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[PMID]:29278907
[Au] Autor:Chojecka A; Tarka P; Kierzkowska A; Nitsch-Osuch A; Kanecki K
[Ad] Endereço:National Institute of Public Health ­ National Institute of Hygiene, Department of Bacteriology, Warsaw, Poland
[Ti] Título:Neutralization efficiency of alcohol based products used for rapid hand disinfection
[So] Source:Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig;68(4):389-394, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:0035-7715
[Cp] País de publicação:Poland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background: Alcohols are the most commonly used active substances in preparations for quick hand disinfection. They should be bactericidal in very short contact time. PN-EN 13727 + A2: 2015-12 standard, for testing hygienic and surgical handrub disinfection preparations, provides mandatory test conditions of disinfectants in contact times with the range of 30 s to 60 s (hygienic handrub disinfection) and 60 s to 5 min (surgical handrub disinfection). A short contact times for hand hygiene products require a short time of neutralization process. For contact times less than or equal to 10 minutes, the estimated neutralization time is 10 s ± 1 s. Neutralization is a process that abolishes the action of disinfectants. Correct application of this process allows for proper use of disinfectants in practice and its biocidal effect. Objectives. Verification of the effectiveness of 10-second neutralization time of alcohol based preparations for hygienic handrub disinfection Materials and Method: Neutralization of two products with different ethanol content (89% and 70%) for hygienic handrub disinfection according to PN-EN 13727 + A2: 2015-12 was investigated. The effectiveness of the neutralizer was assessed by determining toxicity of neutralizer, activity of residual effects of the tested products and their derivatives produced during neutralization (10 s) for test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442; Enterococcus hirae ATCC 10541; Escherichia coli K12 NCTC 10538) Results: The 10-second neutralization time was sufficient to eliminate the residual activity of products for hygienic handrub disinfection with differentiated ethanol concentration. The neutralizer used did not show toxicity to bacteria and did not produce toxic products with tested preparations after neutralization Conclusions: Conclusions. The use of 10-second neutralization time allows in a precise way designate the contact times for hygienic handrub disinfection products
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/farmacologia
Desinfecção das Mãos
Higiene das Mãos/métodos
Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
Desinfecção/métodos
Seres Humanos
Testes de Neutralização/métodos
Polônia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Hand Sanitizers); 3K9958V90M (Ethanol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28450775
[Au] Autor:Regassa W; Lemma S
[Ad] Endereço:Oromia Police Commission Clinic, Oromia, Ethiopia.
[Ti] Título:Assessment of Diarrheal Disease Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Children of 6-59 Months Old at Adama District Rural Kebeles, Eastern Ethiopia, January/2015.
[So] Source:Ethiop J Health Sci;26(6):581-588, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:2413-7170
[Cp] País de publicação:Ethiopia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease is the commonchildhood illness and a leading killer of children aged under 5 years, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diarrheal disease and associated risk factors among children of 6-59 months old at Adama district rural kebeles, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: Community based cross sectional study design was conducted in January/2015. Descriptive method was used to describe study variables quantitatively and explanatory method to identify the effect of determinant factors on diarrheal disease occurrence. A single population proportion sample size formula was applied. Random sampling procedure was used by lottery method to select five kebeles and 442 house-holds. Data was collected by using pretested, structured questionnaires through interview and observational checklist by trained data collectors. Double entry was made to epi-info 3.5.3 and & transferred to SPSS20 for analysis. RESULT: The two weeks' period prevalence of diarrheal disease in children aged 6 to59 months was 14.7%; 95%CI [11.5-18.1]. mother/caregiver who did not practice hand washing during the critical time was the only factor identified to be significantly associated with AOR=2.2; 95%CI [1.0-4.7] for the child hood diarrheal disease occurrence at Adama distict rural kebeles. CONCLUSION: Diarrheal disease prevalence is changed by child's caregiver hand washing practice during critical time. Health education for child's caregiver on hand washing practice during critical time is an important intervention for the prevention of diarrheal disease prevalence among children.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/epidemiologia
Desinfecção das Mãos
Mães
População Rural
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Etiópia/epidemiologia
Feminino
Habitação
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29280808
[Au] Autor:Rosenberg K
[Ti] Título:Improved Patient Hand Hygiene Reduces C. Difficile Infections in Hospitals.
