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Pesquisa : N04.452.822 [Categoria DeCS]
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[PMID]:29176829
[Au] Autor:van der Eijk Y; Glantz SA
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Tobacco industry attempts to frame smoking as a 'disability' under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188188, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry's involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989-1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry's lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyers and civil rights groups to include smoking in the ADA's definition of "disability." Focus was on smoking as a perceived rather than actual disability so that tobacco companies could maintain that smoking is not addictive. Language that would have explicitly excluded smoking from ADA coverage was weakened or omitted. Tobacco Institute lawyers did not think the argument that smokers are "disabled" would convince the courts, so in the two years after the ADA was signed into law, the Tobacco Institute paid a lawyer to conduct media tours, seminars, and write articles to convince employers that hiring only non-smokers would violate the ADA. The ultimate goal of these activities was to deter employers from promoting a healthy, tobacco-free workforce and, more broadly, to promote the social acceptability of smoking. Employers and policy makers need to be aware that tobacco use is not protected by the ADA and should not be misled by tobacco industry efforts to insinuate otherwise.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Avaliação da Deficiência
Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência
Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Manobras Políticas
Relações Públicas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188188


  2 / 6408 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28892482
[Au] Autor:Chiu K; Grundy Q; Bero L
[Ad] Endereço:Charles Perkins Centre, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
[Ti] Título:'Spin' in published biomedical literature: A methodological systematic review.
[So] Source:PLoS Biol;15(9):e2002173, 2017 Sep.
[Is] ISSN:1545-7885
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the scientific literature, spin refers to reporting practices that distort the interpretation of results and mislead readers so that results are viewed in a more favourable light. The presence of spin in biomedical research can negatively impact the development of further studies, clinical practice, and health policies. This systematic review aims to explore the nature and prevalence of spin in the biomedical literature. We searched MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and hand searched reference lists for all reports that included the measurement of spin in the biomedical literature for at least 1 outcome. Two independent coders extracted data on the characteristics of reports and their included studies and all spin-related outcomes. Results were grouped inductively into themes by spin-related outcome and are presented as a narrative synthesis. We used meta-analyses to analyse the association of spin with industry sponsorship of research. We included 35 reports, which investigated spin in clinical trials, observational studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. The nature of spin varied according to study design. The highest (but also greatest) variability in the prevalence of spin was present in trials. Some of the common practices used to spin results included detracting from statistically nonsignificant results and inappropriately using causal language. Source of funding was hypothesised by a few authors to be a factor associated with spin; however, results were inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of the included papers. Further research is needed to assess the impact of spin on readers' decision-making. Editors and peer reviewers should be familiar with the prevalence and manifestations of spin in their area of research in order to ensure accurate interpretation and dissemination of research.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Propaganda
Editoração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pesquisa Biomédica
Conflito de Interesses
Preconceito
Relações Públicas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170912
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2002173


  3 / 6408 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28617783
[Au] Autor:Shuker C; Bohm G; Hamblin R; Simpson A; St George D; Stolarek I; Wilson J; Merry AF
[Ad] Endereço:Principal Advisor, Publications, Health Quality & Safety Commission, Wellington.
[Ti] Título:Progress in public reporting in New Zealand since the Ombudsman's ruling, and an invitation.
[So] Source:N Z Med J;130(1457):11-22, 2017 06 16.
[Is] ISSN:1175-8716
[Cp] País de publicação:New Zealand
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Disseminação de Informação/métodos
Defesa do Paciente
Relações Públicas
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
Gestão da Qualidade Total
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Revelação
Seres Humanos
Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência
Nova Zelândia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170808
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170808
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170616
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28302095
[Au] Autor:Moyo CS; Francis J; Bessong PO
[Ad] Endereço:HIV/AIDS & Global Health Research Programme, School of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou, 0950, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of a longitudinal biomedical research project on their sustainable livelihoods.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;17(1):267, 2017 Mar 17.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Researchers involved in biomedical community-based projects rarely seek the perspectives of community fieldworkers, who are the 'foot soldiers' in such projects. Understanding the effect of biomedical research on community-based field workers could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of community-based studies. The present study explored the perceptions of community-based field workers on the effect of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project" (MAL-ED) South Africa on their tangible and intangible capital which together comprise sustainable livelihoods. METHODS: The study was conducted in Dzimauli community in Limpopo Province of South Africa between January-February 2016. The sustainable livelihoods framework was used to query community-based field workers' perspectives of both tangible assets such as income and physical assets and intangible assets such as social capital, confidence, and skills. Data were collected through twenty one individual in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion. Data were analysed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach supported by ATLAS.ti, version 7.5.10 software. RESULTS: All the field workers indicated that they benefitted from the MAL-ED South Africa project. The benefits included intangible assets such as acquisition of knowledge and skills, stronger social capital and personal development. Additionally, all indicated that MAL-ED South Africa provided them with the tangible assets of increased income and physical assets. Observations obtained from the focus group discussion and the community-based leaders concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. Additionally, some field workers expressed the desire for training in public relations, communication, problem solving and confidence building. CONCLUSIONS: The MAL-ED South Africa, biomedical research project, had positive effects on tangible and intangible assets that compose the sustainable livelihoods of community-based fieldworkers. However, the field workers expressed the need to acquire social skills to enable them carry out their duties more efficiently.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde
Declarações Financeiras
Pessoal de Saúde
Renda
Pesquisadores
Capital Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Comunicação
Feminino
Grupos Focais
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Percepção
Resolução de Problemas
Relações Públicas
Projetos de Pesquisa
África do Sul
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170830
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170830
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170318
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4138-6


