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[PMID]:29431927
[Au] Autor:Katulskiy YN
[Ti] Título:[About unification of indices of the possibility of disease occurrence in risk assessment methodology and the determination of the probability of non-carcinogenic effects in toxicological-hygienic, clinical and epidemiological studies and according to data about health-seeking behavior].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(10):998-1002, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:In the methodology for the assessment of the risk the possibility of the disease occurrence under the impact of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances is measured by different indices. This leads to the fact that within the single methodology there are used various scores for such similar index as the risk of the disease occurrence, as a result carcinogens and systemic toxicants happen to be inconsistent from this point of view. At the same time, unlike carcinogens risk indices for systemic toxicants do not allow to evaluate the number of possible diseases in the population during the corresponding period of time, because they contain no information about their probability. Obviously, from this point of view, the characteristics of carcinogenic risk have certain advantages. Therefore, noncarcinogenic risk should be assessed by the similar indices as carcinogenic ones. However, an obstacle to this is the fact that in toxicological-hygienic, clinical and epidemiological studies, according to the results of which there is determined the risk for systemic toxicants, the impact of non-lethal levels of the exposure is established not in separate individuals, as for carcinogens, but according to mean-group values of indices of the state of the body as the identification of the nonspecific effect under relatively non high doses (concentrations) in the single person is fairly difficult. Such data do not allow to estimate the probability of the break of the effect. Also the data concerning seeking for the medical help, considering repeated medical resource utilization due to protract diseases or afflictions occurring repeatedly in a person several times for the considered period of time fail to be the estimation of the probability for the disease occurrence. For the obtaining of the possibility of unification of the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic indices of risk in the paper there are presented methods for the determination of the probability of non-carcinogenic effects in toxicological-hygienic, clinical and epidemiological studies, as well as according to statistical data on the seeking for the medical help, taking into account the repeated appeals of the protract or re-emerging diseases.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia
Substâncias Perigosas
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Medição de Risco
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Rotas de Resultados Adversos/estatística & dados numéricos
Viés
Estudos Epidemiológicos
Substâncias Perigosas/efeitos adversos
Substâncias Perigosas/análise
Seres Humanos
Medição de Risco/métodos
Medição de Risco/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hazardous Substances)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180213
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28454568
[Au] Autor:Nguyen TL; Collins GS; Spence J; Daurès JP; Devereaux PJ; Landais P; Le Manach Y
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Health Economics, UPRES EA2415, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France.
[Ti] Título:Double-adjustment in propensity score matching analysis: choosing a threshold for considering residual imbalance.
[So] Source:BMC Med Res Methodol;17(1):78, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2288
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Double-adjustment can be used to remove confounding if imbalance exists after propensity score (PS) matching. However, it is not always possible to include all covariates in adjustment. We aimed to find the optimal imbalance threshold for entering covariates into regression. METHODS: We conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations on virtual populations of 5,000 subjects. We performed PS 1:1 nearest-neighbor matching on each sample. We calculated standardized mean differences across groups to detect any remaining imbalance in the matched samples. We examined 25 thresholds (from 0.01 to 0.25, stepwise 0.01) for considering residual imbalance. The treatment effect was estimated using logistic regression that contained only those covariates considered to be unbalanced by these thresholds. RESULTS: We showed that regression adjustment could dramatically remove residual confounding bias when it included all of the covariates with a standardized difference greater than 0.10. The additional benefit was negligible when we also adjusted for covariates with less imbalance. We found that the mean squared error of the estimates was minimized under the same conditions. CONCLUSION: If covariate balance is not achieved, we recommend reiterating PS modeling until standardized differences below 0.10 are achieved on most covariates. In case of remaining imbalance, a double adjustment might be worth considering.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Algoritmos
Modelos Estatísticos
Pontuação de Propensão
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Viés
Simulação por Computador
Seres Humanos
Modelos Logísticos
Método de Monte Carlo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12874-017-0338-0


  3 / 18795 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29348126
[Au] Autor:Dendukuri N; Schiller I; de Groot J; Libman M; Moons K; Reitsma J; van Smeden M
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University Health Centre-Research Institute, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Concerns about composite reference standards in diagnostic research.
[So] Source:BMJ;360:j5779, 2018 01 18.
[Is] ISSN:1756-1833
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Pesquisa Biomédica/normas
Acurácia dos Dados
Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Viés
Padrões de Referência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/bmj.j5779


