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[PMID]:28449969
[Au] Autor:Le Doare K; Faal A; Jaiteh M; Sarfo F; Taylor S; Warburton F; Humphries H; Birt J; Jarju S; Darboe S; Clarke E; Antonio M; Foster-Nyarko E; Heath PT; Gorringe A; Kampmann B
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for International Child Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK,; Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0TE, UK; Vaccines & Immunity Theme, MRC Unit The Gambia, Atlantic Road, Fajara, Gambia
[Ti] Título:Association between functional antibody against Group B Streptococcus and maternal and infant colonization in a Gambian cohort.
[So] Source:Vaccine;35(22):2970-2978, 2017 05 19.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2518
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a prerequisite for early-onset disease and a consequence of maternal GBS colonization. Disease protection is associated with maternally-derived anti-GBS antibody. Using a novel antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition flow cytometry assay which correlates with opsonic killing we developed a model to assess the impact of maternally-derived functional anti-GBS antibody on infant GBS colonization from birth to day 60-89 of life. METHODS: Rectovaginal swabs and cord blood (birth) and infant nasopharyngeal/rectal swabs (birth, day 6 and day 60-89) were obtained from 750 mother/infant pairs. Antibody-mediated C3b/iC3b deposition with cord and infant sera was measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We established that as maternally-derived anti-GBS functional antibody increases, infant colonization decreases at birth and up to three months of life, the critical time window for the development of GBS disease. Further, we observed a serotype (ST)-dependent threshold above which no infant was colonized at birth. Functional antibody above the upper 95th confidence interval for the geometric mean concentration was associated with absence of infant GBS colonization at birth for STII (p<0.001), STIII (p=0.01) and STV (p<0.001). Increased functional antibody was also associated with clearance of GBS between birth and day 60-89. CONCLUSIONS: Higher concentrations of maternally-derived antibody-mediated complement deposition are associated with a decreased risk of GBS colonization in infants up to day 60-89 of life. Our findings are of relevance to establish thresholds for protection following vaccination of pregnant women with future GBS vaccines.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia
Imunidade Materno-Adquirida
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia
Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Streptococcus/imunologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue
Portador Sadio
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos de Coortes
Complemento C3b/imunologia
Feminino
Sangue Fetal/imunologia
Citometria de Fluxo
Gâmbia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Técnicas Imunológicas
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Estudos Longitudinais
Mães
Nasofaringe/microbiologia
Proteínas Opsonizantes
Gravidez
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/microbiologia
Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia
Infecções Estreptocócicas/transmissão
Streptococcus/classificação
Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Bacterial); 0 (Opsonin Proteins); 80295-43-8 (Complement C3b)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180308
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180308
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  2 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29422648
[Au] Autor:Stone WJR; Campo JJ; Ouédraogo AL; Meerstein-Kessel L; Morlais I; Da D; Cohuet A; Nsango S; Sutherland CJ; van de Vegte-Bolmer M; Siebelink-Stoter R; van Gemert GJ; Graumans W; Lanke K; Shandling AD; Pablo JV; Teng AA; Jones S; de Jong RM; Fabra-García A; Bradley J; Roeffen W; Lasonder E; Gremo G; Schwarzer E; Janse CJ; Singh SK; Theisen M; Felgner P; Marti M; Drakeley C; Sauerwein R; Bousema T; Jore MM
[Ad] Endereço:Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. william.stone@lshtm.ac.uk.
[Ti] Título:Unravelling the immune signature of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-reducing immunity.
[So] Source:Nat Commun;9(1):558, 2018 02 08.
[Is] ISSN:2041-1723
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Infection with Plasmodium can elicit antibodies that inhibit parasite survival in the mosquito, when they are ingested in an infectious blood meal. Here, we determine the transmission-reducing activity (TRA) of naturally acquired antibodies from 648 malaria-exposed individuals using lab-based mosquito-feeding assays. Transmission inhibition is significantly associated with antibody responses to Pfs48/45, Pfs230, and to 43 novel gametocyte proteins assessed by protein microarray. In field-based mosquito-feeding assays the likelihood and rate of mosquito infection are significantly lower for individuals reactive to Pfs48/45, Pfs230 or to combinations of the novel TRA-associated proteins. We also show that naturally acquired purified antibodies against key transmission-blocking epitopes of Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 are mechanistically involved in TRA, whereas sera depleted of these antibodies retain high-level, complement-independent TRA. Our analysis demonstrates that host antibody responses to gametocyte proteins are associated with reduced malaria transmission efficiency from humans to mosquitoes.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Malária Falciparum/imunologia
Malária Falciparum/parasitologia
Plasmodium falciparum
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Burkina Faso/epidemiologia
Camarões/epidemiologia
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Feminino
Gâmbia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Imunoglobulina G/sangue
Malária Falciparum/sangue
Masculino
Meia-Idade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Immunoglobulin G)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180305
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180305
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180210
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/s41467-017-02646-2