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[PMID]:28242087
[Au] Autor:Altieri MS; Yang J; Wang L; Yin D; Talamini M; Pryor AD
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Bariatric, Foregut, and Advanced Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY. Electronic address: altieri.m@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Surgeons' perceptions on industry relations: A survey of 822 surgeons.
[So] Source:Surgery;162(1):164-173, 2017 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1532-7361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The relationships between industry and medical professionals are controversial. The purpose of our study was to evaluate surgeons' current opinions regarding the industry-surgery partnership, in addition to self-reported industry ties. METHODS: After institutional review board approval, a survey was sent via RedCap to 3,782 surgeons across the United States. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to evaluate the responses. RESULTS: The response rate was 23%. From the 822 responders, 226 (27%) reported at least one current relationship with industry, while 297 (36.1%) had at least one such relationship within the past 3 years. There was no difference between general surgery versus other surgical specialties (P = .5). Among the general surgery subspecialties, respondents in minimally invasive surgery/foregut had greater ties to industry compared to other subspecialties (P = .001). In addition, midcareer surgeons, male sex, and being on a reviewer/editorial board were associated with having industry ties (P < .05). Most surgeons (71%) believed that the relationships with industry are important for innovation. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that relationships between surgeons and industry are common, because more than a quarter of our responders reported at least one current relationship. Industry relations are perceived as necessary for operative innovation.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
Indústrias
Relações Interprofissionais
Relações Públicas
Especialidades Cirúrgicas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170906
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170906
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170301
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28110500
[Au] Autor:Mialon M; Swinburn B; Allender S; Sacks G
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Health Sciences, University of York, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:'Maximising shareholder value': a detailed insight into the corporate political activity of the Australian food industry.
[So] Source:Aust N Z J Public Health;41(2):165-171, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1753-6405
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To gain deeper insight into the corporate political activity (CPA) of the Australian food industry from a public health perspective. METHODS: Fifteen interviews with a purposive sample of current and former policy makers, public health advocates and academics who have closely interacted with food industry representatives or observed food industry behaviours. RESULTS: All participants reported having directly experienced the CPA of the food industry during their careers, with the 'information and messaging' and 'constituency building' strategies most prominent. Participants expressed concern that food industry CPA strategies resulted in weakened policy responses to addressing diet-related disease. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides direct evidence of food industry practices that have the potential to shape public health-related policies and programs in Australia in ways that favour business interests at the expense of population health. Implications for public health: This evidence can inform policy makers and public health advocates and be used to adopt measures to ensure that public interests are put at the forefront as part of the policy development and implementation process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Indústria Alimentícia
Manobras Políticas
Política
Saúde Pública
Relações Públicas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Austrália
Política de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Formulação de Políticas
Responsabilidade Social
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1704
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170417
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170417
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170123
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/1753-6405.12639