[So] Source:Am J Nurs;118(1):56, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1538-7488
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Clostridium difficile
Higiene das Mãos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Infecções por Clostridium
Infecção Hospitalar
Fidelidade a Diretrizes
Desinfecção das Mãos
Hospitais
Seres Humanos
Controle de Infecções
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; COMMENT
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180131
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180131
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM; N
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/01.NAJ.0000529717.00967.ff


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[PMID]:28746262
[Au] Autor:Denbæk AM; Andersen A; Bonnesen CT; Laursen B; Ersbøll AK; Due P; Johansen A
[Ad] Endereço:From the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5 A, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
[Ti] Título:Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren: The Hi Five Study.
[So] Source:Pediatr Infect Dis J;37(1):16-21, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1532-0987
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Previous school-based hand hygiene interventions have reported to successfully reduce infectious illness among schoolchildren. But few studies have tested the effect in large populations with adequate statistical power and analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a school-based multicomponent intervention to improve handwashing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. METHODS: The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data reported by schoolchildren, respectively. RESULTS: At follow-up, children in the intervention schools did not differ from the control schools in number of illness days [odds ratio (OR)I-arm I: 0.91 (0.77-1.07) and ORI-arm II: 0.94 (0.79-1.12)] and illness episodes [ORI-arm I: 0.95 (0.81-1.11) and ORI-arm II: 0.98 (0.84-1.16)] or in reporting illness-related absenteeism [ORI-arm I: 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)]. CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared with control schools. It is noteworthy that one of the main components in the intervention, a mandatory daily handwashing before lunch, was only implemented by 1 of 3 of teachers in intervention schools.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Absenteísmo
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Desinfecção das Mãos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Dinamarca/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Pais
Instituições Acadêmicas
Autorrelato
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180110
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180110
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170727
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000001686


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[PMID]:29184606
[Au] Autor:Nahimana MR; Ngoc CT; Olu O; Nyamusore J; Isiaka A; Ndahindwa V; Dassanayake L; Rusanganwa A
[Ad] Endereço:WHO Country Office, Ebenezer House, Boulevard of Umuganda, Kigali, Rwanda.
[Ti] Título:Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a Burundian refugee camp: implications for control of a Salmonella typhi outbreak.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:54, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Introduction: A outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of ongoing typhoid fever preventive interventions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Mahama Refugee Camp of Kirehe District, Rwanda from January to February 2016. Data were obtained through administration of a structured KAP questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis was performed using STATA software. Results: A total of 671 respondents comprising 264 (39.3%) males and 407 (60.7%) females were enrolled in the study. A comparison of hand washing practices before and after institution of prevention and control measures showed a 37% increase in the proportion of respondents who washed their hands before eating and after using the toilet (p < 0.001). About 52.8% of participants reported having heard about typhoid fever, however 25.9% had received health education. Only 34.6% and 38.6% of the respondents respectively knew how typhoid fever spreads and is prevented. Most respondents (98.2%) used pit latrines for disposal of feces. Long duration of stay in the camp, age over 35 years and being unemployed were statistically associated with poor hand washing practices. Conclusion: The findings of this study underline the need for bolstering up health education and hygiene promotion activities in Mahama and other refugee camp settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Higiene/normas
Saneamento/normas
Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Burundi/etnologia
Estudos Transversais
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
Feminino
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas
Educação em Saúde/métodos
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Campos de Refugiados
Ruanda/epidemiologia
Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação
Sanitários Públicos/normas
Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.54.12265


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[PMID]:29061869
[Au] Autor:Rathore MH; Jackson MA; COMMITTEE ON INFECTIOUS DISEASES
[Ti] Título:Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings.