  3 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28454539
[Au] Autor:Sisawo EJ; Ouédraogo SYYA; Huang SL
[Ad] Endereço:The University of the Gambia, Brikama, The Gambia.
[Ti] Título:Workplace violence against nurses in the Gambia: mixed methods design.
[So] Source:BMC Health Serv Res;17(1):311, 2017 04 28.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6963
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. METHODS: Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. RESULTS: A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients' escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Gâmbia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Prevalência
Inquéritos e Questionários
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180117
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180117
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170430
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12913-017-2258-4


  4 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29187924
[Au] Autor:Lowe M
[Ad] Endereço:Society for the Study of Women's Health (SSWH), Old Yundum, The Gambia.
[Ti] Título:Social and cultural barriers to husbands' involvement in maternal health in rural Gambia.
[So] Source:Pan Afr Med J;27:255, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1937-8688
[Cp] País de publicação:Uganda
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Introduction: While many studies have documented a number of socio-cultural barriers to male involvement in maternal health, in The Gambia very little information is known about the social and cultural practices that characterized male involvement in maternal health. This study aims to explore some of the underlying social and cultural factors affecting husbands' involvement in maternal health issues pertaining to pregnancy and delivery in rural Gambia. Methods: Five focus group discussions and six in-depth interviews were conducted among rural men and traditional birth attendants in five areas of rural Gambia. The discussion was directed to the roles of male partners in pregnancy and delivery and the difficulties they face regarding taking care of their wives. The data resulting from the discussion was audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Results: In general, rural Gambian men and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) reported that husbands' involvement in maternal health is highly desirable, but is influenced by many factors, such as the traditional conceptualization associated with pregnancy and delivery as women's domain. In addition, many men do not believe that pregnancy chores warrant their efforts compared to other competing social responsibilities. This issue may be more complicated in polygamous marriages where there is rivalry among co-wives and in neighborhoods where men who help with house chores may be subjected to mockery. Conclusion: These findings suggest that husbands' involvement in maternal health in The Gambia is influenced by the prevailing social and cultural practices of gender role and norms, which are also at the root of maternal health problems.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos
Casamento/psicologia
Saúde Materna
Cônjuges/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Grupos Focais
Gâmbia
Seres Humanos
Entrevistas como Assunto
Masculino
Tocologia
Gravidez
População Rural
Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.11604/pamj.2017.27.255.11378


  5 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28820687
[Au] Autor:Ikumapayi UN; Boisen N; Hossain MJ; Betts M; Lamin M; Saha D; Kwambana-Adams B; Dione M; Adegbola RA; Roca A; Nataro JP; Antonio M
[Ad] Endereço:Disease Control and Elimination Theme, Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia.
[Ti] Título:Identification of Subsets of Enteroaggregative Associated with Diarrheal Disease among Under 5 Years of Age Children from Rural Gambia.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;97(4):997-1004, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Enteroaggregative (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia. Four sets of multiplex polymerase chain reaction were applied to detect 21 EAEC-virulence genes from confirmed EAEC strains that target pCVD432 (aatA) and AAIC (aaiC). In addition, Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 88 EAEC strains following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines. We observed that the plasmid-encoded enterotoxin [odds ratio (OR): 6.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.06-29.20, < 0.001], aggregative adherence fimbriae/I fimbriae (aggA) [OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.16-4.29, = 0.008], and hexosyltransferase (capU) [OR: 1.9, 95% CI 1.02-3.51, = 0.028] were associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children < 12 months old but not in the older age strata (> 12 months). Our data suggest that some EAEC-virulent factors have age-specific associations with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in infants. Furthermore, our study showed that 85% and 72% of EAEC strains tested were resistant to sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ampicillin, respectively. Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and ampicillin are among the first-line antibiotics used for the treatment of diarrhea in The Gambia.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diarreia/microbiologia
Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética
Escherichia coli/genética
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Fatores de Virulência/genética
Fatores de Virulência/isolamento & purificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pré-Escolar
Diarreia/epidemiologia
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia
Feminino
Gâmbia/epidemiologia
Variação Genética
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Virulence Factors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171025
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171025
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170819
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0705


