:25470886
[Au] Autor:Anduaga A
[Ti] Título:Spanish Jesuits in the Philippines: geophysical research and synergies between science, education and trade, 1865-1898.
[So] Source:Ann Sci;71(4):497-521, 2014 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:0003-3790
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In 1865, Spanish Jesuits founded the Manila Observatory, the earliest of the Far East centres devoted to typhoon and earthquake studies. Also on Philippine soil and under the direction of the Jesuits, in 1884 the Madrid government inaugurated the first Meteorological Service in the Spanish Kingdom, and most probably in the Far East. Nevertheless, these achievements not only went practically unnoticed in the historiography of science, but neither does the process of geophysical dissemination that unfolded fit in with the two types of transmitter of knowledge identified by historians in the missionary diffusion of the exact sciences in colonial contexts. Rather than regarding science as merely a stimulus to their functionary and missionary tasks, Spanish Jesuits used their overseas posting to produce and publish original research--feature that would place them within the typology of the 'seeker' rather than the 'functionary' (in stark contrast to what the standard typology sustains). This paper also analyses examples of synergies between science, education and trade, which denotes, inter alia, the existence of a broad and solid educational structure in the Manila Mission that sustained the strength of research enterprise.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Geologia/história
Meteorologia/história
Religiosos/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Colonialismo
Comércio
Educação
Fenômenos Geológicos
História do Século XIX
Filipinas
Religiosos/educação
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1501
[Cu] Atualização por classe:141204
[Lr] Data última revisão:
141204
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:QIS
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:141205
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:24824620
[Au] Autor:Rakotoniana JS; Rakotomanga Jde D; Barennes H
[Ad] Endereço:Institut Francophone pour la Médecine Tropicale, Vientiane, Vientiane, Lao PDR; Institut National de Santé Publique et Communautaire (INSPC) Befelatanana, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
[Ti] Título:Can churches play a role in combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic? A study of the attitudes of christian religious leaders in Madagascar.
[So] Source:PLoS One;9(5):e97131, 2014.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Churches occupy an important social and cultural position in Madagascar. The sexual transmission of HIV raises controversies about the role that Churches can play in preventing HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional survey investigated recommendations by religious leaders for condom use and other preventive strategies in the context of international guidelines. METHODS: A questionnaire was self-administered to a random sample of religious leaders. The questions related to preventive methods against HIV/AIDS such as: condom use, marital fidelity, sexual abstinence before marriage, and HIV-testing. Associations with recommendations for condom use were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 231 religious leaders, 215 (93.1%) were willing to share their knowledge of HIV/AIDS with their congregations. The majority received their information from the media (N=136, 58.9%), a minority from their church (N=9, 3.9%), and 38 (16.4%) had received prior training on HIV. Nearly all (N=212, 91.8%) knew that HIV could be sexually transmitted though only a few (N=39, 16.9%) were aware of mother-to-child transmission or unsafe injections (N=56, 24.2%). A total of 91 (39.4%) were willing to, or had recommended (N=64, 27.7%), condom use, while 50 (21.6%) had undergone HIV testing. Only nine (3.9%) had ever cared for a person living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). Multivariable logistic regression shows that condom use recommendations by religious leaders were negatively associated with tertiary level education (OR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7), and positively associated with knowing a person at risk (OR: 16.2, 95% CI 3.2-80.2), knowing of an ART center (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.8), and receiving information about HIV at school (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.6). CONCLUSIONS: Malagasy church leaders could potentially become key players in HIV/AIDS prevention if they improved their knowledge of the illness, their commitment to international recommendations, and extended their interaction with people most at risk.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle
Epidemias/prevenção & controle
Religião e Medicina
Religião e Sexo
Religiosos/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Cristianismo
Estudos Transversais
Educação em Saúde
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Modelos Logísticos
Madagáscar/epidemiologia
Religiosos/estatística & dados numéricos
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1412
[Cu] Atualização por classe:151119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
151119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:140515
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097131



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