Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : Z01.107.757.362 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28748628
[Au] Autor:Carranza J; Yoong WA; Mateos C; Caño Vergara B; Gómez CL; Macías V
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Agraria del Ecuador, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
[Ti] Título:Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.
[So] Source:Anim Sci J;88(12):2063-2070, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1740-0929
[Cp] País de publicação:Australia
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ração Animal/provisão & distribuição
Inundações
Cavalos/fisiologia
Cavalos/psicologia
Fotoperíodo
Reprodução/fisiologia
Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Criação de Animais Domésticos
Animais
Cruzamento
Equador
Feminino
Poaceae
Estações do Ano
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180227
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180227
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170728
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/asj.12818


  2 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28742457
[Au] Autor:Buddenhagen CE; Hernandez Nopsa JF; Andersen KF; Andrade-Piedra J; Forbes GA; Kromann P; Thomas-Sharma S; Useche P; Garrett KA
[Ad] Endereço:First, second, third, and ninth authors: Plant Pathology Department, Institute for Sustainable Food Systems, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611; fourth and fifth authors: International Potato Center, Lima, Peru; sixth author: International Potato Center, Quito
[Ti] Título:Epidemic Network Analysis for Mitigation of Invasive Pathogens in Seed Systems: Potato in Ecuador.
[So] Source:Phytopathology;107(10):1209-1218, 2017 10.
[Is] ISSN:0031-949X
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Seed systems have an important role in the distribution of high-quality seed and improved varieties. The structure of seed networks also helps to determine the epidemiological risk for seedborne disease. We present a new approach for evaluating the epidemiological role of nodes in seed networks, and apply it to a regional potato farmer consortium (Consorcio de Productores de Papa [CONPAPA]) in Ecuador. We surveyed farmers to estimate the structure of networks of farmer seed tuber and ware potato transactions, and farmer information sources about pest and disease management. Then, we simulated pathogen spread through seed transaction networks to identify priority nodes for disease detection. The likelihood of pathogen establishment was weighted based on the quality or quantity of information sources about disease management. CONPAPA staff and facilities, a market, and certain farms are priorities for disease management interventions such as training, monitoring, and variety dissemination. Advice from agrochemical store staff was common but assessed as significantly less reliable. Farmer access to information (reported number and quality of sources) was similar for both genders. However, women had a smaller amount of the market share for seed tubers and ware potato. Understanding seed system networks provides input for scenario analyses to evaluate potential system improvements. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epidemias
Espécies Introduzidas
Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Sementes/microbiologia
Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Simulação por Computador
Produtos Agrícolas
Equador
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Modelos Teóricos
Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos
Tubérculos/microbiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180215
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180215
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170726
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-03-17-0108-FI


  3 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29298311
[Au] Autor:Espinosa S; Celis G; Branch LC
[Ad] Endereço:Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, México.
[Ti] Título:When roads appear jaguars decline: Increased access to an Amazonian wilderness area reduces potential for jaguar conservation.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189740, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development. Our study was conducted in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, the protected area with highest potential for jaguar conservation in Ecuador, and an area both threatened by road development and inhabited by indigenous groups dependent upon bushmeat. We surveyed prey and jaguar abundance with camera traps in four sites that differed in accessibility to hunters and used site occupancy and spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses to evaluate prey occurrence and estimate jaguar density, respectively. Higher landscape accessibility to hunters was linked with lower occurrence and biomass of game, particularly white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) and collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), the primary game for hunters and prey for jaguars. Jaguar density was up to 18 times higher in the most remote site compared to the most accessible site. Our results provide a strong case for the need to: 1) consider conservation of large carnivores and other wildlife in policies about road construction in protected areas, 2) coordinate conservation initiatives with local governments so that development activities do not conflict with conservation objectives, and 3) promote development of community-based strategies for wildlife management that account for the needs of large carnivores.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Panthera
Transportes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Biodiversidade
Equador
Dinâmica Populacional
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180209
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180209
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189740