[So] Source:Pediatrics;140(5), 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1098-4275
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since the American Academy of Pediatrics published its statement titled "Infection Prevention and Control in Pediatric Ambulatory Settings" in 2007, there have been significant changes that prompted this updated statement. Infection prevention and control is an integral part of pediatric practice in ambulatory medical settings as well as in hospitals. Infection prevention and control practices should begin at the time the ambulatory visit is scheduled. All health care personnel should be educated regarding the routes of transmission and techniques used to prevent the transmission of infectious agents. Policies for infection prevention and control should be written, readily available, updated every 2 years, and enforced. Many of the recommendations for infection control and prevention from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for hospitalized patients are also applicable in the ambulatory setting. These recommendations include requirements for pediatricians to take precautions to identify and protect employees likely to be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious materials while on the job. In addition to emphasizing the key principles of infection prevention and control in this policy, we update those that are relevant to the ambulatory care patient. These guidelines emphasize the role of hand hygiene and the implementation of diagnosis- and syndrome-specific isolation precautions, with the exemption of the use of gloves for routine diaper changes and wiping a well child's nose or tears for most patient encounters. Additional topics include respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette strategies for patients with a respiratory tract infection, including those relevant for special populations like patients with cystic fibrosis or those in short-term residential facilities; separation of infected, contagious children from uninfected children when feasible; safe handling and disposal of needles and other sharp medical devices; appropriate use of personal protective equipment, such as gloves, gowns, masks, and eye protection; and appropriate use of sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis. Lastly, in this policy, we emphasize the importance of public health interventions, including vaccination for patients and health care personnel, and outline the responsibilities of the health care provider related to prompt public health notification for specific reportable diseases and communication with colleagues who may be providing subsequent care of an infected patient to optimize the use of isolation precautions and limit the spread of contagions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Academias e Institutos/normas
Assistência Ambulatorial/normas
Controle de Infecções/normas
Pediatria/normas
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos
Criança
Desinfecção/métodos
Desinfecção/normas
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas
Pessoal de Saúde/normas
Seres Humanos
Controle de Infecções/métodos
Pediatria/métodos
Roupa de Proteção/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28876132
[Au] Autor:Pérez-Garza J; García S; Heredia N
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apdo. Postal 124-F, San Nicolás, Nuevo León 66451, México.
[Ti] Título:Removal of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis after Hand Washing with Antimicrobial and Nonantimicrobial Soap and Persistence of These Bacteria in Rinsates.
[So] Source:J Food Prot;80(10):1670-1675, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1944-9097
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Food handlers are important sources of contamination in the agricultural environment. This study was conducted (i) to evaluate the activity of antimicrobial soaps against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis using a hand washing model with soiled hands and (ii) to determine the survival and persistence of these bacteria in rinsates. Sterilized agricultural soil from tomato and pepper farms was inoculated with E. coli or E. faecalis at 10 or 10 CFU/g. Decontaminated hands were placed in contact with contaminated soil for 2 min and were then washed with soaps with or without antimicrobial compounds (citric extracts, chloroxylenol, triclosan, or chlorhexidine gluconate). As the control, hands were washed with sterile distilled water. The levels of bacteria remaining on the hands and recovered from the rinsates were determined using a membrane filtration method and selective media. Antimicrobial soaps removed levels of E. coli similar to those removed by distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap on hands contaminated with E. coli at 10 CFU/g. However, when hands were contaminated with E. coli at 10 CFU/g, more E. coli was removed with the chlorhexidine gluconate soap. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 CFU/g, bacteria were removed more effectively with soaps containing chloroxylenol or chlorhexidine gluconate. When hands were contaminated with E. faecalis at 10 CFU/g, all of the antimicrobial soaps were more effective for removing the bacteria than were distilled water and nonantimicrobial soap. E. coli grew in all of the hand washing rinsates except that containing triclosan, whereas E. faecalis from the 10 CFU/g treatments grew in rinsates containing chlorhexidine gluconate and in the distilled water rinsates. Washing with antimicrobial soap was more effective for reducing bacteria on soiled hands than was washing with water or nonantimicrobial soap. However, persistence or growth of bacteria in these rinsates poses health risks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bactérias
Contagem de Colônia Microbiana
Mãos
Seres Humanos
Sabões
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Soaps)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171102
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171102
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170907
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-088


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[PMID]:28819509
[Au] Autor:Tefera E; Belay T; Mekonnen SK; Zeynudin A; Belachew T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia.
