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[PMID]:29293200
[Au] Autor:de Freitas Floriano CM; Machado Avelar AF; Sorgini Peterlini MA
[Ad] Endereço:Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (Drs Machado Avelar and Sorgini Peterlini and Ms de Freitas Floriano). Claudia Maria de Freitas Floriano, MSc, is a pediatric emergency nurse at the Escola Paulista de Enfermagem of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, in São Paulo, Brazil. Ariane Ferreira Machado Avelar, PhD, MSc, RN, is an adjunct professor at the Escola Paulista de Enfermagem of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil. Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini, PhD, MSc, RN, is an associate professor at the Escola Paulista de Enfermagem of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo in São Paulo, Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Difficulties Related to Peripheral Intravenous Access in Children in an Emergency Room.
[So] Source:J Infus Nurs;41(1):66-72, 2018 Jan/Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1539-0667
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This prospective study examined the characteristics of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department and the factors that influenced the successful establishment of peripheral intravenous (IV) access. Descriptive and correlational analysis was completed using a convenience sample of 89 patients. Peripheral IV access was successful in 95.7% of the children, and the first attempt at insertion was successful in 53% of the procedures. Factors influencing the success of peripheral IV access were the patient's gender, skin color, presence of difficult-to-see veins, small veins, presence of fever, and a lack of palpable veins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
Veias/anormalidades
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Intravenosa/métodos
Adolescente
Fatores Etários
Cateterismo Periférico/instrumentação
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Infusões Intravenosas/instrumentação
Masculino
Estudos Prospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/NAN.0000000000000262


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[PMID]:29380884
[Au] Autor:Smith SL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas.
[Ti] Título:Single (sub)species then and now: An examination of the nonracial perspective of C. Loring Brace.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:104-125, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:C. Loring Brace's writings on the concept of race have been among the most influential within anthropology. A review of the development of Brace's perspective on race shows that his philosophical approaches to fossil and modern human variation are consistent and integrated. Brace's views on race are compared with those of Ashley Montagu and Frank Livingstone, who also proposed eliminating "race" from anthropology, and with those of Stanley Garn and Alice Brues, who accepted "racial" subdivisions of humans. Carleton Coon's writings are more divergent; the aftermath of the publication of his Origin of Races highlights significant political tensions of the 1960s that intersected with scientific changes in anthropology emanating from the Evolutionary Synthesis. Recent forensic and "no race" positions are compared to explore their differences and the possibility of reconciliation, and the role of Brace and others in combating proposals of intellectual differences among human groups is discussed. While a spectrum of anthropological opinion regarding race exists, the commonalities are sufficient to allow valuable, united commentary emphasizing the complexity of modern human cultural and biological variation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia Física
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Variação Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Hominidae
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23385


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[PMID]:29380881
[Au] Autor:Antón SC; Malhi RS; Fuentes A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, New York University.
[Ti] Título:Race and diversity in U.S. Biological Anthropology: A decade of AAPA initiatives.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;165 Suppl 65:158-180, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Biological Anthropology studies the variation and evolution of living humans, non-human primates, and extinct ancestors and for this reason the field should be in an ideal position to attract scientists from a variety of backgrounds who have different views and experiences. However, the origin and history of the discipline, anecdotal observations, self-reports, and recent surveys suggest the field has significant barriers to attracting scholars of color. For a variety of reasons, including quantitative research that demonstrates that diverse groups do better science, the discipline should strive to achieve a more diverse composition. Here we discuss the background and underpinnings of the current and historical dearth of diversity in Biological Anthropology in the U.S. specifically as it relates to representation of minority and underrepresented minority (URM) (or racialized minority) scholars. We trace this lack of diversity to underlying issues of recruitment and retention in the STEM sciences generally, to the history of Anthropology particularly around questions of race-science, and to the absence of Anthropology at many minority-serving institutions, especially HBCUs, a situation that forestalls pathways to the discipline for many minority students. The AAPA Committee on Diversity (COD) was conceived as a means of assessing and improving diversity within the discipline, and we detail the history of the COD since its inception in 2006. Prior to the COD there were no systematic AAPA efforts to consider ethnoracial diversity in our ranks and no programming around questions of diversity and inclusion. Departmental survey data collected by the COD indicate that undergraduate majors in Biological Anthropology are remarkably diverse, but that the discipline loses these scholars between undergraduate and graduate school and systematically up rank. Our analysis of recent membership demographic survey data (2014 and 2017) shows Biological Anthropology to have less ethnoracial diversity than even the affiliated STEM disciplines of Biology and Anatomy; nearly 87% of AAPA members in the United States identify as white and just 7% as URM scholars. These data also suggest that the intersection of race and gender significantly influence scholarly representation. In response to these data, we describe a substantial body of programs that have been developed by the COD to improve diversity in our ranks. Through these programs we identify principal concerns that contribute to the loss of scholars of color from the discipline at different stages in their careers, propose other directions that programming for recruitment should take, and discuss the beginnings of how to develop a more inclusive discipline at all career stages.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antropologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropologia/organização & administração
Biologia/organização & administração
Biologia/estatística & dados numéricos
Diversidade Cultural
Seres Humanos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23382


