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[PMID]:29236710
[Au] Autor:Kanguru L; McCaw-Binns A; Bell J; Yonger-Coleman N; Wilks R; Hussein J
[Ad] Endereço:USHER Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
[Ti] Título:The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: A population based study from Jamaica.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188677, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Obesity is rising globally and is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate overweight and obesity and its consequences among Jamaican women of reproductive age, particularly development of diabetes, hypertension and the risk of maternal death. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A national lifestyle survey (2007/8) of 1371 women of reproductive age provided data on the prevalence of high BMI, associated risk factors and co-morbidities. A national maternal mortality surveillance database (1998-2012) of 798 maternal deaths was used to investigate maternal deaths in obese women. Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used. RESULTS: High BMI (> = 25kg/m2) occurred in 63% of women aged between 15 and 49 years. It was associated with increasing age, high gravidity and parity, and full time employment (p<0.001). Of those with high BMI, 5.5% were diabetic, 19.3% hypertensive and 2.8% were both diabetic and hypertensive. Obesity was recorded in 10.5% of maternal deaths, with higher proportions of deaths due to hypertension in pregnancy (27.5%), circulatory/ cardiovascular disorders (13.0%), and diabetes (4.3%) compared to 21.9%, 6.9% and 2.6% respectively in non-obese women. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of a few studies from a middle-income setting to explore maternal burden of obesity during pregnancy, which contributes to improving the knowledge base, identifying the gaps in information and increasing awareness of the growing problem of maternal overweight and obesity. While survey diagnostic conditions require cautious interpretation of findings, it is clear that obesity and related medical conditions present a substantial public health problem for emerging LMICs like Jamaica. There is an urgent need for global consensus on routine measures of the burden and risk factors associated with obesity and development of culturally appropriate interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Renda
Obesidade/fisiopatologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Jamaica
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188677


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[PMID]:27775677
[Au] Autor:Rahbar MH; Samms-Vaughan M; Hessabi M; Dickerson AS; Lee M; Bressler J; Tomechko SE; Moreno EK; Loveland KA; Desai CC; Shakespeare-Pellington S; Reece JA; Morgan R; Geiger MJ; O'Keefe ME; Grove ML; Boerwinkle E
[Ad] Endereço:Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences (EHGES), University of Texas School of Public Health at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Mohammad.H.Rahbar@uth.tmc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica.
[So] Source:Int J Environ Res Public Health;13(10), 2016 10 21.
[Is] ISSN:1660-4601
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD). Mean (standard deviation (SD)) lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21), 7.16 (1.71), 7.30 (1.74) and 28.15 (6.03) ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD) for the 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE)-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78) and 61.60 (70.76) ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Monitoramento Ambiental
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue
Sangue Fetal/química
Praguicidas/sangue
Bifenilos Policlorados/sangue
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Recém-Nascido
Jamaica
Limite de Detecção
Masculino
Gravidez
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Environmental Pollutants); 0 (Pesticides); DFC2HB4I0K (Polychlorinated Biphenyls); ZRU0C9E32O (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171218
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171218
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28903065
[Au] Autor:Dubey B; Jackson MD; Zeigler-Johnson C; Devarajan K; Flores-Obando RE; McFarlane-Anderson N; Tulloch-Reid MK; Aiken W; Kimbro K; Jones DZ; Kidd LR; Ragin C
[Ad] Endereço:Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Inflammation polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in Jamaican men: Role of obesity/body size.