[Ti] Título:Prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;27:88, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Soil transmitted helminths are wide spread in developing countries and in Ethiopia the prevalence of STHs varies in different parts of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among school children of Mendera Elementary School Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 29 and April 9, 2010 to determine the prevalence and intensity of soil transmitted helminths among elementary school children. The study participants were randomly selected from class enrollment list after proportional allocation of the total sample size to each grade. Data about the background characteristics were collected using structured questionnaire. The stool samples were examined by McMaster method for the egg count which was used to determine intensity of infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 and p-value less than 5% was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the total 715 stool specimens examined, 346 were positive for at least one intestinal parasite making the prevalence 48.4%. The most prevalent parasites were Ascaris 169 (23.6%) and 165 (23.1%). The prevalence of soil transmitted helminth in this study was 45.6% (326/715). There was statistically significant difference in the prevalence of Trichuriasis between those who use latrine always and who use sometimes (p = 0.010). Females are two times more likely to be positive for Ascaris than males (p = 0.039). Majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths and none of them had heavy intensity of infection of Trichuriasis and hookworms. CONCLUSION: Nearly half of the school children were infected with at least one STHs and majority of the students had light infection of soil transmitted helminths. Students who did not wash their hands after defecation were three times more likely to be positive for Ascaris infection than those who washed their hands after defecation. Therefore, measures like health information dissemination on the advantage of washing hands after defecation and on proper use of latrine should be taken into account to alleviate the problem.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desinfecção das Mãos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia
Helmintos/isolamento & purificação
Solo/parasitologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Animais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Etiópia/epidemiologia
Feminino
Helmintíase/parasitologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Prevalência
Distribuição por Sexo
Estudantes
Inquéritos e Questionários
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170819
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.27.88.8817


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[PMID]:28787328
[Au] Autor:Sugar NR; Schilling KA; Kim S; Ahmed A; Ngui Muyanga D; Sivapalasingam S; Quick R
[Ad] Endereço:*Project Sunshine, New York, NY; †Waterborne Diseases Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; ‡Biostatistics and Information Management Office, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; §Bomu Hospital, Mombasa, Kenya; and ‖Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY.
[Ti] Título:Integrating Household Water Treatment, Hand Washing, and Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets Into Pediatric HIV Care in Mombasa, Kenya: Impact on Diarrhea and Malaria Risk.
[So] Source:J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr;76(3):266-272, 2017 Nov 01.
