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[PMID]:27771564
[Au] Autor:Nadal M; Rovira J; Díaz-Ferrero J; Schuhmacher M; Domingo JL
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Human exposure to environmental pollutants after a tire landfill fire in Spain: Health risks.
[So] Source:Environ Int;97:37-44, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In May 2016, a fire occurred in one of the largest landfills in Europe (Seseña, Toledo, Spain), where 70,000-90,000tons of tires had been illegally accumulated for >15years. Because of the proximity of population nuclei and the duration of the episode (>20days), we conducted a preliminary human health risk assessment study just after the tire fire. Samples of air and soil were collected in 3 areas surrounding the landfill (El Quiñón, at only 500m, and Seseña Nuevo and Seseña Viejo, both at 4km), as well as in background sites. In addition, samples of crops (barley, wheat, cabbage and lettuce) were also obtained from local farmers. The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a number of trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, and V) were analyzed in all the samples. The concentrations of all the target pollutants, excepting PAHs, were relatively similar at the different sampling zones, irrespective of the distance to the landfill. In turn, a significant increase of PAHs was noted near the tire landfill, with air levels up to 6-times higher than those found at 4km (134 vs. 19.5-22.7ng/m ). Similarly, PAH concentrations in lettuce were relatively higher than those typically found in monitoring programs of food safety. Because of the increase of airborne PAHs, cancer risks due to exposure to environmental pollutants for the population living at El Quiñón, near the landfill, were between 3- and 5-times higher than those estimated for the inhabitants of Seseña. After this preliminary study, further investigations, focused only on PAHs, but more extensive in terms of number of samples, should be conducted to assure that PAHs have been progressively degraded through time.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Poluentes Ambientais/análise
Fogo
Resíduos Perigosos/análise
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise
Poluentes do Solo/análise
Oligoelementos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
Resíduos Perigosos/efeitos adversos
Seres Humanos
Veículos Automotores
Bifenilos Policlorados/análise
Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos Policíclicos/análise
Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos Policíclicos/toxicidade
Medição de Risco
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Espanha
Oligoelementos/toxicidade
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Hazardous Waste); 0 (Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins); 0 (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Trace Elements); DFC2HB4I0K (Polychlorinated Biphenyls)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180311
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180311
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:27770707
[Au] Autor:Liu Y; Liu Y; Li H; Fu X; Guo H; Meng R; Lu W; Zhao M; Wang H
[Ad] Endereço:School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 10084, China; Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
[Ti] Título:Health risk impacts analysis of fugitive aromatic compounds emissions from the working face of a municipal solid waste landfill in China.
[So] Source:Environ Int;97:15-27, 2016 12.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6750
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Aromatic compounds (ACs) emitted from landfills have attracted a lot of attention of the public due to their adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This study assessed the health risk impacts of the fugitive ACs emitted from the working face of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in China. The emission data was acquired by long-term in-situ samplings using a modified wind tunnel system. The uncertainty of aromatic emissions is determined by means of statistics and the emission factors were thus developed. Two scenarios, i.e. 'normal-case' and 'worst-case', were presented to evaluate the potential health risk in different weather conditions. For this typical large anaerobic landfill, toluene was the dominant species owing to its highest releasing rate (3.40±3.79g·m ·d ). Despite being of negligible non-carcinogenic risk, the ACs might bring carcinogenic risks to human in the nearby area. Ethylbenzene was the major health threat substance. The cumulative carcinogenic risk impact area is as far as ~1.5km at downwind direction for the normal-case scenario, and even nearly 4km for the worst-case scenario. Health risks of fugitive ACs emissions from active landfills should be concerned, especially for landfills which still receiving mixed MSW.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Resíduos Sólidos/análise
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Carcinógenos/análise
China
Seres Humanos
Eliminação de Resíduos
Risco
Tolueno/análise
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
Vento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Carcinogens); 0 (Solid Waste); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); 3FPU23BG52 (Toluene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180311
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180311
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161023
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29424501
[Au] Autor:Reutova NV; Dreeva FR; Reutova TV; Shevchenko AV; Dudarov ZI
[Ti] Título:[Effect of recultivated wastes of mining factories on children residing in the district of their location].
