Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : Z01.058.290.120 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 3427 [refinar]
Mostrando: 1 .. 10   no formato [Detalhado]

página 1 de 343 ir para página                         

  1 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29342180
[Au] Autor:Holmes CB; Yiannoutsos CT; Elul B; Bukusi E; Ssali J; Kambugu A; Musick BS; Cohen C; Williams C; Diero L; Padian N; Wools-Kaloustian KK
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
[Ti] Título:Increased prevalence of pregnancy and comparative risk of program attrition among individuals starting HIV treatment in East Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190828, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization now recommends initiating all pregnant women on life-long antiretroviral therapy (ART), yet there is limited information about the characteristics and program outcomes of pregnant women already on ART in Africa. Our hypothesis was that pregnant women comprised an increasing proportion of those starting ART, and that sub-groups of these women were at higher risk for program attrition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS- East Africa (IeDEA-EA) to conduct a retrospective cohort study including HIV care and treatment programs in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania. The cohort consecutively included HIV-infected individuals 13 years or older starting ART 2004-2014. We examined trends over time in the proportion pregnant, their characteristics and program attrition rates compared to others initiating and already receiving ART. 156,474 HIV-infected individuals (67.0% women) started ART. The proportion of individuals starting ART who were pregnant women rose from 5.3% in 2004 to 12.2% in 2014. Mean CD4 cell counts at ART initiation, weighted for annual program size, increased from 2004 to 2014, led by non-pregnant women (annual increase 20 cells/mm3) and men (17 cells/mm3 annually), with lower rates of change in pregnant women (10 cells/mm3 per year) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of program attrition at 6 months among pregnant women starting ART and non-pregnant women. However, healthy pregnant women starting ART (WHO stage 1/2) had a higher rate of attrition rate (9.6%), compared with healthy non-pregnant women (6.5%); in contrast among women with WHO stage 3/4 disease, pregnant women had lower attrition (8.4%) than non-pregnant women (14.4%). Among women who initiated ART when healthy and remained in care for six months, subsequent six-month attrition was slightly higher among pregnant women at ART start (3.5%) compared to those who were not pregnant (2.4%), (absolute difference 1.1%, 95% CI 0.7%-1.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women comprise an increasing proportion of those initiating ART in Africa, and pregnant women starting ART while healthy are at higher risk for program attrition than non-pregnant women. As ART programs further expand access to healthier pregnant women, further studies are needed to better understand the drivers of loss among this high risk group of women to optimize retention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
Cooperação do Paciente
Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
África Oriental/epidemiologia
Feminino
Infecções por HIV/complicações
Seres Humanos
Gravidez
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180118
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190828


  2 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29296154
[Au] Autor:Bodo B; Malande OO
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University, Uganda.
[Ti] Título:Delayed introduction of the birth dose of Hepatitis B vaccine in EPI programs in East Africa: a missed opportunity for combating vertical transmission of Hepatitis B.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;27(Suppl 3):19, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Vertical Transmission of hepatitis B virus is a major route through which children acquire Hepatitis B infection. Only 10 out of 47 countries in Africa, and none from East Africa; have implemented the WHO recommendation of introducing a birth-dose of hepatitis B vaccine in their EPI program. This article therefore examines the challenges as well as the opportunities that exists for the introduction of a birth-dose of hepatitis vaccine in the National Expanded Program for Immunization (EPI) program by countries in the East African Region. It explores probable health systems factors that have hindered the countries from introducing the birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine and proposes actions that countries can take to introduce the vaccine based on their context by drawing on the experience of some Asian countries.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem
Hepatite B/prevenção & controle
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle
Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Feminino
Hepatite B/transmissão
Seres Humanos
Programas de Imunização
Recém-Nascido
Gravidez
Organização Mundial da Saúde
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Hepatitis B Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.supp.2017.27.3.11544