  6 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28810666
[Au] Autor:Burrell A; Kerac M; Nabwera H
[Ad] Endereço:London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
[Ti] Título:Monitoring and discharging children being treated for severe acute malnutrition using mid-upper arm circumference: secondary data analysis from rural Gambia.
[So] Source:Int Health;9(4):226-233, 2017 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:1876-3405
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Background: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major public health problem. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is widely used to admit children to treatment programmes. However, insufficient data supporting MUAC discharge criterion limits its use as a stand-alone tool. Our aim was to evaluate MUAC for monitoring nutritional recovery and discharge. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of clinical data from children 6-59 months-old treated for SAM from January 2003 to December 2013 at the Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit in rural Gambia. Weight, weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) and MUAC response to treatment were assessed. Treatment indicators and regression models controlled for admission measurement and age were compared by discharge MUAC and WHZ. Results: Four hundred and sixty-three children with marasmus were included. MUAC, WHZ and weight showed parallel responses to treatment. MUAC≥125 mm as a discharge criterion performed well, showing good prediction of default and referral to hospital, acceptable duration of stay, and a higher absolute MUAC measure compared to WHZ≥-2.00, closely related to lower risk of mortality. Conclusions: MUAC can be used as a standalone tool for monitoring nutritional recovery. MUAC≥125 mm performs well as a discharge criterion; however, follow-up data is needed to assess its safety. Further research is needed on children meeting MUAC discharge criterion but with WHZ≤2.0.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Braço/anatomia & histologia
Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos
Estado Nutricional
Alta do Paciente
Desnutrição Aguda Grave/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antropometria
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Gâmbia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
Valor Preditivo dos Testes
População Rural
Desnutrição Aguda Grave/reabilitação
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170926
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170926
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/inthealth/ihx022


  7 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28809926
[Au] Autor:Unger SA; Drammeh S; Hasan J; Ceesay K; Sinjanka E; Beyai S; Sonko B; Dondeh BL; Fulford AJ; Moore SE; Prentice AM
[Ad] Endereço:MRC Unit The Gambia, Banjul, The Gambia.
[Ti] Título:Impact of fortified versus unfortified lipid-based supplements on morbidity and nutritional status: A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in ill Gambian children.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(8):e1002377, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Multiple micronutrients (MMN) are commonly prescribed in pediatric primary healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa to improve nutritional status and appetite without evidence for their effectiveness or international clinical guidelines. Community-wide MMN supplementation has shown limited and heterogeneous impact on growth and morbidity. Short-term ready-to-use therapeutic foods in acutely sick children in a hospital setting also had limited efficacy regarding subsequent growth. The effectiveness of MMN in improving morbidity or growth in sick children presenting for primary care has not been assessed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a double-blind randomised controlled trial of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) fortified with 23 micronutrients in children aged 6 months (mo) to 5 years (y) presenting with an illness at a rural primary healthcare centre in The Gambia. Primary outcomes were repeat clinic presentations and growth over 24 wk. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 interventions: (1) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-12), (2) supplementation with micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk followed by unfortified SQ-LNS for 6 wk (MMN-6), or (3) supplementation with unfortified SQ-LNS for 12 wk (MMN-0) to be consumed in daily portions. Treatment masking used 16 letters per 6-wk block in the randomisation process. Blinded intention-to-treat analysis based on a prespecified statistical analysis plan included all participants eligible and correctly enrolled. Between December 2009 and June 2011, 1,101 children (age 6-60 mo, mean 25.5 mo) were enrolled, and 1,085 were assessed (MMN-0 = 361, MMN-6 = 362, MMN-12 = 362). MMN supplementation was associated with a small increase in height-for-age z-scores 24 wk after recruitment (effect size for MMN groups combined: 0.084 SD/24 wk, 95% CI: 0.005, 0.168; p = 0.037; equivalent to 2-5 mm depending on age). No significant difference in frequency of morbidity measured by the number of visits to the clinic within 24 wk follow-up was detected with 0.09 presentations per wk for all groups (MMN-0 versus MMN-6: adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.03, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.16; MMN-0 versus MMN-12: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). In post hoc analysis, clinic visits significantly increased by 43% over the first 3 wk of fortified versus unfortified SQ-LNS (adjusted IRR 1.43; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.92; p = 0.016), with respiratory presentations increasing by 52% with fortified SQ-LNS (adjusted IRR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.30; p = 0.046). The number of severe adverse events during supplementation were similar between groups (MMN-0 = 20 [1 death]; MMN-6 = 21 [1 death]; MMN-12 = 20 [0 death]). No participant withdrew due to adverse effects. Study limitations included the lack of supervision of daily supplementation. CONCLUSION: Prescribing micronutrient-fortified SQ-LNS to ill children presenting for primary care in rural Gambia had a very small effect on linear growth and did not reduce morbidity compared to unfortified SQ-LNS. An early increase in repeat visits indicates a need for the establishment of evidence-based guidelines and caution with systematic prescribing of MMN. Future research should be directed at understanding the mechanisms behind the lack of effect of MMN supplementation on morbidity measures and limited effect on growth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 73571031.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Suplementos Nutricionais/análise
Lipídeos/farmacologia
Micronutrientes/farmacologia
Morbidade
Estado Nutricional/efeitos dos fármacos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Pré-Escolar
Método Duplo-Cego
Feminino
Gâmbia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Masculino
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Lipids); 0 (Micronutrients)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170828
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170828
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170816
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002377