  4 / 18795 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28448468
[Au] Autor:Williams E; Place A; Bachvaroff T
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, 701 East Pratt St., Baltimore, MD 21202, USA. williamse@umces.edu.
[Ti] Título:Transcriptome Analysis of Core Dinoflagellates Reveals a Universal Bias towards "GC" Rich Codons.
[So] Source:Mar Drugs;15(5), 2017 Apr 27.
[Is] ISSN:1660-3397
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Although dinoflagellates are a potential source of pharmaceuticals and natural products, the mechanisms for regulating and producing these compounds are largely unknown because of extensive post-transcriptional control of gene expression. One well-documented mechanism for controlling gene expression during translation is codon bias, whereby specific codons slow or even terminate protein synthesis. Approximately 10,000 annotatable genes from fifteen "core" dinoflagellate transcriptomes along a range of overall guanine and cytosine (GC) content were used for codonW analysis to determine the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) and the GC content at each codon position. GC bias in the analyzed dataset and at the third codon position varied from 51% and 54% to 66% and 88%, respectively. Codons poor in GC were observed to be universally absent, but bias was most pronounced for codons ending in uracil followed by adenine (UA). GC bias at the third codon position was able to explain low abundance codons as well as the low effective number of codons. Thus, we propose that a bias towards codons rich in GC bases is a universal feature of core dinoflagellates, possibly relating to their unique chromosome structure, and not likely a major mechanism for controlling gene expression.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Composição de Bases/genética
Códon/genética
Dinoflagelados/genética
Sequência Rica em GC/genética
Transcriptoma/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Viés
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos
Filogenia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Codon)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29377923
[Au] Autor:Fahey M; Crayton E; Wolfe C; Douiri A
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Health and Social Care Research, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Clinical prediction models for mortality and functional outcome following ischemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0185402, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: We aim to identify and critically appraise clinical prediction models of mortality and function following ischaemic stroke. METHODS: Electronic databases, reference lists, citations were searched from inception to September 2015. Studies were selected for inclusion, according to pre-specified criteria and critically appraised by independent, blinded reviewers. The discrimination of the prediction models was measured by the area under the curve receiver operating characteristic curve or c-statistic in random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was measured using I2. Appropriate appraisal tools and reporting guidelines were used in this review. RESULTS: 31395 references were screened, of which 109 articles were included in the review. These articles described 66 different predictive risk models. Appraisal identified poor methodological quality and a high risk of bias for most models. However, all models precede the development of reporting guidelines for prediction modelling studies. Generalisability of models could be improved, less than half of the included models have been externally validated(n = 27/66). 152 predictors of mortality and 192 predictors and functional outcome were identified. No studies assessing ability to improve patient outcome (model impact studies) were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Further external validation and model impact studies to confirm the utility of existing models in supporting decision-making is required. Existing models have much potential. Those wishing to predict stroke outcome are advised to build on previous work, to update and adapt validated models to their specific contexts opposed to designing new ones.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Viés
Isquemia Encefálica
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Curva ROC
Fatores de Risco
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185402


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[PMID]:27775815
[Au] Autor:Korn EL; Freidlin B
[Ad] Endereço:Biometric Research Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20852, U.S.A.
[Ti] Título:Reader reaction on estimation of treatment effects in all-comers randomized clinical trials with a predictive marker.
[So] Source:Biometrics;73(2):706-708, 2017 06.
[Is] ISSN:1541-0420
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For a fallback randomized clinical trial design with a marker, Choai and Matsui (2015, Biometrics 71, 25-32) estimate the bias of the estimator of the treatment effect in the marker-positive subgroup conditional on the treatment effect not being statistically significant in the overall population. This is used to construct and examine conditionally bias-corrected estimators of the treatment effect for the marker-positive subgroup. We argue that it may not be appropriate to correct for conditional bias in this setting. Instead, we consider the unconditional bias of estimators of the treatment effect for marker-positive patients.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Biomarcadores/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Viés
Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/biom.12592


