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[PMID]:29422648
[Au] Autor:Stone WJR; Campo JJ; Ouédraogo AL; Meerstein-Kessel L; Morlais I; Da D; Cohuet A; Nsango S; Sutherland CJ; van de Vegte-Bolmer M; Siebelink-Stoter R; van Gemert GJ; Graumans W; Lanke K; Shandling AD; Pablo JV; Teng AA; Jones S; de Jong RM; Fabra-García A; Bradley J; Roeffen W; Lasonder E; Gremo G; Schwarzer E; Janse CJ; Singh SK; Theisen M; Felgner P; Marti M; Drakeley C; Sauerwein R; Bousema T; Jore MM
[Ad] Endereço:Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. william.stone@lshtm.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Unravelling the immune signature of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-reducing immunity.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):558, 2018 02 08.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infection with Plasmodium can elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite survival in the mosquito, when they are ingested in an infectious blood meal. Here, we determine the transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of naturally acquired antibodies from 648 malaria-exposed individuals using lab-based mosquito-feeding assays. Transmission inhibition is significantly associated with antibody responses to Pfs48/45, Pfs230, and to 43 novel gametocyte proteins assessed by protein microarray. In field-based mosquito-feeding assays the likelihood and rate of mosquito infection are significantly lower for individuals reactive to Pfs48/45, Pfs230 or to combinations of the novel TRA-associated proteins. We also show that naturally acquired purified antibodies against key transmission-blocking epitopes of Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 are mechanistically involved in TRA, whereas sera depleted of these antibodies retain high-level, complement-independent TRA. Our analysis demonstrates that host antibody responses to gametocyte proteins are associated with reduced malaria transmission efficiency from humans to mosquitoes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Malária Falciparum/imunologia
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia
Plasmodium falciparum
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Burkina Faso/epidemiologia
Camarões/epidemiologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Gâmbia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue
Malária Falciparum/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Immunoglobulin G)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02646-2


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[PMID]:29205277
[Au] Autor:Wonkam A; Mnika K; Ngo Bitoungui VJ; Chetcha Chemegni B; Chimusa ER; Dandara C; Kengne AP
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Human Genetics, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Clinical and genetic factors are associated with pain and hospitalisation rates in sickle cell anaemia in Cameroon.
[So] Source:Br J Haematol;180(1):134-146, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2141
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:We aimed to investigate the clinical and genetic predictors of painful vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) in sickle cell disease (SCD) in Cameroon. Socio-demographics, clinical variables/events and haematological indices were acquired. Genotyping was performed for 40 variants in 17 pain-related genes, three fetal haemoglobin (HbF)-promoting loci, two kidney dysfunctions-related genes, and HBA1/HBA2 genes. Statistical models using regression frameworks were performed in R . A total of 436 hydoxycarbamide- and opioid-naïve patients were studied; median age was 16 years. Female sex, body mass index, Hb/HbF, blood transfusions, leucocytosis and consultation or hospitalisation rates significantly correlated with VOC. Three pain-related genes variants correlated with VOC (CACNA2D3-rs6777055, P = 0·025; DRD2-rs4274224, P = 0·037; KCNS1-rs734784, P = 0·01). Five pain-related genes variants correlated with hospitalisation/consultation rates. (COMT-rs6269, P = 0·027; FAAH-rs4141964, P = 0·003; OPRM1-rs1799971, P = 0·031; ADRB2-rs1042713; P < 0·001; UGT2B7-rs7438135, P = 0·037). The 3·7 kb HBA1/HBA2 deletion correlated with increased VOC (P = 0·002). HbF-promoting loci variants correlated with decreased hospitalisation (BCL11A-rs4671393, P = 0·026; HBS1L-MYB-rs28384513, P = 0·01). APOL1 G1/G2 correlated with increased hospitalisation (P = 0·048). This first study from Africa has provided evidence supporting possible development of genetic risk model for pain in SCD.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anemia Falciforme/complicações