[So] Source:Gig Sanit;95(6):572-6, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:0016-9900
[Cp] País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
[La] Idioma:rus
[Ab] Resumo:Wastes and tailing ponds of Tyrnyauz tungsten and molybdenum factory are the main sources of heavy metal incoming into environment in Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. The factory was closed more than 10 years ago and the recultivation of it's tailing ponds, where accumulated hundreds of millions tones of wastes, was completed. The aim of this investigation was an assessment of their possible influence on children residing in the vicinity of these tailing ponds (village Bylym). Village Verhny Baksan located about 30 km upstream of the valley of the Baksan River was chosen as reference (pure) locality. As a results of the performed investigations we revealed that in drinking water of Bylym and Verhny Baksan concentrations of molybdenum were 2.10±0.42 pg/l and 0.31±0.15 pg/l correspondingly, which is remarkably lower than maximum permitted concentrations. The concentrations of Mo, Cu and Pb in children's hair in both villages were practically the same, which indicates to the absence of their accumulation in human organism. But the quantity of cells with cytogenetic disorders in buccal epithelial cells in children from Bylym was 4.1 times higher in comparison with the corresponding index of uncontaminated area. The obtained data demonstrate that genotoxic effect of remedied tailing ponds retains.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Exposição Ambiental
Cabelo/química
Metais Pesados
Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente
Mineração
Poluentes do Solo
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos/normas
Poluentes Químicos da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criança
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ambiental/análise
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Metais Pesados/análise
Metais Pesados/normas
Mineração/métodos
Mineração/normas
Mucosa Bucal/patologia
Federação Russa/epidemiologia
Poluentes do Solo/análise
Poluentes do Solo/normas
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28941718
[Au] Autor:Healy RM; Chen Q; Bennett J; Karellas NS
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, Ontario M9P 3V6, Canada. Electronic address: robert.healy@ontario.ca.
[Ti] Título:A multi-year study of VOC emissions at a chemical waste disposal facility using mobile APCI-MS and LPCI-MS instruments.
[So] Source:Environ Pollut;232:220-228, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6424
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Real-time analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air is useful both for source identification and emissions compliance applications. In this work, two complementary triple quadrupole mass spectrometers, fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and a low pressure chemical ionization (LPCI) source, respectively, were deployed simultaneously to investigate emissions of VOCs associated with an Ontario-based chemical waste disposal facility. Mobile measurements performed upwind and downwind of the facility enabled selection of the best locations for stationary sampling. Seven separate field studies were undertaken between 2000 and 2016 to assess how emissions of VOCs have changed at the site as a function of time. Up to twenty-nine VOCs were successfully identified and quantified using MS/MS in each study. Simultaneous deployment of the two mass spectrometers enabled the detection of polar VOCs including alcohols, esters, amines and ketones as well as non-polar aromatic VOCs including benzene and naphthalene in real time. Concentrations of VOCs were found to decrease significantly in the vicinity of the facility over the sixteen year period, in particular since 2007. Concentration values for each year are compared with odour thresholds and provincial guidelines and implications of future expansion of on-site solid waste landfill volumes are also discussed.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental
Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Benzeno/análise
Odorantes/análise
Ontário
Eliminação de Resíduos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Volatile Organic Compounds); J64922108F (Benzene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170925
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29289283
[Au] Autor:Morin NAO; Andersson PL; Hale SE; Arp HPH
[Ad] Endereço:Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), P.O. Box 3930, Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 Oslo, Norway; Environmental and Food Laboratory of Vendée (LEAV), Department of Chemistry, Rond-point Georges Duval CS 80802, 85021 La Roche-sur-Yon, France. Electronic address: nicolasmorin@live.fr.
