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[PMID]:29377918
[Au] Autor:Steenkamp PJ; van Heerden H; van Schalkwyk OL
[Ad] Endereço:University of Pretoria, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Production Animal Studies, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Ecological suitability modeling for anthrax in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191704, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The spores of the soil-borne bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax are highly resistant to adverse environmental conditions. Under ideal conditions, anthrax spores can survive for many years in the soil. Anthrax is known to be endemic in the northern part of Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa (SA), with occasional epidemics spreading southward. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas that are ecologically suitable for the harboring of B. anthracis spores within the KNP. Anthrax surveillance data and selected environmental variables were used as inputs to the maximum entropy (Maxent) species distribution modeling method. Anthrax positive carcasses from 1988-2011 in KNP (n = 597) and a total of 40 environmental variables were used to predict and evaluate their relative contribution to suitability for anthrax occurrence in KNP. The environmental variables that contributed the most to the occurrence of anthrax were soil type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and precipitation. Apart from the endemic Pafuri region, several other areas within KNP were classified as ecologically suitable. The outputs of this study could guide future surveillance efforts to focus on predicted suitable areas for anthrax, since the KNP currently uses passive surveillance to detect anthrax outbreaks.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antraz/diagnóstico
Bacillus anthracis/isolamento & purificação
Ecossistema
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antraz/epidemiologia
Surtos de Doenças
Seres Humanos
África do Sul/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191704


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[PMID]:29364960
[Au] Autor:McCarthy K; Fielding K; Churchyard GJ; Grant AD
[Ad] Endereço:The Aurum Institute; Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Empiric tuberculosis treatment in South African primary health care facilities - for whom, where, when and why: Implications for the development of tuberculosis diagnostic tests.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191608, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The extent and circumstances under which empiric tuberculosis (TB) treatment (treatment without microbiological confirmation at treatment initiation) is administered in primary health care settings in South Africa are not well described. METHODS: We used data from a pragmatic evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF in which persons undergoing TB investigations by PHC nurses were followed for six months. Following Xpert or smear-microscopy at enrolment, investigations for tuberculosis were undertaken at the discretion of health care workers. We identified persons whose TB treatment was initiated empirically (no microbiological confirmation at time of treatment initiation at a primary health care facility) and describe pathways to treatment initiation. RESULTS: Of 4665 evaluable participants, 541 persons were initiated on treatment of whom 167 (31%) had negative sputum tests at enrolment. Amongst these 167, the median number of participant visits to health care providers prior to treatment initiation was 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 2-4). Chest radiography, sputum culture or hospital referral was done in 106/167 (63%). Reasons for TB treatment start were: 1) empiric (n = 82, 49%); 2) a positive laboratory test (n = 49, 29%); 3) referral and treatment start at a higher level of care (n = 28, 17%); and 4) indeterminable (n = 8, 5%). Empiric treatment accounted for 15% (82/541) of all TB treatment initiations and 1.7% (82/4665) of all persons undergoing TB investigations. Chest radiography findings compatible with TB (63/82 [77%]) were the basis for treatment initiation amongst the majority of empirically treated participants. Microbiological confirmation of TB was subsequently obtained for 11/82 (13%) empirically-treated participants. Median time to empiric treatment start was 3.9 weeks (IQR 1.4-11 weeks) after enrolment. CONCLUSION: Uncommon prescription of empiric TB treatment with reliance on chest radiography in a nurse-managed programme underscores the need for highly sensitive TB diagnostics suitable for point-of-care, and strong health systems to support TB diagnosis in this setting.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico
Atenção Primária à Saúde
Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
África do Sul
Tuberculose/diagnóstico
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antitubercular Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180125
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191608


