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Pesquisa : N06.850.290.200 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29458554
[Au] Autor:Osaka S; Okuzumi K; Koide S; Tamai K; Sato T; Tanimoto K; Tomita H; Suzuki M; Nagano Y; Shibayama K; Arakawa Y; Nagano N
[Ad] Endereço:1​Department of Health and Medical Sciences, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagano, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Genetic shifts in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic clones and toxin gene profiles in Japan: comparative analysis among pre-epidemic, epidemic and post-epidemic phases.
[So] Source:J Med Microbiol;67(3):392-399, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1473-5644
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:PURPOSE: The decline in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation rates has become a general observation worldwide, including Japan. We hypothesized that some genetic shift in MRSA might cause this phenomenon, and therefore we investigated the genetic profiles among MRSA clinical isolates obtained from three different epidemic phases in Japan. METHODOLOGY: A total of 353 MRSA isolates were selected from 202 medical facilities in 1990 (pre-epidemic phase), 2004 (epidemic phase) and 2016 (post-epidemic phase). Molecular typing was performed by PCR detection of 22 genes using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based ORF typing (POT) system, including an additional eight genes including small genomic islets and seven toxin genes. RESULTS: Isolates with a POT1 of score 93, identified as presumed clonal complex (pCC)5-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type II including ST5-SCCmec type II New York/Japan clone, represented the major epidemic MRSA lineage in 1990 and 2004. In 2016, however, a marked decrease in isolates with a POT1 score of 93, along with changes in the epidemiology of toxin genes carried, was noted, where the carriers of tst genes including the tst-sec combination were markedly reduced, and those possessing the seb gene alone were markedly increased. Rather, isolates with a POT1 score of 106, including pCC1 or pCC8 among the isolates with SCCmec type IV, which often links to community-associated MRSA, were predominant. Interestingly, the pCC1 and pCC8 lineages were related to sea and tst-sec carriage, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Over time, a transition in MRSA genetic profiles from a POT1 score of 93 in 1990 and 2004 to 106 in 2014 was found in Japan.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Toxinas Bacterianas/genética
Epidemias
Deriva Genética
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética
Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia
Exotoxinas/genética
Seres Humanos
Japão/epidemiologia
Leucocidinas/genética
Meticilina/farmacologia
Resistência a Meticilina/genética
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos
Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Tipagem Molecular
Fatores de Virulência/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Bacterial Toxins); 0 (Exotoxins); 0 (Leukocidins); 0 (Virulence Factors); Q91FH1328A (Methicillin)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/jmm.0.000687


  2 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29220115
[Au] Autor:Anderson SJ; Ghys PD; Ombam R; Hallett TB
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, London, UK.
[Ti] Título:HIV prevention where it is needed most: comparison of strategies for the geographical allocation of interventions.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(4), 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex. Here, we use mathematical modelling to compare the impact (infections averted) of a number of different approaches to the implementation of geographical prioritization of prevention interventions, similar to those emerging in policy and practice, across a range of prevention budgets. METHODS: We use geographically specific mathematical models of the epidemic and response in 48 counties and major cities of Kenya to project the impact of the different geographical prioritization approaches. We compare the geographical allocation strategies with a nationally uniform approach under which the same interventions must be applied across all modelled locations. RESULTS: We find that the most extreme geographical prioritization strategy, which focuses resources exclusively to high-prevalence locations, may substantially restrict impact (41% fewer infections averted) compared to a nationally uniform approach, as opportunities for highly effective interventions for high-risk populations in lower-prevalence areas are missed. Other geographical allocation approaches, which intensify efforts in higher-prevalence areas whilst maintaining a minimum package of cost-effective interventions everywhere, consistently improve impact at all budget levels. Such strategies balance the need for greater investment in locations with the largest epidemics whilst ensuring higher-risk groups in lower-priority locations are provided with cost-effective interventions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings serve as a warning to not be too selective in the application of prevention strategies. Further research is needed to understand how decision-makers can find the right balance between the choice of interventions, focus on high-risk populations, and geographical targeting to ensure the greatest impact of HIV prevention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Alocação de Recursos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Análise Custo-Benefício
Epidemias
Política de Saúde
Recursos em Saúde
Seres Humanos
Quênia
Modelos Biológicos
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171209
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jia2.25020