  8 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28797128
[Au] Autor:Sanneh B; Joof E; Sanyang AM; Renneker K; Camara Y; Sey AP; Jagne S; Baldeh I; Ceesay SJ; Sambou SM; Ogoussan K
[Ad] Endereço:National Public Health Laboratories, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banjul, The Gambia.
[Ti] Título:Field evaluation of a schistosome circulating cathodic antigen rapid test kit at point-of-care for mapping of schistosomiasis endemic districts in The Gambia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(8):e0182003, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Studies in Sub Saharan Africa have shown that the Circulating Cathodic Antigen point-of-care-test (POC-CCA) is more accurate in the detections of S. mansoni than the microscopic Kato-Katz technique but less is known about the accuracy of this rapid test in detecting S. haematobium infections. This study was intended to evaluate the field accuracy of POC-CCA as a rapid test kit for schistosomiasis mapping in The Gambia. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in 4 regions in the country. Ten schools were randomly selected from each region, and a total of 2018 participants whose ages range from 7 to 14 years were enrolled in the study. Stool and urine samples were collected from each participant from May to June 2015, and tested for S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections in field and laboratory settings. The tests conducted included POC-CCA, double Kato-Katz slides, urine filtration and dipstick for hematuria. RESULTS: Of the 1954 participants that had complete data, the mean age of participants was 9.9 years. The prevalence of children infected with S. haematobium, using urine filtration technique was 10.1% (95% CI: 8.87-11.55). Central River Region had the highest level of urinary schistosomiasis with a prevalence of 28.0% (24.13-32.12).The lowest urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 0.6% (0.12-1.86) was found in Lower River Region and North Bank Region had no cases of schistosomiasis detected. Only 5 participants were infected with S. mansoni. Using urine filtration as reference standard for the detection of S. haematobium, the sensitivity and specificity of POC-CCA was 47.7% and 75.8%. Whilst sensitivity and specificity of POC-CCA for detecting S. mansoni were 60.0% and 71.2% using double Kato-Katz as reference standard. CONCLUSION: This study showed lower sensitivity of POC-CCA in detecting S. haematobium. Therefore POC-CCA is less useful for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Schistosoma mansoni/isolamento & purificação
Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Animais
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia
Criança
Feminino
Gâmbia/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia
Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antigens, Helminth); 0 (Reagent Kits, Diagnostic)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171009
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171009
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170811
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0182003


