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[PMID]:29474393
[Au] Autor:Guo Y; Chang SS; Sha F; Yip PSF
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.
[Ti] Título:Poverty concentration in an affluent city: Geographic variation and correlates of neighborhood poverty rates in Hong Kong.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190566, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Previous investigations of geographic concentration of urban poverty indicate the contribution of a variety of factors, such as economic restructuring and class-based segregation, racial segregation, demographic structure, and public policy. However, the models used by most past research do not consider the possibility that poverty concentration may take different forms in different locations across a city, and most studies have been conducted in Western settings. We investigated the spatial patterning of neighborhood poverty and its correlates in Hong Kong, which is amongst cities with the highest GDP in the region, using the city-wide ordinary least square (OLS) regression model and the local-specific geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. We found substantial geographic variations in small-area poverty rates and identified several poverty clusters in the territory. Factors found to contribute to urban poverty in Western cities, such as socioeconomic factors, ethnicity, and public housing, were also mostly associated with local poverty rates in Hong Kong. Our results also suggest some heterogeneity in the associations of poverty with specific correlates (e.g. access to hospitals) that would be masked in the city-wide OLS model. Policy aimed to alleviate poverty should consider both city-wide and local-specific factors.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pobreza
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Hong Kong
Seres Humanos
Análise de Regressão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180224
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190566


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[PMID]:29420654
[Au] Autor:Sen R; Quercia D
[Ad] Endereço:Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi, India.
[Ti] Título:World wide spatial capital.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0190346, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Internet
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Planejamento de Cidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190346


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[PMID]:29198367
[Au] Autor:Richardson AS; Ghosh-Dastidar M; Beckman R; Flórez KR; DeSantis A; Collins RL; Dubowitz T
[Ad] Endereço:RAND Corporation, Health Division, Pittsburgh, PA. Electronic address: arichard@rand.org.
[Ti] Título:Can the introduction of a full-service supermarket in a food desert improve residents' economic status and health?
[So] Source:Ann Epidemiol;27(12):771-776, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2585
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: To estimate the impacts of a new supermarket in a low-income desert, on residents' economic status and health. METHODS: We surveyed a randomly selected cohort in two low-income Pittsburgh neighborhoods before and about 1 year following the opening of a supermarket. We used difference-in-difference approach to test changes across the two neighborhoods in residents' food security, United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infant and Children participation, employment, income, and self-reported health/chronic disease diagnoses. RESULTS: We observed declines in food insecurity (-11.8%, P < .01), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation (-12.2%, P < .01), and fewer new diagnoses of high cholesterol (-9.6%, P = .01) and arthritis (-7.4%, P = .02) in the neighborhood with the new supermarket relative to residents of the comparison neighborhood. We also found suggestive evidence that residents' incomes increased more ($1550, P = .09) and prevalence of diabetes increased less in the neighborhood with the supermarket than in the comparison neighborhood (-3.6%, P = .10). CONCLUSIONS: Locating a new supermarket in a low-income neighborhood may improve residents' economic well-being and health. Policymakers should consider broad impacts of neighborhood investment that could translate into improved health for residents of underserved neighborhoods.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comércio
Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos
Assistência Pública
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Nível de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pobreza
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171205
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28455636
[Au] Autor:Duprey EB; Oshri A; Caughy MO
[Ad] Endereço:The Youth Development Institute, Human Development and Family Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. erinn.duprey@uga.edu.
[Ti] Título:Childhood Neglect, Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Substance Use: Does the Neighborhood Context Matter?
[So] Source:J Youth Adolesc;46(7):1582-1597, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1573-6601
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Childhood neglect is associated with risk behaviors in adolescence, including substance use. There is evidence that internalizing behaviors may serve as a mechanism linking childhood neglect and substance use; however, further research is needed to examine this developmental pathway. According to developmental and ecological approaches, the neighborhood context and the developmental timing of maltreatment should both be considered when examining the sequelae of childhood neglect. Hence, the present study uses a longitudinal sample of youth (N = 965, 49.1% female, 59.2% African-American) to examine the influence of timing in the relationship between childhood neglect and adolescent psychopathology, and to examine the indirect effects of child neglect on substance use via internalizing symptoms in adolescence. Furthermore, the role of neighborhood disorder in this indirect effect was tested. Five data collection time points were used: Time 1(M = 4.557, SD = .701), Time 2 (M = 6.422, SD = .518), Time 3 (M = 12.370, SD = .443), Time 4 (M = 14.359, SD = .452), and Time 5 (M = 16.316, SD = .615). The findings showed that internalizing problems mediated the link between the severity of neglect in early childhood and adolescent substance use, and this pathway was moderated by neighborhood disorder. These results have implications for preventative interventions aimed toward reducing substance use for at-risk adolescents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Maus-Tratos Infantis/diagnóstico
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia
Controle Interno-Externo
Distribuição Espacial da População
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos
Pré-Escolar
Ajustamento Emocional
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
Masculino
Distribuição Espacial da População/estatística & dados numéricos
Assunção de Riscos
Mudança Social
Estatística como Assunto
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10964-017-0672-x