  3 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28748917
[Au] Autor:Smyth EC; Lagergren J; Fitzgerald RC; Lordick F; Shah MA; Lagergren P; Cunningham D
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London SW3 6JJ, UK.
[Ti] Título:Oesophageal cancer.
[So] Source:Nat Rev Dis Primers;3:17048, 2017 Jul 27.
[Is] ISSN:2056-676X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is therefore a major global health challenge. The two major subtypes of oesophageal cancer are oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. OSCC accounts for 90% of all cases of oesophageal cancer globally and is highly prevalent in the East, East Africa and South America. OAC is more common in developed countries than in developing countries. Preneoplastic lesions are identifiable for both OSCC and OAC; these are frequently amenable to endoscopic ablative therapies. Most patients with oesophageal cancer require extensive treatment, including chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy and/or surgical resection. Patients with advanced or metastatic oesophageal cancer are treated with palliative chemotherapy; those who are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive may also benefit from trastuzumab treatment. Immuno-oncology therapies have also shown promising early results in OSCC and OAC. In this Primer, we review state-of-the-art knowledge on the biology and treatment of oesophageal cancer, including screening, endoscopic ablative therapies and emerging molecular targets, and we discuss best practices in chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, surgery and the maintenance of patient quality of life.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adenocarcinoma/patologia
África Oriental/epidemiologia
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia
Quimiorradioterapia/métodos
Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório/métodos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico
Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Prognóstico
Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo
América do Sul/epidemiologia
Taxa de Sobrevida
Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico
Resultado do Tratamento
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological); EC 2.7.10.1 (ERBB2 protein, human); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptor, ErbB-2); P188ANX8CK (Trastuzumab)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180205
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180205
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/nrdp.2017.48


  4 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29190263
[Au] Autor:Hines JZ; Ntsuape OC; Malaba K; Zegeye T; Serrem K; Odoyo-June E; Nyirenda RK; Msungama W; Nkanaunena K; Come J; Canda M; Nhaguiombe H; Shihepo EK; Zemburuka BLT; Mutandi G; Yoboka E; Mbayiha AH; Maringa H; Bere A; Lawrence JJ; Lija GJI; Simbeye D; Kazaura K; Mwiru RS; Talisuna SA; Lubwama J; Kabuye G; Zulu JE; Chituwo O; Mumba M; Xaba S; Mandisarisa J; Baack BN; Hinkle L; Grund JM; Davis SM; Toledo C
[Ti] Título:Scale-Up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention - 12 Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa, 2013-2016.
[So] Source:MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep;66(47):1285-1290, 2017 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1545-861X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Countries in Southern and Eastern Africa have the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the world; in 2015, 52% (approximately 19 million) of all persons living with HIV infection resided in these two regions.* Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk for heterosexually acquired HIV infection among males by approximately 60% (1). As such, it is an essential component of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) strategy for ending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 2030 (2). Substantial progress toward achieving VMMC targets has been made in the 10 years since the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNAIDS recommended scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in 14 Southern and Eastern African countries with generalized HIV epidemics and low male circumcision prevalence (3). This has been enabled in part by nearly $2 billion in cumulative funding through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), administered through multiple U.S. governmental agencies, including CDC, which has supported nearly half of all PEPFAR-supported VMMCs to date. Approximately 14.5 million VMMCs were performed globally during 2008-2016, which represented 70% of the original target of 20.8 million VMMCs in males aged 15-49 years through 2016 (4). Despite falling short of the target, these VMMCs are projected to avert 500,000 HIV infections by the end of 2030 (4). However, UNAIDS has estimated an additional 27 million VMMCs need to be performed by 2021 to meet the Fast Track targets (2). This report updates a previous report covering the period 2010-2012, when VMMC implementing partners supported by CDC performed approximately 1 million VMMCs in nine countries (5). During 2013-2016, these implementing partners performed nearly 5 million VMMCs in 12 countries. Meeting the global target will require redoubling current efforts and introducing novel strategies that increase demand among subgroups of males who have historically been reluctant to undergo VMMC.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Circuncisão Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Programas Voluntários/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
África Oriental/epidemiologia
África Austral/epidemiologia
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Cooperação Internacional
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estados Unidos
Programas Voluntários/economia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180119
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180119
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6647a2