[So] Source:Gene;636:96-102, 2017 Dec 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0038
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:African ancestry and obesity are associated with higher risk of prostate cancer (PC). In a pilot study, we explored interactions between obesity (as measured by waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and inflammatory SNPs in relation to PC risk among Jamaican men. This study evaluated 87 chemokine and cytokine associated SNPs in obese and normal weight cases (N=109) and controls (N=102) using a stepwise penalized logistic regression approach in multivariable analyses. Upon stratification by WHR (normal weight (WHR<0.90) or obese (WHR≥0.90)), inheritance of CCR6 rs2023305 AG+GG (OR=1.75, p=0.007), CCR9 rs7613548 AG+GG (OR=1.71, p=0.012) and IL10ra rs2229113 AG+GG (OR=1.45, p=0.01) genotypes was associated with increase in overall or low grade (Gleason score<7) PC risk among normal weight men. These odds were elevated among obese men who possessed the CCR5 rs1799987 AG+GG (OR=1.95, p=0.003) and RNASEL rs12135247 CT+TT genotypes (OR=1.59, p=0.05). CCR7 rs3136685 AG+GG (p=0.032) was associated with a 1.52-1.70 fold increase in the risk of high grade cancer (Gleason score≥7) among obese men. CCR7 variant emerged as an important factor associated with high grade PC risk among obese men in our analyses. Overall, genetic loci found significant in normal weight men were not significant in obese men and vice-versa, partially explaining the role of obesity on PC risk among black men. Also, older age was an important risk factor both in normal weight and obese men but only with regard to low grade PC. Associations of inflammatory SNPs with obesity are suggestive and require further validation in larger cohorts to help develop an understanding of PC risk among obese and non-obese men of African descent.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Tamanho Corporal
Obesidade/complicações
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Quimiocinas/genética
Citocinas/genética
Interação Gene-Ambiente
Seres Humanos
Mediadores da Inflamação
Jamaica
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Projetos Piloto
Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia
Fatores de Risco
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Chemokines); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (Inflammation Mediators)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171019
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171019
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170914
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:28650966
[Au] Autor:Francis S; Saavedra-Rodriguez K; Perera R; Paine M; Black WC; Delgoda R
[Ad] Endereço:Natural Products Institute, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
[Ti] Título:Insecticide resistance to permethrin and malathion and associated mechanisms in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew Jamaica.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0179673, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The emergence of novel diseases spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito in Jamaica and the Caribbean, has prompted studies on insecticide resistance towards effective management of the vector. Though Jamaica has been using the organophosphate insecticide malathion in its vector control program for more than 30 years, resistance to the pesticide has not been tested in over a decade. We analyzed resistance to malathion and the pyrethroid insecticide, permethrin on mosquitoes collected across St. Andrew, Jamaica, and analyzed the molecular basis of resistance. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) bioassay revealed that Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from St. Andrew, Jamaica were resistant to permethrin (15 µg/bottle) with mortalities at 0-8% at 30 minute exposure time, while contact with malathion (50 µg/bottle) revealed ≤ 50% mortality at 15 minutes, which increased to 100% at 45 minutes. The standard susceptible New Orleans (NO) strain exhibited 100% mortality within15 minutes. The activities of multifunction oxidases and p-nitro phenyl-acetate esterases were significantly greater in most Jamaican populations in comparison to the NO strain, while activities of glutathione-S-transferase, acetylcholinesterase, α-esterase and ß-esterase activity were relatively equal, or lower than that of the control strain. The frequency of knockdown resistance mutations in the voltage dependent sodium channel gene were measured. All collections were fixed for Cys1,534 while 56% of mosquitoes were Ile1,016/Val1,016 heterozygotes, and 33% were Ile1,016 homozygotes. Aedes aegypti from St. Andrew Jamaica are resistant to permethrin with variations in the mode of mechanism, and possibly developing resistance to malathion. Continued monitoring of resistance is critically important to manage the spread of the vector in the country.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética
Inseticidas/farmacologia
Malation/farmacologia
Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
Permetrina/farmacologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Jamaica
Mutação
Canais de Sódio Disparados por Voltagem/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Insecticides); 0 (Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels); 509F88P9SZ (Permethrin); U5N7SU872W (Malathion)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170920
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170920
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170627
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0179673


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[PMID]:28499375
[Au] Autor:Dugas LR; Forrester TE; Plange-Rhule J; Bovet P; Lambert EV; Durazo-Arvizu RA; Cao G; Cooper RS; Khatib R; Tonino L; Riesen W; Korte W; Kliethermes S; Luke A
[Ad] Endereço:Public Health Sciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USA. ldugas@luc.edu.
[Ti] Título:Cardiovascular risk status of Afro-origin populations across the spectrum of economic development: findings from the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study.