  9 / 2207 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28722570
[Au] Autor:Adetifa IMO; Kendall L; Donkor S; Lugos MD; Hammond AS; Owiafe PK; Ota MOC; Brookes RH; Hill PC
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título: Infection in Close Childhood Contacts of Adults with Pulmonary Tuberculosis is Increased by Secondhand Exposure to Tobacco.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;97(2):429-432, 2017 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Tobacco use is a major risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). Secondhand smoke (SHS) is also a risk factor for TB and to a lesser extent, infection without disease. We investigated the added risk of infection due to SHS exposure in childhood contacts of TB cases in The Gambia. Participants were childhood household contacts aged ≤ 14 years of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. The intensity of exposure to the case was categorized according to whether contacts slept in the same room, same house, or a different house as the case. Contacts were tested with an enzyme-linked immunospot interferon gamma release assay. In multivariate regression models, infection was associated with increasing exposure to a case (odds ratios [OR]: 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.11-71.4, < 0.001]) and with male gender (OR: 1.5 [95% CI: 1.12-2.11], = 0.008). Tobacco use caused a 3-fold increase in the odds of infection in children who slept closest to a case who smoked within the same home compared with a nonsmoking case (OR: 8.0 [95% CI: 2.74-23.29] versus 2.4 [95% CI: 1.17-4.92], < 0.001). SHS exposure as an effect modifier appears to greatly increase the risk of infection in children exposed to PTB cases. Smoking cessation campaigns may be important for reducing transmission of to children within households.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade
Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
Tabaco/efeitos adversos
Tuberculose/etiologia
Tuberculose/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Gâmbia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Relações Interpessoais
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Razão de Chances
Relações Pais-Filho
Fatores de Risco
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Tobacco Smoke Pollution)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170911
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170911
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170720
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0611


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[PMID]:28614401
[Au] Autor:Ndow G; Gore ML; Shimakawa Y; Suso P; Jatta A; Tamba S; Sow A; Touré-Kane C; Sadiq F; Sabally S; Njie R; Thursz MR; Lemoine M
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Surgery & Cancer, St. Mary's Hospital Campus, Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:Hepatitis B testing and treatment in HIV patients in The Gambia-Compliance with international guidelines and clinical outcomes.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179025, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Compliance with WHO guidelines on HBV screening and treatment in HIV-coinfected patients is often challenging in resource limited countries and has been poorly assessed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Between 2015 and 2016, we assessed physician's compliance with WHO guidelines on HIV-HBV coinfection in the largest HIV clinic in The Gambia, and the hepatic outcomes in HIV-HBV coinfected patients as compared to randomly selected HIV-monoinfected controls. RESULTS: 870 HIV-infected patients regularly seen in this clinic agreed to participate in our study. Only 187 (21.5%, 95% CI 18.8-24.3) had previously been screened for HBsAg, 23 (12.3%, 95% CI 8.0-17.9) were positive of whom none had liver assessment and only 6 (26.1%) had received Tenofovir. Our HBV testing intervention was accepted by all participants and found 94/870 (10.8%, 95% CI 8.8-13.1) positive, 78 of whom underwent full liver assessment along with 40 HBsAg-negative controls. At the time of liver assessment, 61/78 (78.2%) HIV-HBV coinfected patients received ART with 7 (11.5%) on Tenofovir and 54 (88.5%) on Lamivudine alone. HIV-HBV coinfected patients had higher APRI score compared to controls (0.58 vs 0.42, p = 0.002). HBV DNA was detectable in 52/53 (98.1%) coinfected patients with 14/53 (26.4%) having HBV DNA >20,000 IU/L. 10/12 (83.3%) had at least one detectable 3TC-associated HBV resistance, which tended to be associated with increase in liver fibrosis after adjusting for age and sex (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Compliance with HBV testing and treatment guidelines is poor in this Gambian HIV programme putting coinfected patients at risk of liver complications. However, the excellent uptake of HBV screening and linkage to care in our study suggests feasible improvements.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antivirais/uso terapêutico
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico
Hepatite B/diagnóstico
Lamivudina/uso terapêutico
Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade
Coinfecção/diagnóstico
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Gâmbia
Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico
Hepatite B/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos
Meia-Idade
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
Resultado do Tratamento
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antiviral Agents); 2T8Q726O95 (Lamivudine); 99YXE507IL (Tenofovir)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170915
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170915
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170615
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179025



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