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[PMID]:28107541
[Au] Autor:Liu JS; Ho MH; Lu LY
[Ad] Endereço:Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
[Ti] Título:Recent Themes in Social Networking Service Research.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(1):e0170293, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The body of literature addressing the phenomenon related to social networking services (SNSs) has grown rather fast recently. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, this study identifies the recent SNS research themes, which are the issues discussed by a coherent and growing subset of this literature. A set of academic articles retrieved from the Web of Science database is used as the basis for uncovering the recent themes. We begin the analysis by constructing a citation network which is further separated into groups after applying a widely used clustering method. The resulting clusters all consist of articles coherent in citation relationships. This study suggests eight fast growing recent themes. They span widely encompassing politics, romantic relationships, public relations, journalism, and health. Among them, four focus their issues largely on Twitter, three on Facebook, and one generally on both. While discussions on traditional issues in SNSs such as personality, motivations, self-disclosure, narcissism, etc. continue to lead the pack, the proliferation of the highlighted recent themes in the near future is very likely to happen.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa
Rede Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Relações Interpessoais
Relações Públicas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170811
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170811
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0170293


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[PMID]:28941367
[Ti] Título:American College of Surgeons Statements on Principles.
[So] Source:Bull Am Coll Surg;101(9):19-34, 2016 09.
[Is] ISSN:0002-8045
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ética Médica
Cirurgia Geral/normas
Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Relações Públicas
Sociedades Médicas
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171016
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171016
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:H
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170925
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27982470
[Au] Autor:Ballard PJ; Cohen AK; Littenberg-Tobias J
[Ad] Endereço:University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Action Civics for Promoting Civic Development: Main Effects of Program Participation and Differences by Project Characteristics.
[So] Source:Am J Community Psychol;58(3-4):377-390, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1573-2770
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Using both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examined the effect of participating in an action civics intervention, Generation Citizen (GC), on civic commitment, civic self-efficacy, and two forms of civic knowledge. The sample consisted of 617 middle and high schools students in 55 classrooms who participated, or were soon to participate, in Generation Citizen. Hierarchical linear models revealed that participating in Generation Citizen was associated with positive gains in action civics knowledge and civic self-efficacy. Qualitative coding identified three types of project characteristics that captured variability in the action projects student chose to complete: context, content, and contact with decision makers. Interactions between project characteristics and participation in GC revealed differences in civic outcomes depending on project characteristics.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Governo
Política
Psicologia Social/educação
Relações Públicas
Responsabilidade Social
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Currículo
Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171122
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171122
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161217
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajcp.12103


  10 / 6408 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27855104
[Au] Autor:Hatchard JL; Fooks GJ; Gilmore AB
[Ad] Endereço:Tobacco Control Research Group, Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
[Ti] Título:Standardised tobacco packaging: a health policy case study of corporate conflict expansion and adaptation.
[So] Source:BMJ Open;6(10):e012634, 2016 10 07.
[Is] ISSN:2044-6055
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: To investigate opposition to standardised tobacco packaging in the UK. To increase understanding of how transnational corporations are adapting to changes in their access to policymakers precipitated by Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). DESIGN: Case study web-based documentary analysis, using NVivo V.10. Examination of relationships between opponents of standardised packaging and transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) and of the volume, nature, transparency and timing of their activities. SETTING: UK standardised packaging policy debate 2011-2013. PARTICIPANTS: Organisations selected on basis of opposition to, or facilitation thereof, standardised tobacco packaging in the UK; 422 associated documents. RESULTS: Excluding tobacco manufacturing and packaging companies (n=12), 109 organisations were involved in opposing standardised packaging, 82 (75%) of which had a financial relationship with 1 or more TTC. These 82 organisations (43 actively opposing the measure, 39 facilitating opposition) were responsible for 60% of the 404 activities identified, including the majority of public communications and research production. TTCs were directly responsible for 28% of total activities, predominantly direct lobbying, but also financially underwrote third party research, communication, mass recruitment and lobbying. Active organisations rarely reported any financial relationship with TTCs when undertaking opposition activities. CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted opposition to standardised packaging was primarily undertaken by third parties with financial relationships with major tobacco manufacturers. Low levels of transparency regarding these links created a misleading impression of diverse and widespread opposition. Countries should strengthen implementation of Article 5.3 of the FCTC by systematically requiring conflict of interest declarations from all organisations participating in political or media debates on tobacco control.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conflito de Interesses/economia
Dissidências e Disputas
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
Organizações/ética
Embalagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência
Indústria do Tabaco/ética
Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Decepção
Documentação
Rotulagem de Medicamentos
Ética nos Negócios
Seres Humanos
Cooperação Internacional
Manobras Políticas
Organizações/economia
Embalagem de Produtos/normas
Relações Públicas
Padrões de Referência
Pesquisa
Indústria do Tabaco/economia
Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
Indústria do Tabaco/normas
Produtos do Tabaco/normas
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012634



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