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia
Predisposição Genética para Doença
Hospitalização
Dor/epidemiologia
Dor/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Alelos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue
Anemia Falciforme/genética
Camarões/epidemiologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Índices de Eritrócitos
Feminino
Frequência do Gene
Variação Genética
Haplótipos
Hemoglobinas Anormais/genética
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Testes de Função Renal
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Mutação
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Estudos Prospectivos
Locos de Características Quantitativas
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hemoglobins, Abnormal)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171206
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bjh.15011


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[PMID]:29334931
[Au] Autor:Dzotam JK; Simo IK; Bitchagno G; Celik I; Sandjo LP; Tane P; Kuete V
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:In vitro antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity of crude extract, fractions and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans Houtt against MDR Gram-negative enteric bacteria.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;18(1):15, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). It possesses various pharmacological activities but is used in Cameroon only for its flavor in making cakes. The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude seed kernel methanol extract (MFS), fractions (MFSa-e) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. METHODS: The modified rapid p-iodonitrotetrazolium chloride (INT) colorimetric assay was used to determine the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) on the tested bacteria, as well as those of antibiotics in association with the extract and/or isolated compound. Column chromatography was used for the fractionation and purification of the seed kernel extract whilst the chemical structures of compounds were determined using spectroscopic techniques. RESULTS: Phytochemical investigations lead to the isolation of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from the fraction MFSb. The crude extract showed antibacterial activity with MICs ranging from 32 to 1024 µg/mL on the majority of the 29 tested Gram-negative bacterial strains. Fraction MFSb inhibited the growth of 100% (29/29) of the tested bacterial strains, as well as the compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone (12/12) with a MIC values ranging from 32 to 1024 µg/mL, and 4 to 128 µg/mL respectively. The lowest MIC value (4 µg/mL) was recorded with 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone against Providencia stuartii ATCC299645 as well as the best MBC value (16 µg/mL) against the same strain. In the presence of Phenylalanine-Arginine-ß-Naphthylamide (PAßN), an efflux pumps inhibitor, the activity of the extract increased on 73.33% (11/15) meanwhile that of 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone increased on 100% tested bacteria. The compound 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone potentiated the activity of antibiotics in the majority of the tested bacterial strains. CONCLUSION: The results of the present work provide additional information on the use of nutmeg and it major antibacterial component, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone, as a potential drug in the treatment of bacterial infections including multidrug resistant phenotypes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Flavonoides/farmacologia
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos
Myristica fragrans/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Camarões
Cloranfenicol/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Sementes/química
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone); 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Flavonoids); 0 (Plant Extracts); 66974FR9Q1 (Chloramphenicol)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180216
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180216
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180117
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-018-2084-1


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[PMID]:27776590
[Au] Autor:Noeske J; Nana Yakam A; Abena Foe JL
[Ad] Endereço:National Tuberculosis Programme, Yaounde, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Cameroon as mirrored in notification data, 2006-2014.
