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Pesquisa : N03.540.052.500 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 594 [refinar]
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[PMID]:28810027
[Au] Autor:Kaelin WG
[Ad] Endereço:Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland.
[Ti] Título:Climate Change: What Would Lincoln Do?
[So] Source:JAMA;318(7):611, 2017 Aug 15.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Pessoas Famosas
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)/história
Ciência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: História do Século XIX
Ciência/história
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Lincoln A
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170922
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170922
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170816
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2017.6999


  2 / 594 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28259406
[Au] Autor:White RR; Roman-Garcia Y; Firkins JL; Kononoff P; VandeHaar MJ; Tran H; McGill T; Garnett R; Hanigan MD
[Ad] Endereço:National Animal Nutrition Program, National Research Support Project 9, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060; Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060. Electronic address: rrwhite@exchange.vt.edu.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of the National Research Council (2001) dairy model and derivation of new prediction equations. 2. Rumen degradable and undegradable protein.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;100(5):3611-3627, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This work evaluated the National Research Council (NRC) dairy model (2001) predictions of rumen undegradable (RUP) and degradable (RDP) protein compared with measured postruminal non-ammonia, nonmicrobial (NANMN) and microbial N flows. Models were evaluated using the root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) as a percent of the observed mean, mean and slope biases as percentages of mean squared prediction error (MSPE), and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The NRC (2001) over-estimated NANMN by 18% and under-estimated microbial N by 14%. Both responses had large mean biases (19% and 20% of MSPE, respectively), and NANMN had a slope bias (22% of MSPE). The NRC NANMN estimate had high RMSPE (46% of observed mean) and low CCC (0.37); updating feed library A, B, and C protein fractions and degradation rate (K ) estimates with newer literature only marginally improved fit. The re-fit NRC models for NANMN and microbial N had CCC of 0.89 and 0.94, respectively. When compared with a prediction of NANMN as a static mean fraction of N intake, the re-derived NRC approach did not have improved fit. A protein system of intermediate complexity was derived in an attempt to estimate NANMN with improved fit compared with the static mean NANMN model. In this system, postruminal appearance of A, B, and C protein fractions were predicted in a feed-type specific manner rather than from estimated passage and degradation rates. In a comparison to independent data achieved through cross-validation, the new protein system improved RMSPE (34 vs. 36% of observed mean) and CCC (0.42 vs. 0.30) compared with the static mean NANMN model. When the NRC microbial N equation was re-derived, the RDP term dropped from the model. Consequently, 2 new microbial protein equations were formulated, both used a saturating (increasing at a decreasing rate) form: one saturated with respect to TDN and the other saturated over increasing intakes of rumen degraded starch and NDF. Both equations expressed maximal microbial N production as a linear function of RDP intake. The function relating microbial N to intake of rumen degradable carbohydrate improved RMSPE (24 vs. 28% of the observed mean) and CCC (0.63 vs 0.30) compared with the re-derived NRC model. The newly derived equations showed modest improvements in model fit and improved capacity to account for known biological effects; however, substantial variability in NANMN and microbial N estimates remained unexplained.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal
Rúmen/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dieta
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo
Modelos Teóricos
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Dietary Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170522
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170522
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170306
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28259403
[Au] Autor:White RR; Roman-Garcia Y; Firkins JL; VandeHaar MJ; Armentano LE; Weiss WP; McGill T; Garnett R; Hanigan MD
[Ad] Endereço:National Animal Nutrition Program, National Research Support Project 9, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060; Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060. Electronic address: rrwhite@exchange.vt.edu.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of the National Research Council (2001) dairy model and derivation of new prediction equations. 1. Digestibility of fiber, fat, protein, and nonfiber carbohydrate.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;100(5):3591-3610, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Evaluation of ration balancing systems such as the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements series is important for improving predictions of animal nutrient requirements and advancing feeding strategies. This work used a literature data set (n = 550) to evaluate predictions of total-tract digested neutral detergent fiber (NDF), fatty acid (FA), crude protein (CP), and nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) estimated by the NRC (2001) dairy model. Mean biases suggested that the NRC (2001) lactating cow model overestimated true FA and CP digestibility by 26 and 7%, respectively, and under-predicted NDF digestibility by 16%. All NRC (2001) estimates had notable mean and slope biases and large root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE), and concordance (CCC) ranged from poor to good. Predicting NDF digestibility with independent equations for legumes, corn silage, other forages, and nonforage feeds improved CCC (0.85 vs. 0.76) compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (NRC equation with parameter estimates re-derived against this data set). Separate FA digestion coefficients were derived for different fat supplements (animal fats, oils, and other fat types) and for the basal diet. This equation returned improved (from 0.76 to 0.94) CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form. Unique CP digestibility equations were derived for forages, animal protein feeds, plant protein feeds, and other feeds, which improved CCC compared with the re-derived NRC (2001) equation form (0.74 to 0.85). New NFC digestibility coefficients were derived for grain-specific starch digestibilities, with residual organic matter assumed to be 98% digestible. A Monte Carlo cross-validation was performed to evaluate repeatability of model fit. In this procedure, data were randomly subsetted 500 times into derivation (60%) and evaluation (40%) data sets, and equations were derived using the derivation data and then evaluated against the independent evaluation data. Models derived with random study effects demonstrated poor repeatability of fit in independent evaluation. Similar equations derived without random study effects showed improved fit against independent data and little evidence of biased parameter estimates associated with failure to include study effects. The equations derived in this analysis provide interesting insight into how NDF, starch, FA, and CP digestibilities are affected by intake, feed type, and diet composition.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Lactação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ração Animal