[Ti] Título:The presence and partitioning behavior of flame retardants in waste, leachate, and air particles from Norwegian waste-handling facilities.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci (China);62:115-132, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1001-0742
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Flame retardants in commercial products eventually make their way into the waste stream. Herein the presence of flame retardants in Norwegian landfills, incineration facilities and recycling sorting/defragmenting facilities is investigated. These facilities handled waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), vehicles, digestate, glass, combustibles, bottom ash and fly ash. The flame retardants considered included polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑BDE-10) as well as dechlorane plus, polybrominated biphenyls, hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene and pentabromoethylbenzene (collectively referred to as ∑FR-7). Plastic, WEEE and vehicles contained the largest amount of flame retardants (∑BDE-10: 45,000-210,000µg/kg; ∑FR-7: 300-13,000µg/kg). It was hypothesized leachate and air concentrations from facilities that sort/defragment WEEE and vehicles would be the highest. This was supported for total air phase concentrations (∑BDE-10: 9000-195,000pg/m WEEE/vehicle facilities, 80-900pg/m in incineration/sorting and landfill sites), but not for water leachate concentrations (e.g., ∑BDE-10: 15-3500ng/L in WEEE/Vehicle facilities and 1-250ng/L in landfill sites). Landfill leachate exhibited similar concentrations as WEEE/vehicle sorting and defragmenting facility leachate. To better account for concentrations in leachates at the different facilities, waste-water partitioning coefficients, K were measured (for the first time to our knowledge for flame retardants). WEEE and plastic waste had elevated K compared to other wastes, likely because flame retardants are directly added to these materials. The results of this study have implications for the development of strategies to reduce exposure and environmental emissions of flame retardants in waste and recycled products through improved waste management practices.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise
Monitoramento Ambiental
Retardadores de Chama/análise
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Bromobenzenos/análise
Resíduo Eletrônico/análise
Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise
Noruega
Plásticos
Bifenil Polibromatos/análise
Compostos Policíclicos/análise
Gerenciamento de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Air Pollutants); 0 (Bromobenzenes); 0 (Flame Retardants); 0 (Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers); 0 (Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated); 0 (Plastics); 0 (Polybrominated Biphenyls); 0 (Polycyclic Compounds); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 0 (dechlorane plus); T01859XWIR (hexabromobenzene)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180103
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180101
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28456456
[Au] Autor:Ye ZL; Hong Y; Pan S; Huang Z; Chen S; Wang W
[Ad] Endereço:Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen City, Fujian 361021, China.
[Ti] Título:Full-scale treatment of landfill leachate by using the mechanical vapor recompression combined with coagulation pretreatment.
[So] Source:Waste Manag;66:88-96, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2456
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Landfill leachate contains high concentrations of organic compounds and ammonium, and the presence of heavy metal ions, which normally requires expensive and complex treatment processes. In this study, full-scale experiments were implemented to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) treating leachate. Results revealed that despite the drastic changes of influent pollutant concentrations, MVR system possessed the ability to reduce most of the pollutants and guarantee the effluent in compliance with the discharge limits of Chinese Standard. Fouling analyses revealed that the main components in the fouling were crystalline (Mg Ca )(CO ), combining with humus and silicon compounds. A fouling cleaning method was developed with the adding sequence of first sulphamic acid and then NaOH, which could remove 88.62% fouling. Although fouling was inevitable for MVR treating leachate, coagulation pretreatment removed large amounts of COD, BOD , total nitrogen, ammonium and total phosphorus, with the respective means of 68.4%, 69.4%, 81.0%, 84.1% and 81.4%, and thereafter reduced the treatment cost 27.4% from 47.06 RMB (6.92 US dollars)/m to 34.15 RMB (5.02 US dollars)/m . These outcomes provided that in addition to the combination method of biological removal process with membrane technology, MVR process was another feasible solution for leachate treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
Poluentes Químicos da Água
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Compostos de Amônio
Metais Pesados
Nitrogênio
Fósforo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Ammonium Compounds); 0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); 27YLU75U4W (Phosphorus); N762921K75 (Nitrogen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170501
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28448748
[Au] Autor:Lima LSMS; De Almeida R; Quintaes BR; Bila DM; Campos JC
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Inorganic Processes, School of Chemistry , Federal University of Rio de Janeiro , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
[Ti] Título:Evaluation of humic substances removal from leachates originating from solid waste landfills in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.
[So] Source:J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng;52(9):828-836, 2017 Jul 29.