  7 / 18795 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28742924
[Au] Autor:Wright K; Moore SM; Morris DL; Hazelett S
[Ti] Título:Geocoding to Manage Missing Data in a Secondary Analysis of Community-Dwelling, Low-Income Older Adults.
[So] Source:Res Gerontol Nurs;10(4):155-161, 2017 07 01.
[Is] ISSN:1938-2464
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Managing missing data in a secondary analysis is daunting, particularly if the data of interest were not included in the parent study design. The current study describes the use of geocoding to replace missing data from a parent study for a secondary analysis of socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in community-dwelling older adults who are dually eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. Geocoding was used to link participants' addresses to data from the American Community Survey to replace missing income and neighborhood data. After geocoding, data completeness was 100% for neighborhood poverty and education composition, and 99.9% for income. Using geocoding provides the gerontological nurse researcher with a sample that is more reflective of the population. The current findings can be used to tailor neighborhood-centered interventions to promote health in low-income older adults. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2017; 10(4):155-161.].
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atividades Cotidianas
Coleta de Dados/métodos
Avaliação Geriátrica/estatística & dados numéricos
Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos
Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
Distribuição Espacial da População/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Viés
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Classe Social
Apoio Social
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180217
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180217
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3928/19404921-20170621-02


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[PMID]:27770978
[Au] Autor:Girard P; Seguin-Givelet A
[Ad] Endereço:Thoracic Department, Mutualist Institute Montsouris, Paris, France. Electronic address: philippe.girard@imm.fr.
[Ti] Título:Adjuvant Chemotherapy, Retrospective Cohorts, and the Immortal Time Bias.
[So] Source:J Thorac Oncol;11(11):e144, 2016 11.
[Is] ISSN:1556-1380
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Viés
Neoplasias Pulmonares
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Quimioterapia Adjuvante
Seres Humanos
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:LETTER; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27776543
[Au] Autor:Arch BN; Blair J; McKay A; Gregory JW; Newland P; Gamble C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biostatistics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK. bna@liverpool.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Measurement of HbA1c in multicentre diabetes trials - should blood samples be tested locally or sent to a central laboratory: an agreement analysis.
[So] Source:Trials;17(1):517, 2016 10 24.
[Is] ISSN:1745-6215
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important outcome measure in diabetes clinical trials. For multicentre designs, HbA1c can be measured locally at participating centres or by sending blood samples to a central laboratory. This study analyses the agreement between local and central measurements, using 1-year follow-up data collected in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of newly diagnosed children with type I diabetes. METHODS: HbA1c measurements were routinely analysed both locally and centrally at baseline and then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and the data reported in mmol/mol. Agreement was assessed by calculating the bias and 95 % limits of agreement, using the Bland-Altman analysis method. A predetermined benchmark for clinically acceptable margin of error between measurements was subjectively set as ±10 % for HbA1c. The percentage of pairs of measurements that were classified as clinically acceptable was calculated. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the agreement within centres. Treatment group was not considered. RESULTS: Five hundred and ninety pairs of measurement, representing 255 children and 15 trial centres across four follow-up time points, were compared. There was no significant bias: local measurements were an average of 0.16 mmol/mol (SD = 4.5, 95 % CI -0.2 to 0.5) higher than central. The 95 % limits of agreement were -8.6 to 9.0 mmol/mol (local minus central). Eighty percent of local measurements were within ±10 % of corresponding central measurements. Some trial centres were more varied in the differences observed between local and central measurements: IQRs ranging from 3 to 9 mmol/mol; none indicated systematic bias. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in agreement between HbA1c measurements was greater than had been expected although no overall bias was detected and standard deviations were similar. Discrepancies were present across all participating centres. These findings have implications for the comparison of standards of clinical care between centres, the design of future multicentre RCTs and existing quality assurance processes for HbA1c measurements. We recommend that centralised HbA1c measurement is preferable in the multicentre clinical trial setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Eudract No. 2010-023792-25 , registered on 4 November 2010.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Análise Química do Sangue/normas
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico
Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo
Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Viés
Biomarcadores/sangue
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos
Glicemia/metabolismo
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Protocolos Clínicos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem
Lactente
Insulina/administração & dosagem
Masculino
Variações Dependentes do Observador
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Projetos de Pesquisa
Fatores de Tempo
Reino Unido
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Biomarkers); 0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Glycated Hemoglobin A); 0 (Hypoglycemic Agents); 0 (Insulin); 0 (hemoglobin A1c protein, human)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180208
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180208
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 18795 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29351349
[Au] Autor:L'Engle K; Sefa E; Adimazoya EA; Yartey E; Lenzi R; Tarpo C; Heward-Mills NL; Lew K; Ampeh Y
[Ad] Endereço:School of Nursing and Health Professions, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190902, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. RESULTS: The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile phones offers promise for future data collection in Ghana and may be suitable for other developing countries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Telefone Celular
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Viés
Coleta de Dados/métodos
Coleta de Dados/normas
Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Gana
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Tamanho da Amostra
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190902



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