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[PMID]:28460606
[Au] Autor:Hughes BO; Moshabela M; Owen J; Gaede B
[Ad] Endereço:a Centre for Rural Health , University of KwaZulu-Natal , Durban , South Africa.
[Ti] Título:The relevance and role of homestays in medical education: a scoping study.
[So] Source:Med Educ Online;22(1):1320185, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1087-2981
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The community-based medical education curriculum is growing in popularity as a strategy to bring universal health coverage to underserved communities by providing medical students with hands-on training in primary health care. Accommodation and immersion of medical students within the community will become increasingly important to the success of community-based curricula. In the context of tourism, homestays, where local families host guests, have shown to provide an immersive accommodation experience. OBJECTIVE: By exploring homestays in the educational context, this scoping study investigates their role in providing an immersive pedagogical experience for medical students. DESIGN: A scoping review was performed using the online databases ScienceDirect and the Duke University Library Database, which searches Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Web of Science, Proquest, PubMed and WorldCat. Using the inclusion term 'homestays' and excluding the term 'tourism', 181 results were returned. AClose assessment using inclusion criteria narrowed this to 14 relevant articles. RESULTS: There is very little published research specific to the experience of medical students in community homestays, indicating a gap in the literature. However, the existing educational outcomes suggest homestays may have the potential to serve a significant role in medical education, especially as a component of decentralised or community-based programmes. The literature reveals that educational homestays influence language learning, cultural immersion, and the development of professional skills for health science careers. These outcomes relate to the level of engagement between students and hosts, including the catalytic role of community liaisons. CONCLUSIONS: Homestays offer a unique depth of experience that has the potential to enrich the education of participating students, and require further research, particularly in the context of distributed and decentralised training platforms for medical and health sciences students. Future studies should explore the potential for homestays as a pedagogical component of community-based medical curriculum. ABBREVIATIONS: CBME: Community-based medical education.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos
Assistência à Saúde/métodos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos
Distribuição Espacial da População
Estudantes de Medicina
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Currículo
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10872981.2017.1320185


  6 / 26930 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28421914
[Au] Autor:Wattie N; Schorer J; Baker J
[Ad] Endereço:a Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Ontario Institute of Technology , Oshawa , Canada.
[Ti] Título:Seeing the forest but not the trees: Heterogeneity in community size effects in Canadian ice hockey players.
[So] Source:J Sports Sci;36(4):436-444, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1466-447X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The community size effect (or birthplace effect) suggests that high-performance athletes are less likely to emerge from regions with population sizes that are very small or very large. However, previous research on elite Canadian ice hockey players has not considered the influence of intra-national regional variation of population distributions with respect to community size effects. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the heterogeneity of the community size effect between Canadian National Hockey League draftees (2000-2014: n = 1505), from 7 provincial regions within Canada (i.e., British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces). The proportion of athletes in the 9 census population categories were compared to the national and regional general population distributions in the census categories. Results suggest variability of community size effects between the 7 provincial regions within Canada, with only the province of Ontario demonstrating a community size effect congruent with effects reported in previous research. Using regional general population distributions as the comparator to athlete populations changed the direction, meaningfulness and magnitude of community size effects. In conclusion, elite ice hockey player community size effects may not be generalisable to all regions within Canada.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aptidão
Hóquei
Densidade Demográfica
Distribuição Espacial da População
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Desempenho Atlético
Canadá/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180302
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180302
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170420
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/02640414.2017.1313444