[Is] ISSN:1532-4117
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study aimed to evaluate the use of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes for the removal of the recalcitrant component, in particular humic substances, from two different leachates generated in the Gericinó and Gramacho landfills in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). A coagulation/flocculation process, using FeCl ·6H O as the coagulant, was applied to the two leachate samples. In the case of the leachate from Gericinó landfill, the treatment removed 93% of color, 71% of TOC, 69% of COD, 76% of HS, 73% of humic acids (HA) and 82% of fulvic acids (FA). In addition, there was a 75% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm, using 3,000 mg L of coagulant. In the case of the leachate from Gramacho landfill, the treatment removed 91% of color, 69% of TOC, 68% of COD, 77% of HS, 75% of HA and 80% of FA. In addition, there was a 70% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm using the same concentration of coagulant (3,000 mg L ). The Fenton processes, using FeSO ·7H O and H O in a ratio of 1:5, were also applied to the two leachate samples. In the case of the Gericinó leachate, the Fenton treatment removed 95% of color, 75% of TOC, 68% of COD, 82% of HS, 77% of HA and 93% of FA. In addition, there was a 93% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm. In the case of the Gramacho leachate, the Fenton treatment removed 93% of color, 73% of TOC, 71% of COD, 81% of HS, 76% of HA, 90% of FA, and there was an 84% reduction in the absorbance at 254 nm. The results of humic substances, color, organic matter and aromatic organic matter (absorbance at 254 nm) demonstrate that the coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes were efficient in the removal of recalcitrant organic matter from landfill leachates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Substâncias Húmicas/análise
Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química
Ferro/química
Resíduos Sólidos/análise
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Benzopiranos/análise
Brasil
Floculação
Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Benzopyrans); 0 (Fenton's reagent); 0 (Humic Substances); 0 (Solid Waste); 0 (Water Pollutants, Chemical); BBX060AN9V (Hydrogen Peroxide); E1UOL152H7 (Iron); XII14C5FXV (fulvic acid)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170428
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/10934529.2017.1312182


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[PMID]:28985948
[Au] Autor:Cesniene T; Kleizaite V; Bondzinskaite S; Taraskevicius R; Zvingila D; Siuksta R; Rancelis V
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Biosciences, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 7, LT-10257, Vilnius, Lithuania. Electronic address: egle.cesniene@gf.vu.lt.
[Ti] Título:Metal bioaccumulation and mutagenesis in a Tradescantia clone following long-term exposure to soils from urban industrial areas and closed landfills.
[So] Source:Mutat Res;823:65-72, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1873-135X
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Soil mutagens, particularly metals, may persist long after the source of pollution has been removed, representing a hazard to plants, animals, and humans in or near contaminated areas. Often, due to urban growth, previous land uses may be forgotten and hazards overlooked. We exposed Tradescantia clone #4430 plants to soil from two industrial areas (with different former uses) and two urban waste landfills in the city of Vilnius, all of which were long disused. Two modes of exposure were used: long-term exposure of growing plants in test soils for 0.5 or 1.0y, and short-term exposure of cuttings to water and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) soil extracts. An increased frequency of micronuclei (MN) was observed with both modes of exposure. The concentrations of 24 metals and other elements were analyzed in the test soils and in above-ground plant parts, under both exposure modes, and the concentration coefficients (Cc) for various elements, the total contamination index (Zs) for soils and plants, and the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for plants were calculated. These measurements allow a comparison of the contamination levels of soils and plants with equalized values. Metal accumulation levels in plants and soils showed significant differences, providing a better understanding of the genotoxicity of soils from closed landfills and highlighting the need to determine the concentrations of metals and other genotoxicants in plants in relation to genotoxicity.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Mutagênese/efeitos dos fármacos
Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
Tradescantia/efeitos dos fármacos
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Testes para Micronúcleos
Mutagênicos
Solo/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Mutagens); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171008
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28886977
[Au] Autor:Mantzaras G; Voudrias EA
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, GR-67100 Xanthi, Greece.
[Ti] Título:An optimization model for collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal of infectious medical waste: Application to a Greek region.