  4 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29293567
[Au] Autor:Romero PP; López R; Jiménez C
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Economics, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Pichincha, Ecuador.
[Ti] Título:Sectoral networks and macroeconomic tail risks in an emerging economy.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0190076, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper aims to explain the macroeconomic volatility due to microeconomic shocks to one or several sectors, recognizing the non-symmetrical relation in the interaction among the Ecuadorian economic sectors. To grasp the economic structure of this emerging economy, a statistical analysis of network data is applied to the respective input-output matrix of Ecuador from 1975 until 2012. We find periods wherein the production of domestic inputs is concentrated in a few suppliers; for example, in 2010, the concentration significantly affects sectors and their downstream providers, thus influencing aggregate volatility. Compared to the US productive structure, this emerging economy presents fewer sectors and degree distributions with less extreme fat-tail behavior. In this simpler economy, we continue to find a link between microeconomic shocks and aggregate volatility. Two new theoretical propositions are introduced to formalize our results.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Econômicos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Equador
Estados Unidos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180103
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190076


  5 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29178639
[Au] Autor:Ortiz SC; Aguirre SJ; Flores S; Maldonado C; Mejía J; Salinas L
[Ad] Endereço:Área de Biología Molecular, NETLAB Laboratorios Especializados, Quito, Ecuador.
[Ti] Título:Spectrum of CFTR gene mutations in Ecuadorian cystic fibrosis patients: the second report of the p.H609R mutation.
[So] Source:Mol Genet Genomic Med;5(6):751-757, 2017 11.
[Is] ISSN:2324-9269
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: High heterogeneity in the CFTR gene mutations disturbs the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). In order to improve the diagnosis of CF in our country, the present study aims to define a panel of common CFTR gene mutations by sequencing 27 exons of the gene in Ecuadorian Cystic Fibrosis patients. METHODS: Forty-eight Ecuadorian individuals with suspected/confirmed CF diagnosis were included. Twenty-seven exons of CFTR gene were sequenced to find sequence variations. Prevalence of pathogenic variations were determined and compared with other countries' data. RESULTS: We found 70 sequence variations. Eight of these are CF-causing mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K. Also this study is the second report of p.H609R in Ecuadorian population. Mutation prevalence differences between Ecuadorian population and other Latin America countries were found. CONCLUSION: The panel of mutations suggested as an initial screening for the Ecuadorian population with cystic fibrosis should contain the mutations: p.F508del, p.G85E, p.G330E, p.A455E, p.G970S, W1098X, R1162X, and N1303K.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética
Fibrose Cística/genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Sequência de Bases
Criança
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico
Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia
Análise Mutacional de DNA
Equador/epidemiologia
Éxons
Frequência do Gene
Genótipo
Homozigoto
Seres Humanos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
Prevalência
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
126880-72-6 (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171128
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/mgg3.337


  6 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29329295
[Au] Autor:Burgess KB; Guerrero M; Marshall AD; Richardson AJ; Bennett MB; Couturier LIE
[Ad] Endereço:School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.
[Ti] Título:Novel signature fatty acid profile of the giant manta ray suggests reliance on an uncharacterised mesopelagic food source low in polyunsaturated fatty acids.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0186464, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Traditionally, large planktivorous elasmobranchs have been thought to predominantly feed on surface zooplankton during daytime hours. However, the recent application of molecular methods to examine long-term assimilated diets, has revealed that these species likely gain the majority from deeper or demersal sources. Signature fatty acid analysis (FA) of muscle tissue was used to examine the assimilated diet of the giant manta ray Mobula birostris, and then compared with surface zooplankton that was collected during feeding and non-feeding events at two aggregation sites off mainland Ecuador. The FA profiles of M. birostris and surface zooplankton were markedly different apart from similar proportions of arachidonic acid, which suggests daytime surface zooplankton may comprise a small amount of dietary intake for M. birostris. The FA profile of M. birostris muscle was found to be depleted in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and instead comprised high proportions of 18:1ω9 isomers. While 18:1ω9 isomers are not explicitly considered dietary FAs, they are commonly found in high proportions in deep-sea organisms, including elasmobranch species. Overall, the FA profile of M. birostris suggests a diet that is mesopelagic in origin, but many mesopelagic zooplankton species also vertically migrate, staying deep during the day and moving to shallower waters at night. Here, signature FA analysis is unable to resolve the depth at which these putative dietary items were consumed and how availability of this prey may drive distribution and movements of this large filter-feeder.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Raias/metabolismo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Equador
Músculos/metabolismo
Raias/fisiologia
Zooplâncton/metabolismo
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Fatty Acids, Unsaturated)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180113
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186464