[So] Source:Int J Tuberc Lung Dis;20(11):1489-1494, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1815-7920
[Cp] País de publicação:France
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:SETTING: The Cameroonian National Tuberculosis Programme. OBJECTIVES: To assess case surveillance data for the 9-year period between January 2006 and December 2014. DESIGN: Retrospective descriptive analysis of tuberculosis (TB) case finding in Cameroon using routine surveillance data. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, disease category, clinical and laboratory variables, and geographic regions were analysed. RESULTS: The absolute number of TB cases (all forms) notified increased from 24 878 in 2006 to 26 517 in 2014; however, the population-adjusted annual case notification rate (CNR) of TB (all forms) as well as that of new smear-positive pulmonary TB cases decreased significantly, from 139 to 121 (P < 0.001) and from 77 to 70/100 000 population (P < 0.02), respectively. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rate reported among all TB cases (39% in 2014) remained stable from 2009. The male-to-female ratio also remained stable, with a slight shift towards older age. There was a CNR gradient from the north to the south that appears to be related to HIV infection rates, population density and access to health services. CONCLUSIONS: TB CNRs in Cameroon for the 2006-2014 period show a slow but steady decrease, and there are indications that the trend reflects incidence. However, there is evidence to suggest that TB transmission is still ongoing.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Vigilância da População
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia
Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Camarões/epidemiologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos de Coortes
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
Seguimentos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Perda de Seguimento
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Retrospectivos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico
Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180214
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180214
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29255561
[Au] Autor:Sama CB; Dzekem B; Kehbila J; Ekabe CJ; Vofo B; Abua NL; Dingana TN; Angwafo F
[Ad] Endereço:Bambalang Sub-Divisional Hospital, Northwest Region, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:91, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Introduction: The incidence of breast cancer (BCa) in Cameroon is on the rise and accounts for a leading cause of mortality. An understanding of the knowledge and practices on breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) among teachers are important first steps which will guide the designing of interventions aimed at raising awareness across the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in April 2016 involving 345 consenting female undergraduate students in the Higher Teachers Training College, Bambili, Cameroon. Data was collected using a pretested self-administered questionnaire and analysed using descriptive methods. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 22.5±3.2years and a vast majority (n = 304, 88.1%) had heard about BCa primarily from the television/radio (n=196, 64.5%). Overall, less than a quarter (n=65, 21.4%) of respondents who had heard about BCa had sufficient knowledge on its risk factors and signs/symptoms. A plurality (53.3%) thought BCa can be prevented via vaccination while over a third (38.7%) opined that BCa can be treated spiritually. Less than half (47%) of respondents who had heard about BCa had heard about BSE amongst which only 55 (38.5%) had ever practiced it. Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a concomitant low practice of BSE. These highlighted gaps warrants intensification of sensitization campaigns and educational programmes in order to raise knowledge levels and enhance prevention strategies that would aid in reducing the burden of breast cancer in Cameroon.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico
Autoexame de Mama/psicologia
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
Estudantes/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Camarões
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Fatores de Risco
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Universidades
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180213
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180213
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171220
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.91.10986


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[PMID]:28466968
[Au] Autor:Geard A; Pule GD; Chetcha Chemegni B; Ngo Bitoungui VJ; Kengne AP; Chimusa ER; Wonkam A
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Human Genetics, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Clinical and genetic predictors of renal dysfunctions in sickle cell anaemia in Cameroon.
[So] Source:Br J Haematol;178(4):629-639, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2141
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Micro-albuminuria and glomerular hyperfiltration are primary indicators of renal dysfunctions in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), with more severe manifestations previously associated with variants in APOL1 and HMOX1 among African Americans. We have investigated 413 SCD patients from Cameroon. Anthropometric variables, haematological indices, crude albuminuria, albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured. Patients were genotyped for 3·7 kb alpha-globin gene (HBA1/HBA2) deletion, and for variants in APOL1 (G1/G2; rs60910145, rs73885319, rs71785313) and HMOX1 (rs3074372, rs743811). The median age was 15 years; the majority presented with micro-albuminuria (60·9%; n = 248), and approximately half with glomerular hyperfiltration (49·5%; n = 200). Age, male sex, haemoglobin level, leucocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, blood pressure, body mass index and creatinine levels significantly affected albuminuria and/or eGFR. Co-inheritance of alpha-thalassaemia was protective against macro-albuminuria (P = 0·03). APOL1 G1/G2 risk variants were significantly associated with the ACR (P = 0·01) and borderline with eGFR (P = 0·07). HMOX1 - rs743811 was borderline associated with micro-albuminuria (P = 0·07) and macro-albuminuria (P = 0·06). The results revealed a high proportion of micro-albuminuria and glomerular hyperfiltration among Cameroonian SCD patients, and support the possible use of targeted genetic biomarkers for risks assessment.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anemia Falciforme/complicações
Insuficiência Renal/etiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Albuminúria/epidemiologia
Albuminúria/etiologia
Albuminúria/genética
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia
Anemia Falciforme/genética
Antropometria/métodos
Apolipoproteína L1
Apolipoproteínas/genética
Camarões/epidemiologia
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Deleção de Genes
Predisposição Genética para Doença
Variação Genética
Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética
Hemoglobina A Glicada/genética
Heme Oxigenase-1/genética
Seres Humanos
Lipoproteínas HDL/genética
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estudos Prospectivos
Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia
Insuficiência Renal/genética
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (APOL1 protein, human); 0 (Apolipoprotein L1); 0 (Apolipoproteins); 0 (Glycated Hemoglobin A); 0 (Lipoproteins, HDL); EC 1.14.14.18 (HMOX1 protein, human); EC 1.14.14.18 (Heme Oxygenase-1)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/bjh.14724


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[PMID]:28450771
[Au] Autor:Dongmo W; Kechia F; Tchuenguem R; Nangwat C; Yves I; Kuiate JR; Dzoyem JP
[Ad] Endereço:Laboratory of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Substances (LAMAS), Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, Cameroon.