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[PMID]:29351343
[Au] Autor:Faigle R; Carrese JA; Cooper LA; Urrutia VC; Gottesman RF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Minority race and male sex as risk factors for non-beneficial gastrostomy tube placements after stroke.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191293, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are widely used for enteral feeding after stroke; however, PEG tubes placed in patients in whom death is imminent are considered non-beneficial. AIM: We sought to determine whether placement of non-beneficial PEG tubes differs by race and sex. DESIGN AND SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In this retrospective cohort study, inpatient admissions for stroke patients who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharged to hospice, or died during the hospitalization, were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2007 and 2011. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between race and sex with PEG placement. RESULTS: Of 36,109 stroke admissions who underwent palliative/withdrawal of care, were discharge to hospice, or experienced in-hospital death, a PEG was placed in 2,258 (6.3%). Among PEG recipients 41.1% were of a race other than white, while only 22.0% of patients without PEG were of a minority race (p<0.001). The proportion of men was higher among those with compared to without a PEG tube (50.0% vs. 39.2%, p<0.001). Minority race was associated with PEG placement compared to whites (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.57-1.96), and men had 1.27 times higher odds of PEG compared to women (95% CI 1.16-1.40). Racial differences were most pronounced among women: ethnic/racial minority women had over 2-fold higher odds of a PEG compared to their white counterparts (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.81-2.41), while male ethnic/racial minority patients had 1.44 increased odds of a PEG when compared to white men (95% CI 1.24-1.67, p-value for interaction <0.001). CONCLUSION: Minority race and male sex are risk factors for non-beneficial PEG tube placements after stroke.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Nutrição Enteral/instrumentação
Gastrostomia/instrumentação
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Distribuição por Sexo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191293


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[PMID]:27778127
[Au] Autor:Ikoma N; Blum M; Chiang YJ; Estrella JS; Roy-Chowdhuri S; Fournier K; Mansfield P; Ajani J; Badgwell BD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
[Ti] Título:Race Is a Risk for Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Gastric Cancer.
[So] Source:Ann Surg Oncol;24(4):960-965, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1534-4681
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The frequency of lymph node metastasis in each T stage of gastric cancer has not been as well described for Western populations as it has for Asian populations. This study aimed to determine these frequencies and to investigate risk factors associated with lymph node metastases in a racially diverse U.S. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of 8260 patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma treated at our institution from 1995 to 2013 was reviewed to identify those who underwent surgical resection without preoperative therapy. Associations between clinicopathologic variables and lymph node metastasis were tested with uni- and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: The study identified 218 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent upfront gastrectomy. These study subjects included 115 white (53 %), 19 black (9 %), and 41 Asian (19 %) patients. At least 15 lymph nodes were examined in 148 (68 %) of the patients. The lymph node metastasis rates were 10 % for stage T1a, 34 % for stage T1b, 44 % for stage T2, 73 % for stage T3, and 95 % for stage T4 tumors. Univariate analysis showed that submucosal invasion, race, 15 or more lymph nodes examined, and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in T1 and T2 tumors. The multivariate analysis showed all but lymphovascular invasion to be independent risk factors for nodal metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of lymph node metastasis observed in this study were higher than those reported in Asian reports. Race was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Caution is therefore needed when evidence from Asian countries is extrapolated to more racially diverse Western countries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adenocarcinoma/etnologia
Adenocarcinoma/secundário
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Junção Esofagogástrica
Excisão de Linfonodo
Linfonodos/patologia
Neoplasias Gástricas/etnologia
Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia
Afroamericanos
Idoso
Americanos Asiáticos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Linfonodos/cirurgia
Metástase Linfática
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Invasividade Neoplásica
Estadiamento de Neoplasias
Fatores de Risco
Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1245/s10434-016-5645-x