Animais
Bovinos
Dieta
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo
Digestão
Feminino
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Rúmen/metabolismo
Silagem
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170306
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28131571
[Au] Autor:White RR; McGill T; Garnett R; Patterson RJ; Hanigan MD
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg 24060. Electronic address: rrwhite@exchange.vt.edu.
[Ti] Título:Short communication: Evaluation of the PREP10 energy-, protein-, and amino acid-allowable milk equations in comparison with the National Research Council model.
[So] Source:J Dairy Sci;100(4):2801-2806, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3198
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this work was to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the milk yield predictions made by the PREP10 model in comparison to those from the National Research Council (NRC) Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. The PREP10 model is a ration-balancing system that allows protein use efficiency to vary with production level. The model also has advanced AA supply and requirement calculations that enable estimation of AA-allowable milk (Milk ) based on 10 essential AA. A literature data set of 374 treatment means was collected and used to quantitatively evaluate the estimates of protein-allowable milk (Milk ) and energy-allowable milk yields from the NRC and PREP10 models. The PREP10 Milk prediction was also evaluated, as were both models' estimates of milk based on the most-limiting nutrient or the mean of the estimated milk yields. For most milk estimates compared, the PREP10 model had reduced root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE), improved concordance correlation coefficient, and reduced mean and slope bias in comparison to the NRC model. In particular, utilizing the variable protein use efficiency for milk production notably improved the estimate of Milk when compared with NRC. The PREP10 Milk estimate had an RMSPE of 18.2% (NRC = 25.7%), concordance correlation coefficient of 0.82% (NRC = 0.64), slope bias of -0.14 kg/kg of predicted milk (NRC = -0.34 kg/kg), and mean bias of -0.63 kg (NRC = -2.85 kg). The PREP10 estimate of Milk had slightly elevated RMSPE and mean and slope bias when compared with Milk . The PREP10 estimate of Milk was not advantageous when compared with Milk , likely because AA use efficiency for milk was constant whereas MP use was variable. Future work evaluating variable AA use efficiencies for milk production is likely to improve accuracy and precision of models of allowable milk.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aminoácidos
Leite
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Dieta/veterinária
Lactação
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Necessidades Nutricionais
Proteínas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Amino Acids); 0 (Proteins)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170518
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170518
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170130
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27748637
[Au] Autor:Kretser A; Murphy D; Dwyer J
[Ad] Endereço:a ILSI North America , Washington , DC , USA.
[Ti] Título:Scientific integrity resource guide: Efforts by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia in the United States.
[So] Source:Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr;57(1):163-180, 2017 Jan 02.
[Is] ISSN:1549-7852
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Scientific integrity is at the forefront of the scientific research enterprise. This paper provides an overview of key existing efforts on scientific integrity by federal agencies, foundations, nonprofit organizations, professional societies, and academia from 1989 to April 2016. It serves as a resource for the scientific community on scientific integrity work and helps to identify areas in which more action is needed. Overall, there is tremendous activity in this area and there are clear linkages among the efforts of the five sectors. All the same, scientific integrity needs to remain visible in the scientific community and evolve along with new research paradigms. High priority in instilling these values falls upon all stakeholders.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica/ética
Guias como Assunto
Má Conduta Científica
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Fundações
Prioridades em Saúde/tendências
Seres Humanos
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos
Revisão por Pares/tendências
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Sociedades Científicas
Estados Unidos
United States Food and Drug Administration
United States Office of Research Integrity
Universidades
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1702
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161018
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27974774
[Au] Autor:Molina M; Janda K
[Ti] Título:Ralph J. Cicerone (1943-2016).
[So] Source:Nature;540(7633):342, 2016 12 14.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Política Ambiental/história
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Clorofluorcarbonetos/história
Edição de Genes/história
Golfo do México
História do Século XX
História do Século XXI
Seres Humanos
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)/organização & administração
Ozônio/história
Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:BIOGRAPHY; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Nome de pessoa como assunto:Cicerone RJ
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chlorofluorocarbons); 66H7ZZK23N (Ozone)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170407
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170407
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161216
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/540342a