[Ti] Título:In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Environmental Isolates of spp. from the West Region of Cameroon.
[So] Source:Ethiop J Health Sci;26(6):555-560, 2016 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:2413-7170
[Cp] País de publicação:Ethiopia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening infection that affects healthy and immunocompromised individuals. It is the first cause of adult acute meningitis in some sub-Saharan African countries with a mortality rate of about 100% in cases of inappropriate therapy. This study aimed at examining the occurrence and the antifungal patterns of Cryptococcus isolates from pigeon droppings and bat guanos in the west region of Cameroon. METHODS: A total of 350 samples were randomly collected from three selected localities of west region of Cameroon. The identification was performed based on capsule production assessed by Indian ink preparation. Additional tests performed were urea broth, glycine and tryptophan assimilation tests. The antifungal susceptibility test was performed by the broth microdilution method. RESULTS: Mycological analysis led to the identification of 98 isolates, of which 57 isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii and 41 isolates of C. neoformans var. neoformans. All the isolates showed resistance to antifungals tested except nystatin which showed MIC mean values ranging between 0.5 µg/mL and 0.65 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of C. neoformans in pigeons and bats excreta in the west region of Cameroon is 28.57 %. C. neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. neoformans are the main serotypes. Isolates found to be resistant to fluconazole and ketoconazole. Our results emphasize the need for further study on the molecular epidemiology in comparison with clinical isolates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antifúngicos/farmacologia
Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos
Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação
Fezes/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Camarões
Quirópteros
Columbidae
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antifungal Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29324858
[Au] Autor:Deribe K; Beng AA; Cano J; Njouendo AJ; Fru-Cho J; Awah AR; Eyong ME; Chounna Ndongmo PW; Giorgi E; Pigott DM; Golding N; Pullan RL; Noor AM; Enquselassie F; Murray CJL; Brooker SJ; Hay SI; Enyong P; Newport MJ; Wanji S; Davey G
[Ad] Endereço:Wellcome Trust Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;12(1):e0006126, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis. METHODS: We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS) test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD) BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123) respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was found to be 0.5% (95% [confidence interval] CI; 0.4-0.7). At least one case of podoconiosis was found in every region of Cameroon except the two surveyed villages in Adamawa. Of the 40 health districts surveyed, 17 districts had no cases of podoconiosis; in 15 districts, mean prevalence was between 0.2% and 1.0%; and in the remaining eight, mean prevalence was between 1.2% and 2.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation has demonstrated low prevalence but almost nationwide distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon. Designing a podoconiosis control program is a vital next step. A health system response to the burden of podoconiosis is important, through case surveillance and morbidity management services.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia
Elefantíase/epidemiologia
Linfedema/epidemiologia
Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia
Camarões/epidemiologia
Elefantíase/diagnóstico
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue
Imunoglobulina G/imunologia
Linfedema/diagnóstico
Linfedema/parasitologia
Mansonella/isolamento & purificação
Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico
Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Protozoan); 0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Wuchereria antigen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180130
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180130
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006126


  9 / 4396 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28748565
[Au] Autor:Portik DM; Leaché AD; Rivera D; Barej MF; Burger M; Hirschfeld M; Rödel MO; Blackburn DC; Fujita MK
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA.