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[PMID]:28460530
[Au] Autor:McGrail MR; Wingrove PM; Petterson SM; Humphreys JS; Russell DJ; Bazemore AW
[Ad] Endereço:School of Rural Health, Northways Rd Churchill VIC 3842 Australia. matthew.mcgrail@monash.edu.
[Ti] Título:Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply.
[So] Source:Rural Remote Health;17(2):3925, 2017 Apr-Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1445-6354
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Many rural communities continue to experience an undersupply of primary care doctor services. While key professional factors relating to difficulties of recruitment and retention of rural primary care doctors are widely identified, less attention has been given to the role of community and place aspects on supply. Place-related attributes contribute to a community's overall amenity or attractiveness, which arguably influence both rural recruitment and retention relocation decisions of doctors. This bi-national study of Australia and the USA, two developed nations with similar geographic and rural access profiles, investigates the extent to which variations in community amenity indicators are associated with spatial variations in the supply of rural primary care doctors. METHODS: Measures from two dimensions of community amenity: geographic location, specifically isolation/proximity; and economics and sociodemographics were included in this study, along with a proxy measure (jurisdiction) of a third dimension, environmental amenity. Data were chiefly collated from the American Community Survey and the Australian Census of Population and Housing, with additional calculated proximity measures. Rural primary care supply was measured using provider-to-population ratios in 1949 US rural counties and in 370 Australian rural local government areas. Additionally, the more sophisticated two-step floating catchment area method was used to measure Australian rural primary care supply in 1116 rural towns, with population sizes ranging from 500 to 50 000. Associations between supply and community amenity indicators were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients and ordinary least squares multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: It was found that increased population size, having a hospital in the county, increased house prices and affluence, and a more educated and older population were all significantly associated with increased workforce supply across rural areas of both countries. While remote areas were strongly linked with poorer supply in Australia, geographical remoteness was not significant after accounting for other indicators of amenity such as the positive association between workforce supply and coastal location. Workforce supply in the USA was negatively associated with fringe rural area locations adjacent to larger metropolitan areas and characterised by long work commutes. The US model captured 49% of the variation of workforce supply between rural counties, while the Australian models captured 35-39% of rural supply variation. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the idea that the rural medical workforce is maldistributed with a skew towards locating in more affluent and educated areas, and against locating in smaller, poorer and more isolated rural towns, which struggle to attract an adequate supply of primary care services. This evidence is important in understanding the role of place characteristics and rural population dynamics in the recruitment and retention of rural doctors. Future primary care workforce policies need to place a greater focus on rural communities that, for a variety of reasons, may be less attractive to doctors looking to begin or remain working there.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Recursos Humanos em Saúde/organização & administração
Médicos de Atenção Primária/provisão & distribuição
Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
Distribuição Espacial da População/estatística & dados numéricos
Serviços de Saúde Rural/recursos humanos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Meio Ambiente
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Isolamento Social
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170503
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.22605/RRH3925


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[PMID]:27776000
[Au] Autor:Oyeyemi AL; Conway TL; Adedoyin RA; Akinroye KK; Aryeetey R; Assah F; Cain KL; Gavand KA; Kasoma SS; Kolbe-Alexander TL; Lambert EV; Larouche R; Moss SJ; Ocansey R; Onywera VO; Prista A; Tremblay MS; Sallis JF
[Ad] Endereço:1Department of Physiotherapy, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, NIGERIA; 2Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation, Faculty of Health Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, SOUTH AFRICA; 3Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, CA; 4Department of Medical Rehabilitation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, NIGERIA; 5Nigerian Heart Foundation, Lagos, NIGERIA; 6School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon Accra, GHANA; 7Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Department of Public Health, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CAMEROON; 8Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biosciences, Makerere University, Kampala, UGANDA; 9Centre for Research on Exercise, Physical Activity and Health, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AUSTRALIA; 10Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA; 11Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, CANADA; 12Active Living and Wellness Alliance Group, Nungua, GHANA; 13Department of Recreation Management and Exercise Science, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, KENYA; 14Physical Activity and Health Research Group, CIDAF-FEFF, Universidade Pedagogica, Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE; and 15Department of Pediatrics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CANADA.
[Ti] Título:Construct Validity of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Africa.
[So] Source:Med Sci Sports Exerc;49(3):482-491, 2017 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1530-0315
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The development of valid measures of built environments relevant for physical activity is an important step toward controlling the global epidemic of physical inactivity-related noncommunicable diseases and deaths. This study assessed the construct validity of a self-report neighborhood environment walkability scale adapted for Africa (NEWS-Africa), by examining relationships with self-reported walking for transportation and recreation using pooled data from six sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: NEWS was systematically adapted to assess urban, periurban, and rural environments in sub-Saharan Africa. Adults (n = 469, 18-85 yr, 49.7% women) from Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, and Uganda were purposively recruited from neighborhoods varying in walkability and socioeconomic status, with some from villages. Participants completed the 76-item (13 subscales) NEWS-Africa by structured interview and reported weekly minutes of walking for transport and recreation using items from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: The overall "walkability" index had a positive relationship with both walking for transportation (η = 0.020, P = 0.005) and recreation (η = 0.013, P = 0.028) in the pooled analyses. The mixed-use access and stranger danger scales were positively related with transport walking (η = 0.020, P = 0.006 and η = 0.021, P = 0.040, respectively). Proximity of recreational facilities (η = 0.016, P = 0.015), road/path connectivity (η = 0.025, P = 0.002), path infrastructure (η = 0.021, P = 0.005), and overall places for walking and cycling (η = 0.012, P = 0.029) scales were positively related to recreational walking. Country-specific results were mostly nonsignificant except for South Africa and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Of 14 NEWS-Africa scales, 7 were significantly related to walking behavior in pooled analyses, providing partial support for the construct validity of NEWS-Africa. However, effect sizes appeared to be lower than those from other continents. Further study with larger and more diverse samples is needed to determine whether the instrument performs well in each country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Planejamento Ambiental
Distribuição Espacial da População
Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Recreação
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Autorrelato
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001131