  3 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775399
[Au] Autor:Widder A; Kuehn C
[Ad] Endereço:ORCOS, Institute of Statistics and Mathematical Methods in Economics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, A-1040 Vienna, Austria. email: andreas.widder@tuwien.ac.at.
[Ti] Título:Heterogeneous population dynamics and scaling laws near epidemic outbreaks.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(5):1093-1118, 2016 10 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper, we focus on the influence of heterogeneity and stochasticity of the population on the dynamical structure of a basic susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) model. First we prove that, upon a suitable mathematical reformulation of the basic reproduction number, the homogeneous system and the heterogeneous system exhibit a completely analogous global behaviour. Then we consider noise terms to incorporate the fluctuation effects and the random import of the disease into the population and analyse the influence of heterogeneity on warning signs for critical transitions (or tipping points). This theory shows that one may be able to anticipate whether a bifurcation point is close before it happens. We use numerical simulations of a stochastic fast-slow heterogeneous population SIS model and show various aspects of heterogeneity have crucial influences on the scaling laws that are used as early-warning signs for the homogeneous system. Thus, although the basic structural qualitative dynamical properties are the same for both systems, the quantitative features for epidemic prediction are expected to change and care has to be taken to interpret potential warning signs for disease outbreaks correctly.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Número Básico de Reprodução
Seres Humanos
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016032


  4 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775395
[Au] Autor:Patterson-Lomba O; Safan M; Towers S; Taylor J
[Ad] Endereço:Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics, Boston, MA, United States. email: oskkypatterson@yahoo.es.
[Ti] Título:Modeling the role of healthcare access inequalities in epidemic outcomes.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(5):1011-1041, 2016 10 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Urban areas, with large and dense populations, offer conditions that favor the emergence and spread of certain infectious diseases. One common feature of urban populations is the existence of large socioeconomic inequalities which are often mirrored by disparities in access to healthcare. Recent empirical evidence suggests that higher levels of socioeconomic inequalities are associated with worsened public health outcomes, including higher rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and lower life expectancy. However, the reasons for these associations are still speculative. Here we formulate a mathematical model to study the effect of healthcare disparities on the spread of an infectious disease that does not confer lasting immunity, such as is true of certain STD's. Using a simple epidemic model of a population divided into two groups that differ in their recovery rates due to different levels of access to healthcare, we find that both the basic reproductive number (R0) of the disease and its endemic prevalence are increasing functions of the disparity between the two groups, in agreement with empirical evidence. Unexpectedly, this can be true even when the fraction of the population with better access to healthcare is increased if this is offset by reduced access within the disadvantaged group. Extending our model to more than two groups with different levels of access to healthcare, we find that increasing the variance of recovery rates among groups, while keeping the mean recovery rate constant, also increases R0 and disease prevalence. In addition, we show that these conclusions are sensitive to how we quantify the inequalities in our model, underscoring the importance of basing analyses on appropriate measures of inequalities. These insights shed light on the possible impact that increasing levels of inequalities in healthcare access can have on epidemic outcomes, while offering plausible explanations for the observed empirical patterns.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
População Urbana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016028


  5 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775394
[Au] Autor:Li J; Li Y; Yang Y
[Ad] Endereço:Science College, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710051, China. email: NA@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Epidemic characteristics of two classic models and the dependence on the initial conditions.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(5):999-1010, 2016 10 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The epidemic characteristics, including the epidemic final size, peak, and turning point, of two classical SIR models with disease-induced death are investigated when a small initial value of the infective population is released. The models have mass-action (i.e. bilinear), or density dependent (i.e. standard) incidence, respectively. For the two models, the conditions that determining whether the related epidemic characteristics of an epidemic outbreak appear are explicitly determine by rigorous mathematical analysis. The dependence of the epidemic final size on the initial values of the infective class is demonstrated. The peak, turning point (if it exists) and the corresponding time are found. The obtained results suggest that their basic reproduction numbers are one factor determining the epidemic characteristics, but not the only one. The characteristics of the two models depend on the initial values and proportions of various compartments as well. At last, the similarities and differences of the epidemic characteristics between the two models are discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Biológicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Número Básico de Reprodução
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Incidência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016027


  6 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775386
[Au] Autor:Manyombe ML; Mbang J; Lubuma J; Tsanou B
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, P.O. Box 812 Yaounde, Cameroon. email: luthermann.3ml@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Global dynamics of a vaccination model for infectious diseases with asymptomatic carriers.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(4):813-840, 2016 08 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper, an epidemic model is investigated for infectious diseases that can be transmitted through both the infectious individuals and the asymptomatic carriers (i.e., infected individuals who are contagious but do not show any disease symptoms). We propose a dose-structured vaccination model with multiple transmission pathways. Based on the range of the explicitly computed basic reproduction number, we prove the global stability of the disease-free when this threshold number is less or equal to the unity. Moreover, whenever it is greater than one, the existence of the unique endemic equilibrium is shown and its global stability is established for the case where the changes of displaying the disease symptoms are independent of the vulnerable classes. Further, the model is shown to exhibit a transcritical bifurcation with the unit basic reproduction number being the bifurcation parameter. The impacts of the asymptomatic carriers and the effectiveness of vaccination on the disease transmission are discussed through through the local and the global sensitivity analyses of the basic reproduction number. Finally, a case study of hepatitis B virus disease (HBV) is considered, with the numerical simulations presented to support the analytical results. They further suggest that, in high HBV prevalence countries, the combination of effective vaccination (i.e. ≥ 3 doses of HepB vaccine), the diagnosis of asymptomatic carriers and the treatment of symptomatic carriers may have a much greater positive impact on the disease control.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos
Modelos Teóricos
Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Número Básico de Reprodução
Epidemias/prevenção & controle
Vírus da Hepatite B/fisiologia
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016019