[Ti] Título:Evaluating mechanisms of diversification in a Guineo-Congolian tropical forest frog using demographic model selection.
[So] Source:Mol Ecol;26(19):5245-5263, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1365-294X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The accumulation of biodiversity in tropical forests can occur through multiple allopatric and parapatric models of diversification, including forest refugia, riverine barriers and ecological gradients. Considerable debate surrounds the major diversification process, particularly in the West African Lower Guinea forests, which contain a complex geographic arrangement of topographic features and historical refugia. We used genomic data to investigate alternative mechanisms of diversification in the Gaboon forest frog, Scotobleps gabonicus, by first identifying population structure and then performing demographic model selection and spatially explicit analyses. We found that a majority of population divergences are best explained by allopatric models consistent with the forest refugia hypothesis and involve divergence in isolation with subsequent expansion and gene flow. These population divergences occurred simultaneously and conform to predictions based on climatically stable regions inferred through ecological niche modelling. Although forest refugia played a prominent role in the intraspecific diversification of S. gabonicus, we also find evidence for potential interactions between landscape features and historical refugia, including major rivers and elevational barriers such as the Cameroonian Volcanic Line. We outline the advantages of using genomewide variation in a model-testing framework to distinguish between alternative allopatric hypotheses, and the pitfalls of limited geographic and molecular sampling. Although phylogeographic patterns are often species-specific and related to life-history traits, additional comparative studies incorporating genomic data are necessary for separating shared historical processes from idiosyncratic responses to environmental, climatic and geological influences on diversification.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anuros/classificação
Biodiversidade
Evolução Biológica
Filogenia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Camarões
Congo
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Guiné Equatorial
Florestas
Gabão
Fluxo Gênico
Modelos Biológicos
Nigéria
Filogeografia
Clima Tropical
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171220
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171220
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/mec.14266


  10 / 4396 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29187944
[Au] Autor:Balde N; Camara A; Sobngwi-Tambekou J; Balti EV; Tchatchoua A; Fezeu L; Limen S; Ngamani S; Ngapout S; Kengne AP; Sobngwi E
[Ad] Endereço:University Hospital Donka, Conakry, Guinea.
[Ti] Título:Improving access to HbA1c in sub-Saharan Africa (IA3) cohort: cohort profile.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;27:275, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Introduction: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is the best surrogate of average blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and lowering HbA1c significantly reduces diabetes complications. Moreover, immediate feedback of HbA1c measurement to patients may improve control. However, HbA1c is unavailable in most parts of Africa, a continent with one of the highest burden of diabetes. To translate these evidences, we are conducting a multicentric project in 10 health care facilities in Guinea and Cameroon to evaluate the feasibility and one-year benefit of affordable HbA1c measurement with immediate feedback to patients on diabetes control and related outcomes. Participants: We consecutively enrolled patients with diabetes mellitus independently of the type of disease. We hypothesised an average 1%-decrease in HbA1c in a 1000-patient study population, with a 20% increase in the number of patients reaching treatment goals within 12 months of intervention and follow-up. Findings to date: A total of 1, 349 diabetic patients aged 56.2±12.6 years are enrolled (813 in Cameroon and 536 in Guinea) of whom 59.8% are women. The mean duration of diabetes is 7.4±6.3 years and baseline HbA1c is 9.7±2.6% in Guinea and 8.6±2.5% in Cameroon. Future plans: To investigate whether the introduction of routine HbA1c measurement with immediate feedback to patients and provision of relevant education would improve diabetes control after one year. The impact of the intervention on diabetes associated-complications and mortality warrant further assessment in the long term.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Glicemia/metabolismo
Diabetes Mellitus/terapia
Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Camarões
Estudos de Coortes
Estudos de Viabilidade
Feminino
Seguimentos
Guiné
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Educação de Pacientes como Assunto
Estudos Prospectivos
Fatores de Tempo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Blood Glucose); 0 (Glycated Hemoglobin A)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.27.275.10270



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