  5 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29265653
[Au] Autor:Linder HP
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, Zollikerstrasse, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:East African Cenozoic vegetation history.
[So] Source:Evol Anthropol;26(6):300-312, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1520-6505
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The modern vegetation of East Africa is a complex mosaic of rainforest patches; small islands of tropic-alpine vegetation; extensive savannas, ranging from almost pure grassland to wooded savannas; thickets; and montane grassland and forest. Here I trace the evolution of these vegetation types through the Cenozoic. Paleogene East Africa was most likely geomorphologically subdued and, as the few Eocene fossil sites suggest, a woodland in a seasonal climate. Woodland rather than rainforest may well have been the regional vegetation. Mountain building started with the Oligocene trap lava flows in Ethiopia, on which rainforest developed, with little evidence of grass and none of montane forests. The uplift of the East African Plateau took place during the middle Miocene. Fossil sites indicate the presence of rainforest, montane forest and thicket, and wooded grassland, often in close juxtaposition, from 17 to 10 Ma. By 10 Ma, marine deposits indicate extensive grassland in the region and isotope analysis indicates that this was a C grassland. In the later Miocene rifting, first of the western Albertine Rift and then of the eastern Gregory Rift, added to the complexity of the environment. The building of the high strato-volcanos during the later Mio-Pliocene added environments suitable for tropic-alpine vegetation. During this time, the C grassland was replaced by C savannas, although overall the extent of grassland was reduced from the mid-Miocene high to the current low level. Lake-level fluctuations during the Quaternary indicate substantial variation in rainfall, presumably as a result of movements in the intertropical convergence zone and the Congo air boundary, but the impact of these fluctuations on the vegetation is still speculative. I argue that, overall, there was an increase in the complexity of East African vegetation complexity during the Neogene, largely as a result of orogeny. The impact of Quaternary climatic fluctuation is still poorly understood.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Florestas
Fósseis
Plantas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Evolução Biológica
Pradaria
Paleontologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/evan.21570


  6 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29184597
[Au] Autor:Hamze H; Mengiste A; Carter J
[Ad] Endereço:School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 11405-87 Ave Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
[Ti] Título:The impact and cost-effectiveness of the Amref Health Africa-Smile Train Cleft Lip and Palate Surgical Repair Programme in Eastern and Central Africa.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;28:35, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Introduction: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) is a congenital malformation that causes significant morbidity in low and middle income countries. Amref Health Africa has partnered with Smile Train to provide CLP surgeries since 2006. Methods: We analyzed anonymized data of 37,274 CLP patients from the Smile Train database operated on in eastern and central Africa between 2006 and 2014. Cases were analyzed by age, gender, country and surgery type. The impact of cleft surgery was determined by measuring averted Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and delayed averted DALYs. We used mean Smile Train costs to calculate cost-effectiveness. We calculated economic benefit using the human capital approach and Value of Statistical Life (VSL) methods. Results: The median age at time of primary surgery was 5.4 years. A total of 207,879 DALYs were averted at a total estimated cost of US$13 million. Mean averted DALYs per patient were 5.6, and mean cost per averted DALY was $62.8. Total delayed burden of disease from late age at surgery was 36,352 DALYs. Surgical correction resulted in $292 million in economic gain using the human capital approach and $2.4 billion using VSL methods. Conclusion: Cleft surgery is a cost-effective intervention to reduce disability and increase economic productivity in eastern and central Africa. Dedicated programs that provide essential CLP surgery can produce substantial clinical and economic benefits.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Instituições de Caridade/economia
Fenda Labial/cirurgia
Fissura Palatina/cirurgia
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
África Central
África Oriental
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Fenda Labial/economia
Fissura Palatina/economia
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença
Análise Custo-Benefício
Bases de Dados Factuais
Países em Desenvolvimento
Avaliação da Deficiência
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/economia
Estudos Retrospectivos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.28.35.10344