[So] Source:BMC Public Health;17(1):438, 2017 May 12.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2458
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors are increasing in most developing countries. To date, however, very little standardized data has been collected on the primary risk factors across the spectrum of economic development. Data are particularly sparse from Africa. METHODS: In the Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) we examined population-based samples of men and women, ages 25-45 of African ancestry in metropolitan Chicago, Kingston, Jamaica, rural Ghana, Cape Town, South Africa, and the Seychelles. Key measures of cardiovascular disease risk are described. RESULTS: The risk factor profile varied widely in both total summary estimates of cardiovascular risk and in the magnitude of component factors. Hypertension ranged from 7% in women from Ghana to 35% in US men. Total cholesterol was well under 200 mg/dl for all groups, with a mean of 155 mg/dl among men in Ghana, South Africa and Jamaica. Among women total cholesterol values varied relatively little by country, following between 160 and 178 mg/dl for all 5 groups. Levels of HDL-C were virtually identical in men and women from all study sites. Obesity ranged from 64% among women in the US to 2% among Ghanaian men, with a roughly corresponding trend in diabetes. Based on the Framingham risk score a clear trend toward higher total risk in association with socioeconomic development was observed among men, while among women there was considerable overlap, with the US participants having only a modestly higher risk score. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a comprehensive estimate of cardiovascular risk across a range of countries at differing stages of social and economic development and demonstrate the heterogeneity in the character and degree of emerging cardiovascular risk. Severe hypercholesterolemia, as characteristic in the US and much of Western Europe at the onset of the coronary epidemic, is unlikely to be a feature of the cardiovascular risk profile in these countries in the foreseeable future, suggesting that stroke may remain the dominant cardiovascular event.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia
Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Chicago/epidemiologia
Estudos Epidemiológicos
Europa (Continente)
Feminino
Gana/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Jamaica/epidemiologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Prevalência
Fatores de Risco
Seicheles/epidemiologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
África do Sul/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170514
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12889-017-4318-4


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[PMID]:28406598
[Au] Autor:Logie CH; Wang Y; Lacombe-Duncan A; Jones N; Ahmed U; Levermore K; Neil A; Ellis T; Bryan N; Marshall A; Newman PA
[Ad] Endereço:Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica: a cross-sectional study.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(1):21422, 2017 04 06.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Transgender women are disproportionately impacted by HIV. Transgender women involved in sex work may experience exacerbated violence, social exclusion, and HIV vulnerabilities, in comparison with non-sex work-involved transgender women. Scant research has investigated sex work among transgender women in the Caribbean, including Jamaica, where transgender women report pervasive violence. The study objective was to examine factors associated with sex work involvement among transgender women in Jamaica. METHODS: In 2015, we implemented a cross-sectional survey using modified peer-driven recruitment with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica, in collaboration with a local community-based AIDS service organization. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify factors associated with paid sex and transactional sex. Exchanging oral, anal or vaginal sex for money only was categorized as paid sex. Exchanging sex for survival needs (food, accommodation, transportation), drugs or alcohol, or for money along with survival needs and/or drugs/alcohol, was categorized as transactional sex. RESULTS: Among 137 transgender women (mean age: 24.0 [SD: 4.5]), two-thirds reported living in the Kingston area. Overall, 25.2% reported being HIV-positive. Approximately half (n = 71; 51.82%) reported any sex work involvement, this included sex in exchange for: money (n = 64; 47.06%); survival needs (n = 27; 19.85%); and drugs/alcohol (n = 6; 4.41%). In multivariable analyses, paid sex and transactional sex were both associated with: intrapersonal (depression), interpersonal (lower social support, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, multiple partners/polyamory), and structural (transgender stigma, unemployment) factors. Participants reporting transactional sex also reported increased odds of incarceration perceived to be due to transgender identity, forced sex, homelessness, and lower resilience, in comparison with participants reporting no sex work involvement. CONCLUSION: Findings reveal high HIV infection rates among transgender women in Jamaica. Sex work-involved participants experience social and structural drivers of HIV, including violence, stigma, and unemployment. Transgender women involved in transactional sex also experience high rates of incarceration, forced sex and homelessness in comparison with non-sex workers. Taken together, these findings suggest that social ecological factors elevate HIV exposure among sex work-involved transgender women in Jamaica. Findings can inform interventions to advance human rights and HIV prevention and care cascades with transgender women in Jamaica.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Profissionais do Sexo/psicologia
Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
Violência
Mulheres/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Jamaica
Delitos Sexuais
Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos
Comportamento Sexual
Estigma Social
Maus-Tratos Conjugais
Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170928
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170928
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7448/IAS.20.01/21422


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[PMID]:28406274
[Au] Autor:Logie CH; Lacombe-Duncan A; Brien N; Jones N; Lee-Foon N; Levermore K; Marshall A; Nyblade L; Newman PA
[Ad] Endereço:Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
[Ti] Título:Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young men who have sex with men and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica: a qualitative study.