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[PMID]:27738146
[Au] Autor:Mervis J
[Ti] Título:Spy agencies team up with National Academies.
[So] Source:Science;354(6309):155-156, 2016 Oct 14.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Coleta de Dados/métodos
Medidas de Segurança/tendências
Ciências Sociais/tendências
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170405
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170405
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161015
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27410484
[Au] Autor:Abbasi J
[Ti] Título:National Academies Hit the Brakes on Gene Drive-Modified Organisms.
[So] Source:JAMA;316(5):482-3, 2016 Aug 02.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reservatórios de Doenças
Padrões de Herança
Insetos Vetores
Organismos Geneticamente Modificados
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Agricultura
Animais
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle
Culicidae/genética
Culicidae/patogenicidade
Dengue/prevenção & controle
Ecossistema
Seres Humanos
Padrões de Herança/genética
Insetos Vetores/genética
Insetos Vetores/patogenicidade
Malária/prevenção & controle
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética
Saúde Pública
Schistosoma/genética
Schistosoma/patogenicidade
Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
Estados Unidos
Infecção pelo Zika virus/prevenção & controle
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1608
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160714
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.8830


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[PMID]:27387928
[Au] Autor:Malakoff D
[Ti] Título:RESEARCH REGULATION. Panel slams plan for human research rules.
[So] Source:Science;353(6295):106-7, 2016 Jul 08.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Temas Bioéticos
Experimentação Humana/ética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Sono
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:NEWS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1610
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161230
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161230
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160709
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.353.6295.106


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[PMID]:27254725
[Au] Autor:Lin FR; Hazzard WR; Blazer DG
[Ad] Endereço:Departments of Otolaryngology, Medicine (Geriatrics), Mental Health, and Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
[Ti] Título:Priorities for Improving Hearing Health Care for Adults: A Report From the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
[So] Source:JAMA;316(8):819-20, 2016 Aug 23-30.
[Is] ISSN:1538-3598
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/métodos
Prioridades em Saúde
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Perda Auditiva/reabilitação
Audição
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Academias e Institutos
Adulto
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/economia
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva/instrumentação
Engenharia
Auxiliares de Audição/economia
Seres Humanos
Medicina
National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1609
[Cu] Atualização por classe:161017
[Lr] Data última revisão:
161017
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:160603
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1001/jama.2016.7916



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