  7 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29065166
[Au] Autor:Rumisha C; Huyghe F; Rapanoel D; Mascaux N; Kochzius M
[Ad] Endereço:Sokoine University of Agriculture, Solomon Mahlangu College of Science and Education, Department of Biosciences, Morogoro, Tanzania.
[Ti] Título:Genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African giant mud crab Scylla serrata: Implications for fisheries management.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0186817, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The giant mud crab Scylla serrata provides an important source of income and food to coastal communities in East Africa. However, increasing demand and exploitation due to the growing coastal population, export trade, and tourism industry are threatening the sustainability of the wild stock of this species. Because effective management requires a clear understanding of the connectivity among populations, this study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity and connectivity in the East African mangrove crab S. serrata. A section of 535 base pairs of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and eight microsatellite loci were analysed from 230 tissue samples of giant mud crabs collected from Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and South Africa. Microsatellite genetic diversity (He) ranged between 0.56 and 0.6. The COI sequences showed 57 different haplotypes associated with low nucleotide diversity (current nucleotide diversity = 0.29%). In addition, the current nucleotide diversity was lower than the historical nucleotide diversity, indicating overexploitation or historical bottlenecks in the recent history of the studied population. Considering that the coastal population is growing rapidly, East African countries should promote sustainable fishing practices and sustainable use of mangrove resources to protect mud crabs and other marine fauna from the increasing pressure of exploitation. While microsatellite loci did not show significant genetic differentiation (p > 0.05), COI sequences revealed significant genetic divergence between sites on the East coast of Madagascar (ECM) and sites on the West coast of Madagascar, mainland East Africa, as well as the Seychelles. Since East African countries agreed to achieve the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) target to protect over 10% of their marine areas by 2020, the observed pattern of connectivity and the measured genetic diversity can serve to provide useful information for designing networks of marine protected areas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
Crustáceos/genética
Pesqueiros
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Animais
Variação Genética
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186817


  8 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:29045429
[Au] Autor:Harrison RA; Oluoch GO; Ainsworth S; Alsolaiss J; Bolton F; Arias AS; Gutiérrez JM; Rowley P; Kalya S; Ozwara H; Casewell NR
[Ad] Endereço:The Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(10):e0005969, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy. This was quickly filled with new, less expensive antivenoms, many of which are of untested efficacy. Some of these successfully marketed antivenoms for Africa are inappropriately manufactured with venoms from non-African snakes and are dangerously ineffective. The uncertain efficacy of available antivenoms exacerbates the complexity of designing intervention measures to reduce the burden of snakebite in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to preclinically determine the ability of antivenoms available in Kenya to neutralise the lethal effects of venoms from the most medically important snakes in East Africa. METHODS: We collected venom samples from the most medically important snakes in East Africa and determined their toxicity in a mouse model. Using a 'gold standard' comparison protocol, we preclinically tested the comparative venom-neutralising efficacy of four antivenoms available in Kenya with two antivenoms of clinically-proven efficacy. To explain the variant efficacies of these antivenoms we tested the IgG-venom binding characteristics of each antivenom using in vitro IgG titre, avidity and venom-protein specificity assays. We also measured the IgG concentration of each antivenom. FINDINGS: None of the six antivenoms are preclinically effective, at the doses tested, against all of the most medically important snakes of the region. The very limited snake polyspecific efficacy of two locally available antivenoms is of concern. In vitro assays of the abilities of 'test' antivenom IgGs to bind venom proteins were not substantially different from that of the 'gold standard' antivenoms. The least effective antivenoms had the lowest IgG content/vial. CONCLUSIONS: Manufacture-stated preclinical efficacy statements guide decision making by physicians and antivenom purchasers in sub-Saharan Africa. This is because of the lack of both clinical data on the efficacy of most of the many antivenoms used to treat patients and independent preclinical assessment. Our preclinical efficacy assessment of antivenoms available in Kenya identifies important limitations for two of the most commonly-used antivenoms, and that no antivenom is preclinically effective against all the regionally important snakes. The potential implication to snakebite treatment is of serious concern in Kenya and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, and underscores the dilemma physicians face, the need for clinical data on antivenom efficacy and the medical and societal value of establishing independent preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing facilities throughout the continent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antivenenos/imunologia
Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
Venenos de Serpentes/antagonistas & inibidores
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Animais
Antivenenos/química
Antivenenos/metabolismo
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
Seres Humanos
Imunoglobulina G/análise
Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo
Quênia
Dose Letal Mediana
Camundongos
Ligação Proteica
Venenos de Serpentes/química
Venenos de Serpentes/imunologia
Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade
Serpentes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antivenins); 0 (Immunoglobulin G); 0 (Snake Venoms)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171019
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005969