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[PMID]:29303006
[Au] Autor:Papaseit E; Torrens M; Pérez-Mañá C; Muga R; Farré M
[Ad] Endereço:a Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Internal Medicine , Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol-IGTP , Badalona , Spain.
[Ti] Título:Key interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics.
[So] Source:Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol;14(2):183-195, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1744-7607
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics. The principal sources of pharmacodynamic variability are reviewed, with special emphasis on sex-gender, race-ethnicity, genetic differences, interactions, and MDMA acute toxicity, as well as possible therapeutic use. Expert opinion: Acute MDMA effects are more pronounced in women than they are in men. Very limited data on the relationship between race-ethnicity and MDMA effects are available. MDMA metabolism includes some polymorphic enzymes that can slightly modify plasma concentrations and effects. Although a considerable number of studies exist about the acute effects of MDMA, the small number of subjects in each trial limits evaluation of the different interindividual factors and does not permit a clear conclusion about their influence. These issues should be considered when studying possible MDMA therapeutic use.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem
N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/administração & dosagem
Serotoninérgicos/administração & dosagem
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Interações Medicamentosas
Grupos Étnicos
Feminino
Alucinógenos/efeitos adversos
Alucinógenos/farmacologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/efeitos adversos
N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia
Serotoninérgicos/efeitos adversos
Serotoninérgicos/farmacologia
Fatores Sexuais
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hallucinogens); 0 (Serotonin Agents); KE1SEN21RM (N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/17425255.2018.1424832


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[PMID]:29389918
[Au] Autor:Crepaz N; Dong X; Wang X; Hernandez AL; Hall HI
[Ad] Endereço:Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, CDC.
[Ti] Título:Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Sustained Viral Suppression and Transmission Risk Potential Among Persons Receiving HIV Care - United States, 2014.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;67(4):113-118, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Non-Hispanic blacks/African Americans (blacks) represent 12% of the U.S. POPULATION: * However, in 2014 an estimated 43% (471,500) of persons living with diagnosed and undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were blacks (1). In 2016, blacks accounted for 44% of all new HIV diagnoses (2). Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescriptions among persons in HIV care increased overall from 89% in 2009 to 94% in 2013, fewer blacks than Hispanics or Latinos (Hispanics) and non-Hispanic whites (whites) were on ART and had a suppressed viral load (<200 HIV RNA copies/mL) in their most recent viral load test result (3). Blacks also might be less likely to have sustained viral suppression over time and to experience longer periods with viral loads >1,500 HIV RNA copies/mL, a level that increases the risk for transmitting HIV (4-7). National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) data are among those used to monitor progress toward reaching the national goal of reducing health disparities. CDC analyzed NHSS data to describe sustained viral suppression and transmission risk potential by race/ethnicity. Among 651,811 persons with HIV infection diagnosed through 2013 and who were alive through 2014 in 38 jurisdictions with complete laboratory reporting, a lower percentage of blacks had sustained viral suppression (40.8%), than had Hispanics (50.1%) and whites (56.3%). Among persons who were in care (i.e., had at least one viral load test in 2014) and had not achieved sustained viral suppression in 2014, blacks experienced longer periods (52.1% of the 12-month period) with viral loads >1,500 copies/mL, than did Hispanics (47.2%) and white (40.8%). Blacks aged 13-24 years had the lowest prevalence of sustained viral suppression, a circumstance that might increase transmission risk potential. Strengthening interventions that improve access to ART, promote adherence, and address barriers to clinical care and supportive services for all persons with diagnosed HIV infection is important for achieving the national goal of reducing health disparities.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Infecções por HIV/etnologia
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
Resposta Viral Sustentada
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Infecções por HIV/terapia
Infecções por HIV/transmissão
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Risco
Estados Unidos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180202
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6704a2