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[PMID]:28826029
[Au] Autor:Masondo NA; Kulkarni MG; Finnie JF; Van Staden J
[Ad] Endereço:Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Influence of biostimulants-seed-priming on Ceratotheca triloba germination and seedling growth under low temperatures, low osmotic potential and salinity stress.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;147:43-48, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Extreme temperatures, drought and salinity stress adversely affect seed germination and seedling growth in crop species. Seed priming has been recognized as an indispensable technique in the production of stress-tolerant plants. Seed priming increases seed water content, improves protein synthesis using mRNA and DNA and repair mitochondria in seeds prior to germination. The current study aimed to determine the role of biostimulants-seed-priming during germination and seedling growth of Ceratotheca triloba (Bernh.) Hook.f. (an indigenous African leafy vegetable) under low temperature, low osmotic potential and salinity stress conditions. Ceratotheca triloba seeds were primed with biostimulants [smoke-water (SW), synthesized smoke-compound karrikinolide (KAR ), Kelpak (commercial seaweed extract), phloroglucinol (PG) and distilled water (control)] for 48h at 25°C. Thereafter, primed seeds were germinated at low temperatures, low osmotic potential and high NaCl concentrations. Low temperature (10°C) completely inhibited seed germination. However, temperature shift to 15°C improved germination. Smoke-water and KAR enhanced seed germination with SW improving seedling growth under different stress conditions. Furthermore, priming seeds with Kelpak stimulated percentage germination, while PG and the control treatment improved seedling growth at different PEG and NaCl concentrations. Generally, high concentrations of PEG and NaCl brought about detrimental effects on seed germination and seedling growth. Findings from this study show the potential role of seed priming with biostimulants in the alleviation of abiotic stress conditions during seed germination and seedling growth in C. triloba plants.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Furanos/farmacologia
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos
Pedaliaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
Piranos/farmacologia
Plântulas/efeitos dos fármacos
Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Temperatura Baixa
Secas
Osmose
Pedaliaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Salinidade
Plântulas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Furans); 0 (Pyrans); 0 (karrikinolide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170822
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29251433
[Au] Autor:Sabapathy K; Mubekapi-Musadaidzwa C; Mulubwa C; Schaap A; Hoddinott G; Stangl A; Floyd S; Ayles H; Fidler S; Hayes R; HPTN 071 (PopART) study team
[Ad] Endereço:London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Predictors of timely linkage-to-ART within universal test and treat in the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial in Zambia and South Africa: findings from a nested case-control study.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(4), 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: HPTN 071 (PopART) is a three-arm community randomized trial in Zambia and South Africa evaluating the impact of a combination HIV prevention package, including universal test and treat (UTT), on HIV incidence. This nested study examined factors associated with timely linkage-to-care and ART initiation (TLA) (i.e. within six-months of referral) in the context of UTT within the intervention communities of the HPTN 071 (PopART) trial. METHODS: Of the 7572 individuals identified as persons living with HIV (PLWH) (and not on antiretroviral treatment (ART)) during the first year of the PopART intervention provided by Community HIV-care Providers (CHiPs) through door-to-door household visits, individuals who achieved TLA (controls) and those who did not (cases), stratified by gender and community, were randomly selected to be re-contacted for interview. Standardized questionnaires were administered to explore factors potentially associated with TLA, including demographic and behavioural characteristics, and participants' opinions on HIV and related services. Odds ratios comparing cases and controls were estimated using a multi-variable logistic regression. RESULTS: Data from 705 participants (333 cases/372 controls) were analysed. There were negligible differences between cases and controls by demographic characteristics including age, marital or socio-economic position. Prior familiarity with the CHiPs encouraged TLA (aOR of being a case: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.86, p = 0.006). Participants who found clinics overcrowded (aOR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.12, p = 0.006) or opening hours inconvenient (aOR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.06 to 2.51, p = 0.02) were less likely to achieve TLA, as were those expressing stronger feelings of shame about having HIV (p  = 0.007). Expressing "not feeling ready" (aOR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.89 to 4.01, p < 0.001) and preferring to wait until they felt sick (aOR: 2.00, 95% CI: 1.27 to 3.14, p = 0.02) were similarly indicative of being a case. Worrying about being seen in the clinic or about how staff treated patients was not associated with TLA. While the association was not strong, we found that the greater the number of self-reported lifetime sexual partners the more likely participants were to achieve TLA (p  = 0.06). There was some evidence that participants with HIV-positive partners on ART were less likely to be cases (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.06, p = 0.07). DISCUSSION: The lack of socio-demographic differences between cases and controls is encouraging for a "universal" intervention that seeks to ensure high coverage across whole communities. Making clinics more "patient-friendly" could enhance treatment uptake further. The finding that those with higher risk behaviour are more actively engaging with UTT holds promise for treatment-as-prevention.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico
Intervenção Médica Precoce
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Incidência
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Encaminhamento e Consulta
Parceiros Sexuais
África do Sul
Zâmbia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-HIV Agents)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171219
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jia2.25037