[So] Source:Waste Manag;69:518-534, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2456
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs. The candidate locations of the treatment facilities, transfer stations and sanitary landfills were designated, using a GIS-based methodology. Specifically, Mapinfo software with exclusion criteria for non-appropriate areas was used for siting candidate locations for the construction of the treatment plant and calculating the distance and travel time of all possible vehicle routes. The objective function was a non-linear equation, which minimized the total collection, transport, treatment and disposal cost. Total cost comprised capital and operation costs for: (1) treatment plant, (2) waste transfer stations, (3) waste transport and transfer vehicles and (4) waste collection bins and hospital boxes. Binary variables were used to decide whether a treatment plant and/or a transfer station should be constructed and whether a collection route between two or more nodes should be followed. Microsoft excel software was used as installation platform of the optimization model. For the execution of the optimization routine, two completely different software were used and the results were compared, thus, resulting in higher reliability and validity of the results. The first software was Evolver, which is based on the use of genetic algorithms. The second one was Crystal Ball, which is based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model was applied to the Region of East Macedonia - Thrace in Greece. The optimum solution resulted in one treatment plant located in the sanitary landfill area of Chrysoupolis, required no transfer stations and had a total management cost of 38,800 €/month or 809 €/t. If a treatment plant is sited in the most eastern part of the Region, i.e., the industrial area of Alexandroupolis, the optimum solution would result in a transfer station of 23 m , located near Kavala General Hospital, and a total cost of 39,800 €/month or 831 €/t. A sensitivity analysis was conducted and two alternative scenarios were optimized. In the first scenario, a 15% rise in fuel cost and in the second scenario a 25% rise in IMW production were considered. At the end, a cost calculation in €/t/km for every type of vehicle used for haul and transfer was conducted. Also, the cost of the whole system was itemized and calculated in €/t/km and €/t. The results showed that the higher percentage of the total cost was due to the construction of the treatment plant.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos
Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde
Modelos Teóricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Sistemas de Informação Geográfica
Grécia
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/normas
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Software
Transportes
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Medical Waste); 0 (Medical Waste Disposal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170910
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28865907
[Au] Autor:Lombardi L; Nocita C; Bettazzi E; Fibbi D; Carnevale E
[Ad] Endereço:Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi 3, 00166 Rome, Italy. Electronic address: lombardi.lidia@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Environmental comparison of alternative treatments for sewage sludge: An Italian case study.
[So] Source:Waste Manag;69:365-376, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1879-2456
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to compare different alternatives for sewage sludge treatment: such as land spreading, composting, incineration, landfill and wet oxidation. The LCA system boundaries include mechanical dewatering, the alternative treatment, transport, and final disposal/recovery of residues. Cases of recovered materials produced as outputs from the systems, were resolved by expanding the system boundaries to include avoided primary productions. The impact assessment was calculated using the CML-IA baseline method. Results showed that the incineration of sewage sludge with electricity production and solid residues recovery collects the lowest impact indicator values in the categories human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication, while it has the highest values for the categories global warming and ozone layer depletion. Land spreading has the lowest values for the categories abiotic depletion, fossil fuel depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion and photochemical oxidation, while it collects the highest values for terrestrial ecotoxicity and eutrophication. Wet oxidation has just one of the best indicators (terrestrial ecotoxicity) and three of the worst ones (abiotic depletion, human toxicity and fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity). Composting process shows intermediate results. Landfill has the worst performances in global warming, photochemical oxidation and acidification. Results indicate that if the aim is to reduce the effect of the common practice of sludge land spreading on human and ecosystem toxicity, on acidification and on eutrophication, incineration with energy recovery would clearly improve the environmental performance of those indicators, but an increase in resource depletion and global warming is unavoidable. However, these conclusions are strictly linked to the effective recovery of solid residues from incineration, as the results are shown to be very sensitive with respect to this assumption. Similarly, the quality of the wet oxidation process residues plays an important role in defining the impact of this treatment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos
Esgotos/análise
Resíduos/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Incineração
Itália
Esgotos/estatística & dados numéricos
Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
Resíduos/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Sewage); 0 (Waste Products)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170904
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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