[So] Source:J Int AIDS Soc;20(1):21385, 2017 04 04.
[Is] ISSN:1758-2652
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica have the highest HIV prevalence in the Caribbean. There is little information about HIV among transgender women in Jamaica, who are also overrepresented in the Caribbean epidemic. HIV-related stigma is a barrier to HIV testing among Jamaica's general population, yet little is known of MSM and transgender women's HIV testing experiences in Jamaica. We explored perceived barriers and facilitators to HIV testing among young MSM and transgender women in Kingston, Jamaica. METHODS: We implemented a community-based research project in collaboration with HIV and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) agencies in Kingston. We held two focus groups, one with young (aged 18-30 years) transgender women (n = 8) and one with young MSM (n = 10). We conducted 53 in-depth individual semi-structured interviews focused on HIV testing experiences with young MSM (n = 20), transgender women (n = 20), and community-based key informants (n = 13). We conducted thematic analysis to identify, analyze, and report themes. RESULTS: Participant narratives revealed social-ecological barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included healthcare provider mistreatment, confidentiality breaches, and HIV-related stigma: these spanned interpersonal, community and structural levels. Healthcare provider discrimination and judgment in HIV testing provision presented barriers to accessing HIV services (e.g. treatment), and resulted in participants hiding their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. Confidentiality concerns included: clinic physical arrangements that segregated HIV testing from other health services, fear that healthcare providers would publicly disclose their status, and concerns at LGBT-friendly clinics that peers would discover they were getting tested. HIV-related stigma contributed to fear of testing HIV-positive; this intersected with the stigma of HIV as a "gay" disease. Participants also anticipated healthcare provider mistreatment if they tested HIV positive. Participants identified individual (belief in benefits of knowing one's HIV status), social (social support) and structural (accessible testing) factors that can increase HIV testing uptake. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest the need for policy and practice changes to enhance confidentiality and reduce discrimination in Jamaica. Interventions to challenge HIV-related and LGBT stigma in community and healthcare settings can enhance access to the HIV prevention cascade among MSM and transgender youth in Jamaica.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico
Infecções por HIV/psicologia
Homossexualidade Masculina
Comportamento Sexual
Pessoas Transgênero
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto
Feminino
Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos
Seres Humanos
Jamaica
Masculino
Programas de Rastreamento
Pesquisa Qualitativa
Estigma Social
Apoio Social
Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171013
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171013
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM; X
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170414
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.7448/IAS.20.1.21385


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[PMID]:28291805
[Au] Autor:Thompson DS; Younger-Coleman N; Lyew-Ayee P; Greene LG; Boyne MS; Forrester TE
[Ad] Endereço:Tropical Medicine Research Institute, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica.
[Ti] Título:Socioeconomic factors associated with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaica.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(3):e0173101, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. METHODS: We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Cases of SAM were grouped by community and the number of cases per community/year correlated to socioeconomic variables and geochemistry data for the relevant year. RESULTS: 375 cases of SAM were mapped across 204 urban and rural communities in Jamaica. The mean age at admission was 9 months (range 1-45 months) and 57% were male. SAM had a positive correlation with major crime (r = 0.53; P < 0.001), but not with educational attainment or the poverty index. For every one unit increase in the number of crimes reported, the rate of occurrence of SAM cases increased by 1.01% [Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.01 (95% CI = 1.006-1.014); P P<0.001]. The geochemistry data yielded no correlation between levels of heavy metals and the prevalence of malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Major crime has an independent positive association with severe acute malnutrition in Jamaican infants. This could suggest that SAM and major crime might have similar sociological origins or that criminality at the community level may be indicative of reduced income opportunities with the attendant increase in poor nutrition in the home.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Desnutrição/etiologia
Fatores Socioeconômicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Doença Aguda
Pré-Escolar
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Jamaica
Metais Pesados/análise
Pobreza
Fatores de Risco
Poluentes do Solo/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Metals, Heavy); 0 (Soil Pollutants)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170907
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170907
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170315
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0173101


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[PMID]:28222733
[Au] Autor:Bidulescu A; Ferguson TS; Hambleton I; Younger-Coleman N; Francis D; Bennett N; Griswold M; Fox E; MacLeish M; Wilks R; Harris EN; Sullivan LW
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Public Health - Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA. abidules@indiana.edu.