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[PMID]:29178578
[Au] Autor:Mnyani CN; Buchmann EJ; Chersich MF; Frank KA; McIntyre JA
[Ad] Endereço:School of Clinical Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Trends in maternal deaths in HIV-infected women, on a background of changing HIV management guidelines in South Africa: 1997 to 2015.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(3), 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: As work begins towards the Sustainable Development Goal target of reducing the global maternal mortality ratio (MMR) to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births by 2030, much needs to be done in ending preventable maternal deaths. After 1990, South Africa experienced a reversal of gains in decreasing maternal mortality, with an increase in HIV-related maternal deaths. In this study, we assessed trends in maternal mortality in HIV-infected women, on a background of an evolving HIV care programme. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective record review of maternal deaths in the obstetrics unit at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, in Johannesburg, South Africa, a referral hospital in a high HIV prevalence setting where the prevalence among pregnant women has plateaued around 29.0% for the past decade. Trends in HIV diagnosis and management in pregnancy, and causes of maternal deaths in HIV-infected women were analysed over different time periods (1997 to 2003, 2004 to 2009, 2010 to 2012, and 2013 to 2015) reflecting major guideline changes. RESULTS: From January 1997 to December 2015, there were 692 maternal deaths in the obstetrics unit. Of the 490 (70.8%) maternal deaths with a documented HIV status, 335 (68.4%) were HIV-infected. A Chi-squared test for trends showed that the institutional MMR (iMMR) in women known to be HIV-infected peaked in the period 2004 to 2009 at 380 (95% CI 319 to 446) per 100,000 live births, with a decline to 267 (95% CI 198 to 353) in 2013 to 2015, p = 0.049. This decrease coincided with changes in the South African HIV management guidelines, mainly increased availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Non-pregnancy related infections were the leading cause of death throughout the review period, accounting for 61.5% (206/335) of deaths. Only 23.3% (78/335) of the women who died were on ART at the time of death, this in the context of advanced immune suppression and an overall median CD4 count of 136 cells/µl (interquartile ranges (IQR) 45 to 301). CONCLUSION: In this 19-year review of maternal deaths in Johannesburg, South Africa, there was evidence of a decrease in the iMMR among HIV-infected women, but it remains unacceptably high. Efforts to address drivers of mortality and barriers to accessing ART need to be accelerated if we are to see substantial decreases in maternal mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/mortalidade
Morte Materna
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Infecções por HIV/terapia
Seres Humanos
Gravidez
Prevalência
Estudos Retrospectivos
África do Sul/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180307
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180307
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/jia2.25022