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[PMID]:29384741
[Au] Autor:Liversidge HM; Peariasamy K; Folayan MO; Adeniyi AO; Ngom PI; Mikami Y; Shimada Y; Kuroe K; Tvete IF; Kvaal SI
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:A radiographic study of the mandibular third molar root development in different ethnic groups.
[So] Source:J Forensic Odontostomatol;2(35):103-114, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:2219-6749
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age. AIM: To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years. The left M3 was staged into Moorrees stages. A probit model was fitted to calculate mean ages for transitions between stages for males and females and each ethnic group separately. The estimated age distributions given each M3 stage was calculated. To assess differences in timing of M3 between ethnic groups, three models were proposed: a separate model for each ethnic group, a joint model and a third model combining some aspects across groups. The best model fit was tested using Bayesian and Akaikes information criteria (BIC and AIC) and log likelihood ratio test. RESULTS: Differences in mean ages of M3 root stages were found between ethnic groups, however all groups showed large standard deviation values. The AIC and log likelihood ratio test indicated that a separate model for each ethnic group was best. Small differences were also noted between timing of M3 between males and females, with the exception of the Malaysian group. These findings suggests that features of a reference data set (wide age range and uniform age distribution) and a Bayesian statistical approach are more important than population specific convenience samples to estimate age of an individual using M3. CONCLUSION: Some group differences were evident in M3 timing, however, this has some impact on the confidence interval of estimated age in females and little impact in males because of the large variation in age.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos
Grupos de Populações Continentais
Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem
Dente Serotino/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Funções Verossimilhança
Masculino
Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:D
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28449915
[Au] Autor:Lisabeth LD; Sánchez BN; Chervin RD; Morgenstern LB; Zahuranec DB; Tower SD; Brown DL
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, MI, USA; Stroke Program, University of Michigan Health System, MI, USA. Electronic address: llisabet@umich.edu.
[Ti] Título:High prevalence of poststroke sleep-disordered breathing in Mexican Americans.
[So] Source:Sleep Med;33:97-102, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1878-5506
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) prevalence and severity after stroke between Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). PATIENTS/METHODS: Ischemic stroke (IS) patients within ∼30 days of onset were identified from the population-based BASIC Project (2010-2014) and offered screening with an overnight cardiopulmonary monitoring device, ApneaLink Plus™. The number of apneas and hypopneas per hour, as reflected by the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), was used to measure SDB severity; SDB was defined as AHI ≥10. Ethnicity, demographics, and risk factors were collected from interviews and medical records. Log and negative-binomial regression models were used to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) and apnea/hypopnea event rate ratios (RRs) comparing MAs with NHWs after adjustment for demographics, risk factors, and stroke severity. RESULTS: A total of 549 IS cases had AHI data. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range (IQR): 57-76), 55% were men, and 65% were MA. The MAs had a higher prevalence of SDB (68.5%) than NHWs (49.5%) in unadjusted (PR = 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-1.67) and adjusted analyses (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01-1.46). The median AHI was 16 (IQR: 7-31) in MAs and nine (IQR: 5-24) in NHWs. The severity of SDB (rate of apneas/hypopneas) was higher in MAs than NHWs in unadjusted (RR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.58) but not adjusted analysis (RR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.95-1.38). There was no ethnic difference in severity among subjects with SDB. CONCLUSION: More than two-thirds of MA stroke patients had SDB, which was almost 40% more common among MAs than NHWs. Physicians treating MA patients after stroke should have a high index of suspicion for SDB, a treatable condition that could otherwise have adverse impact.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Isquemia Encefálica/complicações
Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos
Polissonografia/instrumentação
Prevalência
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Polissonografia/métodos
Fatores de Risco
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/epidemiologia
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/fisiopatologia
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28748507
[Au] Autor:Pais J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Sociology, University of Connecticut, 344 Mansfield Road, Unit 2068, Storrs, CT, 06269-2068, USA. jeremy.pais@uconn.edu.
[Ti] Título:Intergenerational Neighborhood Attainment and the Legacy of Racial Residential Segregation: A Causal Mediation Analysis.
[So] Source:Demography;54(4):1221-1250, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1533-7790
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Advances in mediation analysis are used to examine the legacy effects of racial residential segregation in the United States on neighborhood attainments across two familial generations. The legacy effects of segregation are anticipated to operate through two primary pathways: a neighborhood effects pathway and an urban continuity pathway. The neighborhood effects pathway explains why parent's exposure to racial residential segregation during their family-rearing years can influence the residential outcomes of their children later in life. The urban continuity pathway captures the temporal consistency of the built and topographical environment in providing similar residential opportunities across generations. Findings from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and U.S. Census data indicate that the legacy effect of racial residential segregation among black families operates primarily through the neighborhood effects that influence children growing up. For white families, there is less support for the legacy effects of segregation. The findings are supported by a comprehensive mediation analysis that provides a formal sensitivity analysis, deploys an instrumental variable, and assesses effect heterogeneity. Knowledge of the legacy of segregation moves neighborhood attainment research beyond point-in-time studies of racial residential segregation to provide a deeper understanding into the ways stratified residential environments are reproduced.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos
Renda/estatística & dados numéricos
Distribuição Espacial da População/estatística & dados numéricos
Segregação Social/tendências
População Urbana/tendências
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Afroamericanos
Meio Ambiente
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Seres Humanos
Meio Social
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s13524-017-0597-8



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