[Is] ISSN:1944-7884
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: In developing countries, HIV-infected children are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections than HIV-uninfected children. To address this problem, the Healthy Living Initiative (HLI) in Mombasa, Kenya distributed basic care packages (BCPs) containing improved water storage vessels, water treatment solution, soap, and insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent diarrhea and malaria in children, and had community health workers (CHWs) make bimonthly home visits to encourage adherence to HLI interventions and antiretroviral (ARV) medicine use. METHODS: To evaluate HLI, we enrolled 500 HIV-infected children from Bomu Hospital. In the implementation phase, from February to August 2011, we conducted surveys of caregivers, then provided free BCPs. In the evaluation phase, from September 2011 to August 2012, CHWs recorded observations of BCP use during home visits. We abstracted hospital data to compare diarrhea and malaria episodes, and pharmacy data on ARVs dispensed, between the 12-month preimplementation baseline phase (February 2010-January 2011) and the evaluation phase. RESULTS: The retention rate of children in HLI was 78.4%. In a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for demographic characteristics, number of CHW home visits, distance to clinic, orphan status, and number of ARVs dispensed, children in HLI had 71% lower risk of diarrhea (relative risk 0.29, P < 0.001) and 87% lower risk of malaria (relative risk 0.13, P = 0.001) during the evaluation phase than the baseline phase; there was no independent association between ARV use and illness. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected children in HLI were less likely to experience diarrhea and malaria during the evaluation phase than the baseline phase.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/prevenção & controle
Infecções por HIV/complicações
Desinfecção das Mãos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida
Malária/prevenção & controle
Purificação da Água/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração
Diarreia/epidemiologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Higiene
Lactente
Quênia/epidemiologia
Modelos Logísticos
Malária/epidemiologia
Masculino
Cooperação do Paciente
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170809
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000001520


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[PMID]:28783751
[Au] Autor:Conan A; O'Reilly CE; Ogola E; Ochieng JB; Blackstock AJ; Omore R; Ochieng L; Moke F; Parsons MB; Xiao L; Roellig D; Farag TH; Nataro JP; Kotloff KL; Levine MM; Mintz ED; Breiman RF; Cleaveland S; Knobel DL
[Ad] Endereço:Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, St Kitts and Nevis.
[Ti] Título:Animal-related factors associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children younger than five years in western Kenya: A matched case-control study.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(8):e0005795, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease remains among the leading causes of global mortality in children younger than 5 years. Exposure to domestic animals may be a risk factor for diarrheal disease. The objectives of this study were to identify animal-related exposures associated with cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children in rural western Kenya, and to identify the major zoonotic enteric pathogens present in domestic animals residing in the homesteads of case and control children. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized animal-related exposures in a subset of case and control children (n = 73 pairs matched on age, sex and location) with reported animal presence at home enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in western Kenya, and analysed these for an association with MSD. We identified potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens in pooled fecal specimens collected from domestic animals resident at children's homesteads. Variables that were associated with decreased risk of MSD were washing hands after animal contact (matched odds ratio [MOR] = 0.2; 95% CI 0.08-0.7), and presence of adult sheep that were not confined in a pen overnight (MOR = 0.1; 0.02-0.5). Variables that were associated with increased risk of MSD were increasing number of sheep owned (MOR = 1.2; 1.0-1.5), frequent observation of fresh rodent excreta (feces/urine) outside the house (MOR = 7.5; 1.5-37.2), and participation of the child in providing water to chickens (MOR = 3.8; 1.2-12.2). Of 691 pooled specimens collected from 2,174 domestic animals, 159 pools (23%) tested positive for one or more potentially zoonotic enteric pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, non-typhoidal Salmonella, diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, or rotavirus). We did not find any association between the presence of particular pathogens in household animals, and MSD in children. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Public health agencies should continue to promote frequent hand washing, including after animal contact, to reduce the risk of MSD. Future studies should address specific causal relations of MSD with sheep and chicken husbandry practices, and with the presence of rodents.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Animais Domésticos
Diarreia/epidemiologia
Fezes/microbiologia
Desinfecção das Mãos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Animais Domésticos/microbiologia
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia
Animais Domésticos/virologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Galinhas
Pré-Escolar
Diarreia/microbiologia
Diarreia/parasitologia
Diarreia/virologia
Características da Família
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Quênia/epidemiologia
Modelos Logísticos
Masculino
Análise Multivariada
Fatores de Risco
Roedores
População Rural
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Carneiro Doméstico
Zoonoses/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170827
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170827
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170808
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005795



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