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[PMID]:28452692
[Au] Autor:An R; Sturm R
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, USA.
[Ti] Título:A Cash-back Rebate Program for Healthy Food Purchases in South Africa: Selection and Program Effects in Self-reported Diet Patterns.
[So] Source:Am J Health Behav;41(2):152-162, 2017 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1945-7359
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: A South African insurer launched a rebate program for healthy food purchases for its members, but only available in program-designated supermarkets. To eliminate selection bias in program enrollment, we estimated the impact of subsidies in nudging the population towards a healthier diet using an instrumental variable approach. METHODS: Data came from a health behavior questionnaire administered among members in the health promotion program. Individual and supermarket addresses were geocoded and differential distances from home to program-designated supermarkets versus competing supermarkets were calculated. Bivariate probit and linear instrumental variable models were performed to control for likely unobserved selection biases, employing differential distances as a predictor of program enrollment. RESULTS: For regular fast-food, processed meat, and salty food consumption, approximately two-thirds of the difference between participants and nonparticipants was attributable to the intervention and one-third to selection effects. For fruit/ vegetable and fried food consumption, merely one-eighth of the difference was selection. The rebate reduced regular consumption of fast food by 15% and foods high in salt/sugar and fried foods by 22%- 26%, and increased fruit/vegetable consumption by 21% (0.66 serving/day). CONCLUSIONS: Large population interventions are an essential complement to laboratory experiments, but selection biases require explicit attention in evaluation studies conducted in naturalistic settings.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
Promoção da Saúde/métodos
Dieta Saudável
Seguro Saúde
Motivação
Recompensa
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Seleção Tendenciosa de Seguro
Masculino
Meia-Idade
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180306
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180306
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.5993/AJHB.41.2.6


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[PMID]:29351564
[Au] Autor:Naran NH; Haagensen M; Crowther NJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Steatosis in South African women: How much and why?
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191388, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Globally, steatosis is the commonest type of liver pathology and is closely associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity is common in urban African females but no data is available on hepatic fat content in this population group when compared to other ethnic groups. The aim of this study was therefore to compare hepatic fat content in woman from different ethnic groups in South Africa and to characterise the principle determinants of liver fat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 106 (48 Indian, 29 African and 29 Caucasian) female volunteers aged 20-60 years and having no history of cardiometabolic disorders were recruited. Hepatic fat was determined from CT scans using the liver-spleen attenuation ratio (LAR), which decreases with increasing levels of hepatic fat. Anthropometric and cardiometabolic parameters were measured with insulin resistance determined using the HOMA index and dysglycaemia defined as fasting glucose ≥5.60 mmol/L. RESULTS: The African subjects had significantly lower hepatic fat content (LAR as median [interquartile range]: 1.35 [1.28, 1.41]) than the Indian (1.22 [1.10, 1.35]; p<0.005) and Caucasian (1.27 [1.16, 1.33]; p<0.05) females even though they had significantly higher BMIs than both groups (p<0.0005 and p<0.05, respectively). Linear regression showed that: subcutaneous abdominal fat was a significant (unstandardised ß = 0.007; p = 0.03) negative, whilst insulin resistance (ß = -0.97; p = 0.01) and dysglycaemia (ß = -3.58; p = 0.01) were significant positive determinants of liver fat; higher hepatic fat levels in subjects with the metabolic syndrome were explained by insulin resistance and dysglycaemia. DISCUSSION: African ethnicity is associated with low liver fat content. Subcutaneous abdominal fat protects against steatosis, possibly by acting as a triglyceride reservoir. Insulin resistance and dysglycaemia lead to greater hepatic fat deposition and explain higher liver fat levels in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. These observations must be further investigated in longitudinal surveys.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fígado Gorduroso/patologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem
Tecido Adiposo/patologia
Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano
Antropometria
Índice de Massa Corporal
Estudos Transversais
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu
Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico por imagem
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Resistência à Insulina
Modelos Lineares
Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem
Fígado/patologia
Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico por imagem
Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo
Síndrome Metabólica/patologia
Meia-Idade
África do Sul
Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem
Gordura Subcutânea Abdominal/patologia
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180120
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191388