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[PMID]:29279935
[Au] Autor:Bancks MP; Kershaw K; Carson AP; Gordon-Larsen P; Schreiner PJ; Carnethon MR
[Ad] Endereço:Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.
[Ti] Título:Association of Modifiable Risk Factors in Young Adulthood With Racial Disparity in Incident Type 2 Diabetes During Middle Adulthood.
[So] Source:JAMA;318(24):2457-2465, 2017 12 26.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Importance: In the United States, black individuals are twice as likely to develop type 2 diabetes compared with white individuals, and these disparities are particularly pronounced in young and middle age. Prior studies have identified differences in traditional risk factors that may be associated with racial disparities in diabetes incidence but have not simultaneously adjusted for risk factors measured across multiple domains (eg, the individual and the environment) and updated over time. Objective: To determine the relative associations of modifiable biological, neighborhood, psychosocial, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors in young adulthood with the observed racial disparity in diabetes incidence between middle-aged black and white individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants: Black and white men and women from the observational Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, aged 18 to 30 years, without diabetes at baseline (1985-1986; N = 4251) were observed through 2015-2016. Sex-stratified multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling, with adjustment for time-updated covariates, was used to estimate risk for incident diabetes. Percent reduction in the ß coefficient (the logarithm used to calculate the hazard ratio [HR]) was calculated to compare black to white participants. Exposures: Self-identified race and factors including biological (eg, fasting glucose, body mass index), neighborhood (racial segregation and tract-level poverty), psychosocial (depressive symptoms), socioeconomic (eg, personal and parental educational attainment, current employment), and behavioral (eg, regular alcohol consumption, smoking) domains. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Results: The mean (SD) age at baseline was 25 (3.6) years, 49% (n = 2066) of the sample was black, and 54% (n = 2304) were women. Over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 504 cases of incident diabetes were identified. Using sex-stratified multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, black women and men were more likely to develop diabetes than white men and women (black women: HR, 2.86 [95% CI, 2.19-3.72] and risk difference [RD], 89 cases/1000 people [95% CI, 61-117]; black men: HR, 1.67 [95% CI, 1.28-2.17] and RD, 47 cases/1000 people [95% CI, 15-78]) after adjustment for age and center. Biological factors were most strongly associated with the disparity in diabetes risk between black and white individuals for women (percent reduction in ß, 112%) and men (percent reduction in ß, 86%). There was no longer disparity in diabetes risk between black and white middle-aged adults after adjustment for biological, neighborhood, psychosocial, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors measured over time (HR for women, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.55-1.14]; HR for men, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.62-1.38]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study comparing black and white participants, there was a statistically significant increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes among black women and men. However, after adjustment for modifiable risk factors during young adulthood, the disparity was no longer statistically significant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Afroamericanos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Índice de Massa Corporal
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lipídeos/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
Distribuição Espacial da População
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., INTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lipids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.19546


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[PMID]:29206950
[Au] Autor:Gilster ME; Meier CL
[Ad] Endereço:School of Social Work, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
[Ti] Título:Formal and Informal Neighborhood Social Organization: Which Promotes Better Resident Health?
[So] Source:Health Soc Work;41(3):182-190, 2016 Aug 01.
[Is] ISSN:0360-7283
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Neighborhood social organization captures how neighborhood residents differently organize to exert social control and enact their vision of their community. Whereas structural aspects of neighborhoods have been found to predict the health of neighborhood residents, we know less about whether neighborhood social characteristics, like social organization, matter for resident health. In their study, authors tested whether two types of social organization-formal and informal-were more predictive of resident self-rated health in a diverse sample of Chicago residents. They used multilevel models with survey weights, ordered dependent variables, and multiple imputation. They found that one measure of formal social organization, organizational participation, was significantly associated with self-rated health even when controlling for other types of social organization and individual participation. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for macro social work practice to address social determinants of health and improve community health.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Promoção da Saúde
Nível de Saúde
Distribuição Espacial da População
Meio Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Chicago
Demografia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Controle Social Formal
Controles Informais da Sociedade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/hsw/hlw024



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