[Ti] Título:Educational health disparities in hypertension and diabetes mellitus among African descent populations in the Caribbean and the USA: a comparative analysis from the Spanish town cohort (Jamaica) and the Jackson heart study (USA).
[So] Source:Int J Equity Health;16(1):33, 2017 Feb 14.
[Is] ISSN:1475-9276
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that social inequalities in chronic disease outcomes differ between industrialized and developing countries, but few have directly compared these effects. We explored inequalities in hypertension and diabetes prevalence between African-descent populations with different levels of educational attainment in Jamaica and in the United States of America (USA), comparing disparities within each location, and between countries. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) in the USA and Spanish Town Cohort (STC) in Jamaica. Participants reported their highest level of educational attainment, which was categorized as 'less than high school' (HS). Educational disparities in the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were examined using prevalence ratios (PR), controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). RESULTS: Analyses included 7248 participants, 2382 from STC and 4866 from JHS, with mean age of 47 and 54 years, respectively (p < 0.001). Prevalence for both hypertension and diabetes was significantly higher in the JHS compared to STC, 62% vs. 25% (p < 0.001) and 18% vs. 13% (p < 0.001), respectively. In bivariate analyses there were significant disparities by education level for both hypertension and diabetes in both studies; however, after accounting for confounding or interaction by age, sex and BMI these effects were attenuated. For hypertension, after adjusting for age and BMI, a significant education disparity was found only for women in JHS, with PR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.04-1.16) for < HS vs > HS and 1.07 (95% CI 1.01-1.13) for HS vs > HS. For diabetes; when considering age-group and sex specific estimates adjusted for BMI, among men: significant associations were seen only in the 45-59 years age-group in JHS with PR 1.84 (95% CI 1.16-2.91) for < HS vs > HS. Among women, significant PR comparing < HS to > HS was seen for all three age-groups for JHS, but not in STC; PR were 3.95 (95% CI 1.94-8.05), 1.53 (95% CI 1.10-2.11) and 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.64) for 25-44, 45-59 and 60-74 age-groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: In Jamaica, educational disparities were largely explained by age, sex and BMI, while in the USA these disparities were larger and persisted after accounting these variables.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano
Países Desenvolvidos
Países em Desenvolvimento
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia
Escolaridade
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde
Hipertensão/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Região do Caribe/epidemiologia
Estudos de Coortes
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Jamaica/epidemiologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12939-017-0527-9


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[PMID]:28167590
[Au] Autor:Evans-Gilbert T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Paediatrics, Cornwall Regional Hospital, Montego Bay, Jamaica.
[Ti] Título:Chikungunya and Neonatal Immunity: Fatal Vertically Transmitted Chikungunya Infection.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;96(4):913-915, 2017 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:AbstractChikungunya is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that has emerged as a global pathogen. The virus can pass vertically from mother to child especially during the perinatal period, with an intrapartum vertical transmission rate of 50%. Approximately half of the neonates infected with chikungunya present with severe symptoms and infrequently death. This report summarizes two severe cases of vertically transmitted neonatal chikungunya infection. One case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the other fulfilled clinical and epidemiological criteria. Both infants presented on day 3 with abdominal distension, reduced perfusion pressure, and hypotension; acrocyanosis progressing to ischemic digits; and respiratory distress. Both died within 24-48 hours of presentation. The severity of symptoms observed is likely due to a combination of contamination of the fetal blood from highly viremic mothers during delivery and a low innate antiviral type-1 interferon response. Further examination of the neonate's innate immune response to chikungunya may provide clues for the development of potential treatment or vaccine interventions.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Febre de Chikungunya/patologia
Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia
Evolução Fatal
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Recém-Nascido
Jamaica/epidemiologia
Masculino
Gravidez
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/patologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170731
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170731
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170208
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0491



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