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[PMID]:29373605
[Au] Autor:Tobin RL; Kulmatiski A
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Wildland Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Plant identity and shallow soil moisture are primary drivers of stomatal conductance in the savannas of Kruger National Park.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191396, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Our goal was to describe stomatal conductance (gs) and the site-scale environmental parameters that best predict gs in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Dominant grass and woody species were measured over two growing seasons in each of four study sites that represented the natural factorial combination of mean annual precipitation [wet (750 mm) or dry (450 mm)] and soil type (clay or sand) found in KNP. A machine-learning (random forest) model was used to describe gs as a function of plant type (species or functional group) and site-level environmental parameters (CO2, season, shortwave radiation, soil type, soil moisture, time of day, vapor pressure deficit and wind speed). The model explained 58% of the variance among 6,850 gs measurements. Species, or plant functional group, and shallow (0-20 cm) soil moisture had the greatest effect on gs. Atmospheric drivers and soil type were less important. When parameterized with three years of observed environmental data, the model estimated mean daytime growing season gs as 68 and 157 mmol m-2 sec-1 for grasses and woody plants, respectively. The model produced here could, for example, be used to estimate gs and evapotranspiration in KNP under varying climate conditions. Results from this field-based study highlight the role of species identity and shallow soil moisture as primary drivers of gs in savanna ecosystems of KNP.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo
Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Plantas/classificação
Plantas/metabolismo
Solo/química
Água/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Atmosfera/química
Aprendizado de Máquina
Modelos Estatísticos
Poaceae/metabolismo
África do Sul
Madeira/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Soil); 059QF0KO0R (Water); 142M471B3J (Carbon Dioxide)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180127
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191396


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[PMID]:29385273
[Au] Autor:Klusener R; Hurtado R; Stander N; Parsons NJ
[Ad] Endereço:Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds (SANCCOB), Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:First report of a hatched, hand-reared, and released African oystercatcher.
[So] Source:Zoo Biol;37(1):54-58, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1098-2361
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The African oystercatcher Haematopus moquini is a near-threatened wader that is endemic to southern Africa. In the past, the species suffered a drastic decrease in nesting success due to human disturbance. We present the case report of an African oystercatcher that was hatched, hand-reared, and released in the Western Cape, South Africa. African oystercatchers are semi-altricial birds that tend to be highly sensitive to stress; as a result, strategies to minimize stress and the employment of surrogate parents and pre-release acclimatization are important to ensure post-release survival of hand-reared chicks. Considering the lack of literature on the incubation and hand-rearing of oystercatchers, this case report provides a basis for the development of hand-rearing techniques that might be useful for the protection of this and other threatened wader species.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos
Charadriiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Envelhecimento
Animais
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção
África do Sul
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/zoo.21395


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[PMID]:29370162
[Au] Autor:Dudley L; Mukinda F; Dyers R; Marais F; Sissolak D
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:Mind the gap! Risk factors for poor continuity of care of TB patients discharged from a hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190258, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: TB patients discharged from hospitals in South Africa experience poor continuity of care, failing to continue TB treatment at other levels of care. Factors contributing to poor continuity of TB care are insufficiently described to inform interventions. OBJECTIVE: To describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from a referral hospital in the Western Cape, South Africa. DESIGN: This retrospective observational study used routine information to describe continuity of care and risk factors in TB patients discharged from hospital. RESULTS: 788 hospitalized TB patients were identified in 6 months. Their median age was 32 years, 400 (51%) were male, and 653 (83%) were urban. A bacteriological TB test was performed for 74%, 25% were tested for HIV in hospital, and 32% of all TB patients had documented evidence of HIV co-infection. Few (13%) were notified for TB; 375 (48%) received TB medication; 284 (36%) continued TB treatment after discharge; 91 (24%) had a successful TB treatment outcome, and 166 (21%) died. Better continuity of care was associated with adults, urban residence, bacteriological TB tests in hospital and TB medication on discharge. Fragmented hospital TB data systems did not provide continuity with primary health care information systems. CONCLUSIONS: Discharged TB patients experienced poor continuity of care, with children, rural patients, those not tested for TB in hospital or discharged without TB medication at greatest risk. Suboptimal quality of hospital TB care and a fragmented hospital information system without linkages to other levels underpinned poor continuity of care.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente
Alta do Paciente
Tuberculose/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Fatores de Risco
África do Sul/epidemiologia
Tuberculose/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190258



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