  9 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record next record last record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28892508
[Au] Autor:Winters N; Langer L; Geniets A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Education, University of Oxford, Oxford, United, Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Physical, psychological, sexual, and systemic abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa: Mapping the evidence.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184541, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Children with disabilities (CWDs) are at a higher risk of being maltreated than are typical children. The evidence base on the abuse of children with disabilities living in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited but the problem is particularly acute in East Africa. We don't know the types of evidence that exist on this topic. This problem is compounded by the fact that key indicators of disability, such as reliable prevalence rates, are not available currently. This paper addresses this serious problem by mapping the existing evidence-base to document the coverage, patterns, and gaps in existing research on the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa. An evidence map, following systematic review guidelines, was conducted and included a systematic search, transparent and structured data extraction, and critical appraisal. Health and social science databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Taylor&Francis, Web of Science, and SAGE) were systematically searched for relevant studies. A substantive grey literature search was also conducted. All empirical research on the abuse of CWDs in East Africa was eligible for inclusion: Data on abuse was systematically extracted and the research evidence, following critical appraisal, mapped according to the type of abuse and disability condition, highlighting gaps and patterns in the evidence-base. 6005 studies were identified and screened, of which 177 received a full-text assessment. Of these, 41 studies matched the inclusion criteria. By mapping the available data and reports and systematically assessing their trustworthiness and relevance, we highlight significant gaps in the available evidence base. Clear patterns emerge that show a major data gap and lack of research on sexual abuse of children with disabilities and an identifiable lack of methodological quality in many relevant studies. These make the development of a concerted and targeted research effort to tackle the abuse of children with disabilities in East Africa extremely difficult. This needs to be addressed urgently if the abuse of children with disabilities is to be prioritised by the global health community.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos
Crianças com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos
Abuso Físico/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental/epidemiologia
Criança
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos
Análise por Conglomerados
Geografia
Seres Humanos
Vigilância da População
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170912
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184541


  10 / 3427 MEDLINE  
              first record previous record
seleciona
para imprimir
Fotocópia
Texto completo
[PMID]:28791544
[Au] Autor:Kyallo M; Ateka EM; Sseruwagi P; Ascencio-Ibáñez JT; Ssemakula MO; Skilton R; Ndunguru J
[Ad] Endereço:Biosciences eastern and central Africa-International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI) Hub, P.O. Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. m.kyalo@cgiar.org.
[Ti] Título:Infectivity of Deinbollia mosaic virus, a novel weed-infecting begomovirus in East Africa.
[So] Source:Arch Virol;162(11):3439-3445, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1432-8798
[Cp] País de publicação:Austria
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Weed-infecting begomoviruses play an important role in the epidemiology of crop diseases because they can potentially infect crops and contribute to the genetic diversity of crop-infecting begomoviruses. Despite the important epidemiological role that weed-infecting begomoviruses play, they remain insufficiently studied in Africa. Recently, we identified Deinbollia mosaic virus (DMV), a distinct begomovirus found naturally infecting the weed host Deinbollia borbonica (Sapindaceae) in Kenya and Tanzania. In this study, we investigated the capacity of DMV to infect a restricted host range of Solanaceae and Euphorbiaceae species. Biolistic inoculation of Nicotiana benthamiana with concatemeric DNAs resulted in systemic infection associated with yellow mosaic symptoms, while DNA partial dimers caused asymptomatic systemic infection. DMV was not infectious to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), suggesting host resistance to the virus. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental infectivity analysis of DMV in N. benthamiana and cassava.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Begomovirus/fisiologia
Euphorbiaceae/virologia
Doenças das Plantas/virologia
Plantas Daninhas/virologia
Solanaceae/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Oriental
Folhas de Planta/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171027
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171027
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170810
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00705-017-3495-x



página 1 de 343 ir para página                         
   


Refinar a pesquisa
  Base de dados : MEDLINE Formulário avançado   

    Pesquisar no campo  
1  
2
3
 
           



Search engine: iAH v2.6 powered by WWWISIS

BIREME/OPAS/OMS - Centro Latino-Americano e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde