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Pesquisa : N01.224.600 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29258487
[Au] Autor:Ferrari C; Salle R; Callemeyn-Torre N; Jovelin R; Cutter AD; Braendle C
[Ad] Endereço:CNRS, IBV, Inserm, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.
[Ti] Título:Ephemeral-habitat colonization and neotropical species richness of Caenorhabditis nematodes.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):43, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The drivers of species co-existence in local communities are especially enigmatic for assemblages of morphologically cryptic species. Here we characterize the colonization dynamics and abundance of nine species of Caenorhabditis nematodes in neotropical French Guiana, the most speciose known assemblage of this genus, with resource use overlap and notoriously similar external morphology despite deep genomic divergence. METHODS: To characterize the dynamics and specificity of colonization and exploitation of ephemeral resource patches, we conducted manipulative field experiments and the largest sampling effort to date for Caenorhabditis outside of Europe. This effort provides the first in-depth quantitative analysis of substrate specificity for Caenorhabditis in natural, unperturbed habitats. RESULTS: We amassed a total of 626 strain isolates from nine species of Caenorhabditis among 2865 substrate samples. With the two new species described here (C. astrocarya and C. dolens), we estimate that our sampling procedures will discover few additional species of these microbivorous animals in this tropical rainforest system. We demonstrate experimentally that the two most prevalent species (C. nouraguensis and C. tropicalis) rapidly colonize fresh resource patches, whereas at least one rarer species shows specialist micro-habitat fidelity. CONCLUSION: Despite the potential to colonize rapidly, these ephemeral patchy resources of rotting fruits and flowers are likely to often remain uncolonized by Caenorhabditis prior to their complete decay, implying dispersal-limited resource exploitation. We hypothesize that a combination of rapid colonization, high ephemerality of resource patches, and species heterogeneity in degree of specialization on micro-habitats and life histories enables a dynamic co-existence of so many morphologically cryptic species of Caenorhabditis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Distribuição Animal
Caenorhabditis/fisiologia
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biota
Guiana Francesa
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0150-z


  2 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29228938
[Au] Autor:Nishijima S; Nishikawa C; Miyashita T
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Biodiversity Science, School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan. nishijimash@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Habitat modification by invasive crayfish can facilitate its growth through enhanced food accessibility.
[So] Source:BMC Ecol;17(1):37, 2017 Dec 12.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6785
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Invasive ecosystem engineers can facilitate their invasions by modifying the physical environment to improve their own performance, but this positive feedback process has rarely been tested empirically except in sessile organisms. The invasive crayfish Procambarus clarkii is an ecosystem engineer that destroys aquatic macrophytes, which provide a physical refuge for animal prey, and this destruction is likely to enhance vulnerability to predators. Using two series of mesocosm experiments, we tested the hypothesis that the invasive crayfish increases its feeding efficiency on animal prey by reducing submerged macrophytes, thus increasing its individual growth rate in a positive density-dependent manner. RESULTS: In the first experiment, increasing crayfish density reduced both macrophytes and animal prey (dragonfly and chironomid larvae) and, importantly, increased the growth rate of individual crayfish, in accordance with our expectation. In the second experiment, we used artificial macrophytes to clarify whether the physical architecture of macrophytes itself protects animal prey and limits crayfish growth rate. Increasing the artificial macrophyte quantity not only increased the survival of animal prey, but also retarded the crayfish growth rate. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that macrophytes strengthen bottom-up control of crayfish, but this effect can be relaxed by increasing the density of crayfish via reduction in macrophytes. This positive feedback process may explain the crayfish outbreaks and regime shifts occasionally observed in invaded freshwater ecosystems.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Astacoidea/fisiologia
Ecossistema
Cadeia Alimentar
Espécies Introduzidas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Chironomidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Comportamento Alimentar
Água Doce
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Odonatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Desenvolvimento Vegetal
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171213
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12898-017-0147-7


  3 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29440602
[Ti] Título:Counting mountain hares in Scotland.
[So] Source:Vet Rec;182(6):158-159, 2018 02 10.
[Is] ISSN:2042-7670
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The mountain hare ( ) is Britain's only native hare, but counting them is challenging. Here, explains how new research is helping to finally discover the numbers of this elusive species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Lebres
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Densidade Demográfica
Escócia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180215
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  4 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28453671
[Au] Autor:Krukov I; de Sanctis B; de Koning APJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Wright-Fisher exact solver (WFES): scalable analysis of population genetic models without simulation or diffusion theory.
[So] Source:Bioinformatics;33(9):1416-1417, 2017 May 01.
[Is] ISSN:1367-4811
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Motivation: The simplifying assumptions that are used widely in theoretical population genetics may not always be appropriate for empirical population genetics. General computational approaches that do not require the assumptions of classical theory are therefore quite desirable. One such general approach is provided by the theory of absorbing Markov chains, which can be used to obtain exact results by directly analyzing population genetic Markov models, such as the classic bi-allelic Wright-Fisher model. Although these approaches are sometimes used, they are usually forgone in favor of simulation methods, due to the perception that they are too computationally burdensome. Here we show that, surprisingly, direct analysis of virtually any Markov chain model in population genetics can be made quite efficient by exploiting transition matrix sparsity and by solving restricted systems of linear equations, allowing a wide variety of exact calculations (within machine precision) to be easily and rapidly made on modern workstation computers. Results: We introduce Wright-Fisher Exact Solver (WFES), a fast and scalable method for direct analysis of Markov chain models in population genetics. WFES can rapidly solve for both long-term and transient behaviours including fixation and extinction probabilities, expected times to fixation or extinction, sojourn times, expected allele age and variance, and others. Our implementation requires only seconds to minutes of runtime on modern workstations and scales to biological population sizes ranging from humans to model organisms. Availability and Implementation: The code is available at https://github.com/dekoning-lab/wfes. Contact: jason.dekoning@ucalgary.ca. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Alelos
Genética Populacional/métodos
Modelos Genéticos
Software
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Seres Humanos
Cadeias de Markov
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btw802


  5 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29351566
[Au] Autor:Samoilys M; Roche R; Koldewey H; Turner J
[Ad] Endereço:CORDIO East Africa, Mombasa, Kenya.
[Ti] Título:Patterns in reef fish assemblages: Insights from the Chagos Archipelago.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191448, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Understanding the drivers of variability in the composition of fish assemblages across the Indo-Pacific region is crucial to support coral reef ecosystem resilience. Whilst numerous relationships and feedback mechanisms between the functional roles of coral reef fishes and reef benthic composition have been investigated, certain key groups, such as the herbivores, are widely suggested to maintain reefs in a coral-dominated state. Examining links between fishes and reef benthos is complicated by the interactions between natural processes, disturbance events and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. This study examined fish assemblages and associated benthic variables across five atolls within the Chagos Archipelago, where fishing pressure is largely absent, to better understand these relationships. We found high variability in fish assemblages among atolls and sites across the archipelago, especially for key groups such as a suite of grazer-detritivore surgeonfish, and the parrotfishes which varied in density over 40-fold between sites. Differences in fish assemblages were significantly associated with variable levels of both live and recently dead coral cover and rugosity. We suggest these results reflect differing coral recovery trajectories following coral bleaching events and a strong influence of 'bottom-up' control mechanisms on fish assemblages. Species level analyses revealed that Scarus niger, Acanthurus nigrofuscus and Chlorurus strongylocephalos were key species driving differences in fish assemblage structure. Clarifying the trophic roles of herbivorous and detritivorous reef fishes will require species-level studies, which also examine feeding behaviour, to fully understand their contribution in maintaining reef resilience to climate change and fishing impacts.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Recifes de Corais
Peixes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antozoários
Biodiversidade
Biomassa
Mudança Climática
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Comportamento Alimentar
Pesqueiros
Peixes/classificação
Peixes/fisiologia
Herbivoria
Oceano Índico
Ilhas do Oceano Índico
Densidade Demográfica
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191448


  6 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29357382
[Au] Autor:Nevers MB; Byappanahalli MN; Morris CC; Shively D; Przybyla-Kelly K; Spoljaric AM; Dickey J; Roseman EF
[Ad] Endereço:U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Lake Michigan Ecological Research Station, Chesterton, Indiana, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Environmental DNA (eDNA): A tool for quantifying the abundant but elusive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus).
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191720, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Environmental DNA (eDNA) is revolutionizing biodiversity monitoring, occupancy estimates, and real-time detections of invasive species. In the Great Lakes, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive benthic fish from the Black Sea, has spread to encompass all five lakes and many tributaries, outcompeting or consuming native species; however, estimates of round goby abundance are confounded by behavior and habitat preference, which impact reliable methods for estimating their population. By integrating eDNA into round goby monitoring, improved estimates of biomass may be obtainable. We conducted mesocosm experiments to estimate rates of goby DNA shedding and decay. Further, we compared eDNA with several methods of traditional field sampling to compare its use as an alternative/complementary monitoring method. Environmental DNA decay was comparable to other fish species, and first-order decay was lower at 12°C (k = 0.043) than at 19°C (k = 0.058). Round goby eDNA was routinely detected in known invaded sites of Lake Michigan and its tributaries (range log10 4.8-6.2 CN/L), but not upstream of an artificial fish barrier. Traditional techniques (mark-recapture, seining, trapping) in Lakes Michigan and Huron resulted in fewer, more variable detections than eDNA, but trapping and eDNA were correlated (Pearson R = 0.87). Additional field testing will help correlate round goby abundance with eDNA, providing insight on its role as a prey fish and its impact on food webs.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: DNA/análise
DNA/genética
Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/métodos
Peixes/genética
Espécies Introduzidas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Biomassa
Ecossistema
Cadeia Alimentar
Lagos/química
Michigan
Densidade Demográfica
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
9007-49-2 (DNA)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191720


  7 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29357381
[Au] Autor:Sala A
[Ad] Endereço:Italian National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR), Ancona, Italy.
[Ti] Título:Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191662, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE), trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%). The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and surmullet (Mullus spp) and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus). The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus), even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesqueiros
Peixes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Tamanho Corporal
União Europeia
Pesqueiros/legislação & jurisprudência
Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia
Peixes/fisiologia
Mar Mediterrâneo
Recursos Naturais
Densidade Demográfica
Especificidade da Espécie
Inquéritos e Questionários
Natação
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191662


  8 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29220519
[Au] Autor:Pérez-Rodríguez J; Martínez-Blay V; Soto A; Selfa J; Monzó C; Urbaneja A; Tena A
[Ad] Endereço:Unidad de Entomología IVIA-UJI, Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Spain.
[Ti] Título:Aggregation Patterns, Sampling Plan, and Economic Injury Levels for the New Citrus Pest Delottococcus aberiae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).
[So] Source:J Econ Entomol;110(6):2699-2706, 2017 12 05.
[Is] ISSN:1938-291X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is the latest exotic mealybug species introduced in citrus in the Mediterranean basin. It causes severe distortion and size reduction on developing fruits. Due to its first interaction with citrus, D. aberiae economic thresholds are still unknown for this crop and the current Integrated Pest Management programs have been disrupted. The objectives of this study were to determine the aggregation patterns of D. aberiae in citrus, develop an efficient sampling plan to assess its population density, and calculate its Economic and Economic Environmental Injury Levels (EIL and EEIL, respectively). Twelve and 19 orchards were sampled in 2014 and 2015, respectively. At each orchard, population densities were monitored fortnightly in leaves, twigs, and fruit, and fruit damage was determined at harvest. Our results showed a clumped aggregation of D. aberiae in all organs with no significant differences between generations on fruit. Fruit damage at harvest was strongly correlated with fruit occupation in spring. Based on these results and using chlorpyrifos as the insecticide of reference, the EIL and EEIL were calculated as 7.1 and 12.1% of occupied fruit in spring, respectively. With all this, we recommend sampling 275 fruits using a binomial sampling method or alternatively, 140 fruits with an enumerative method bimonthly between petal fall and July.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Citrus
Hemípteros/fisiologia
Controle de Insetos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Densidade Demográfica
Espanha
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jee/tox258


  9 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28421914
[Au] Autor:Wattie N; Schorer J; Baker J
[Ad] Endereço:a Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Ontario Institute of Technology , Oshawa , Canada.
[Ti] Título:Seeing the forest but not the trees: Heterogeneity in community size effects in Canadian ice hockey players.
[So] Source:J Sports Sci;36(4):436-444, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1466-447X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The community size effect (or birthplace effect) suggests that high-performance athletes are less likely to emerge from regions with population sizes that are very small or very large. However, previous research on elite Canadian ice hockey players has not considered the influence of intra-national regional variation of population distributions with respect to community size effects. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the heterogeneity of the community size effect between Canadian National Hockey League draftees (2000-2014: n = 1505), from 7 provincial regions within Canada (i.e., British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces). The proportion of athletes in the 9 census population categories were compared to the national and regional general population distributions in the census categories. Results suggest variability of community size effects between the 7 provincial regions within Canada, with only the province of Ontario demonstrating a community size effect congruent with effects reported in previous research. Using regional general population distributions as the comparator to athlete populations changed the direction, meaningfulness and magnitude of community size effects. In conclusion, elite ice hockey player community size effects may not be generalisable to all regions within Canada.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aptidão
Hóquei
Densidade Demográfica
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Desempenho Atlético
Canadá/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/02640414.2017.1313444


  10 / 20204 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29301047
[Au] Autor:Stasek DJ; Radl JN; Crist TO
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
[Ti] Título:The Effects of Dispersal and Predator Density on Prey Survival in an Insect-Red Clover Metacommunity.
[So] Source:J Insect Sci;18(1), 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1536-2442
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp., Heteroptera: Nabidae), to determine the effects of conspecific and predator density and varying the time available to dispersal among mesocosms on predation rates, dispersal rates, and leafhopper survival. Conspecific and damsel bug density did not affect dispersal rates in leafhoppers, but this may be due to leafhoppers' aversion to leaving the host plants or the connecting tubes between mesocosms hindering leafhopper movement. Leafhopper dispersal was higher in high-dispersal treatments. Survival rates of A. constricta were also lowest in treatments where dispersal was not limited. This is one of the first experimental studies to vary predator density and the time available to dispersal. Our results indicate that dispersal is the key to understanding short-term processes such as prey survival in predator-prey metacommunities. Further work is needed to determine how dispersal rates influence persistence of communities in multigenerational studies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cadeia Alimentar
Heterópteros
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Feminino
Densidade Demográfica
Trifolium
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jisesa/iex100



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