  7 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27775383
[Au] Autor:Huang S; Jiang J
[Ad] Endereço:Mathematics and Science College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, 200234, China. email: syhuang@fzu.edu.cn.
[Ti] Título:Global stability of a network-based SIS epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate.
[So] Source:Math Biosci Eng;13(4):723-739, 2016 08 01.
[Is] ISSN:1551-0018
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this paper, we develop and analyze an SIS epidemic model with a general nonlinear incidence rate, as well as degree-dependent birth and natural death, on heterogeneous networks. We analytically derive the epidemic threshold R0 which completely governs the disease dynamics: when R0 < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, i.e., the disease will die out; when R0 > 1, the disease is permanent. It is interesting that the threshold value R0 bears no relation to the functional form of the nonlinear incidence rate and degree-dependent birth. Furthermore, by applying an iteration scheme and the theory of cooperative system respectively, we obtain sufficient conditions under which the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Our results improve and generalize some known results. To illustrate the theoretical results, the corresponding numerical simulations are also given.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Simulação por Computador
Seres Humanos
Incidência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180228
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180228
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3934/mbe.2016016


  8 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:27778092
[Au] Autor:Dossier C; Lapidus N; Bayer F; Sellier-Leclerc AL; Boyer O; de Pontual L; May A; Nathanson S; Orzechowski C; Simon T; Carrat F; Deschênes G
[Ad] Endereço:Service de Néphrologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Robert-Debré, APHP, Paris, France. claire.dossier@aphp.fr.
[Ti] Título:Epidemiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children: endemic or epidemic?
[So] Source:Pediatr Nephrol;31(12):2299-2308, 2016 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1432-198X
[Cp] País de publicação:Germany
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The etiology of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) remains partially unknown. Viral infections have been reported to be associated with INS onset and relapse. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of a population-based cohort of children with INS and propose a spatiotemporal analysis. METHODS: All children aged 6 months to 15 years with INS onset between December 2007 and May 2010 and living in the Paris area were included in a prospective multicenter study. Demographic and clinical features at diagnosis and 2 years were collected. RESULTS: INS was diagnosed in 188 children, 93 % of whom were steroid sensitive. Annual incidence was 3.35/100,000 children. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was higher in one of the eight counties: Seine-Saint-Denis, with SIR 1.43 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.95]. A spatial cluster was further identified with higher SIR 1.36 (95 % CI 1.09-1.67). Temporal analysis within this overincidence area showed seasonal variation, with a peak during the winter period (p <0.01). In addition, partition of the Paris area into quintiles of the population showed that the average delay of occurrence, with regard to the first study case, followed a longitudinal progression (p <0.0001). CONCLUSION: The clustering of cases, the seasonal variation within this particular area, and the progression over the Paris area altogether suggest that INS may occur on an epidemic mode.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Síndrome Nefrótica/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Fatores Etários
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Análise por Conglomerados
Estudos de Coortes
Doenças Endêmicas
Epidemias
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Lactente
Masculino
Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico
Síndrome Nefrótica/virologia
Paris/epidemiologia
Estudos Prospectivos
Estações do Ano
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Esteroides/uso terapêutico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Steroids)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  9 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29183383
[Au] Autor:Schaefer CP; Tome ME; Davis TP
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Pharmacology, University of Arizona, P.O. Box 245050, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.
[Ti] Título:The opioid epidemic: a central role for the blood brain barrier in opioid analgesia and abuse.
[So] Source:Fluids Barriers CNS;14(1):32, 2017 Nov 29.
[Is] ISSN:2045-8118
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Opioids are currently the primary treatment method used to manage both acute and chronic pain. In the past two to three decades, there has been a surge in the use, abuse and misuse of opioids. The mechanism by which opioids relieve pain and induce euphoria is dependent on the drug crossing the blood-brain barrier and accessing the central nervous system. This suggests the blood brain barrier plays a central role in both the benefits and risks of opioid use. The complex physiological responses to opioids that provide the benefits and drive the abuse also needs to be considered in the resolution of the opioid epidemic.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Epidemias
Seres Humanos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12987-017-0080-3


  10 / 4108 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29298128
[Au] Autor:Blendon RJ; Benson JM
[Ad] Endereço:From the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston (R.J.B., J.M.B.), and the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge (R.J.B.) - both in Massachusetts.
[Ti] Título:The Public and the Opioid-Abuse Epidemic.
[So] Source:N Engl J Med;378(5):407-411, 2018 Feb 01.
[Is] ISSN:1533-4406
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Analgésicos Opioides
Epidemias
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides
Opinião Pública
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Analgesics, Opioid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1056/NEJMp1714529



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