  7 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29267357
[Au] Autor:Manchego CE; Hildebrandt P; Cueva J; Espinosa CI; Stimm B; Günter S
[Ad] Endereço:Research Department Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
[Ti] Título:Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0190092, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mudança Climática
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
Árvores/classificação
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Equador
Especificidade da Espécie
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171222
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0190092


  8 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29261688
[Au] Autor:Tanaka Y; Abella J; Aguirre-Fernández G; Gregori M; Fordyce RE
[Ad] Endereço:Osaka Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan.
[Ti] Título:A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188380, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Golfinhos/classificação
Fósseis
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Golfinhos/anatomia & histologia
Equador
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188380


  9 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29236733
[Au] Autor:Armas R; Aguirre H; Daolio F; Tanaka K
[Ad] Endereço:Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University. 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Evolutionary design optimization of traffic signals applied to Quito city.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188757, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This work applies evolutionary computation and machine learning methods to study the transportation system of Quito from a design optimization perspective. It couples an evolutionary algorithm with a microscopic transport simulator and uses the outcome of the optimization process to deepen our understanding of the problem and gain knowledge about the system. The work focuses on the optimization of a large number of traffic lights deployed on a wide area of the city and studies their impact on travel time, emissions and fuel consumption. An evolutionary algorithm with specialized mutation operators is proposed to search effectively in large decision spaces, evolving small populations for a short number of generations. The effects of the operators combined with a varying mutation schedule are studied, and an analysis of the parameters of the algorithm is also included. In addition, hierarchical clustering is performed on the best solutions found in several runs of the algorithm. An analysis of signal clusters and their geolocation, estimation of fuel consumption, spatial analysis of emissions, and an analysis of signal coordination provide an overall picture of the systemic effects of the optimization process.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Condução de Veículo
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Algoritmos
Equador
Aprendizado de Máquina
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171214
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188757


  10 / 2864 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29258490
[Au] Autor:Bailon-Moscoso N; Tinitana F; Martínez-Espinosa R; Jaramillo-Velez A; Palacio-Arpi A; Aguilar-Hernandez J; Romero-Benavides JC
[Ad] Endereço:Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador. ncbailon@utpl.edu.ec.
[Ti] Título:Cytotoxic, antioxidative, genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of Horchata, beverage of South Ecuador.
[So] Source:BMC Complement Altern Med;17(1):539, 2017 Dec 19.
[Is] ISSN:1472-6882
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: "Horchata" is an herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador; 66% of its plants are anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, and 51% are analgesics. Anti-inflammatory substances can prevent carcinogenesis mediated by cytotoxic effects and can prevent DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic/antigenotoxic effects of horchata as well as its mechanism. METHODS: Nine different varieties of horchata were prepared in the traditional way and then freeze-dried. Phytochemical screening tested for the presence of secondary metabolites using standard procedures and antioxidant activities. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated on cerebral astrocytoma (D-384), prostate cancer (PC-3), breast cancer (MCF-7), colon cancer (RKO), lung cancer (A-549), immortalized Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1), and human peripheral blood lymphocytes via a MTS assay. The pro-apoptotic effects were evaluated with Anexin V/Propidium Iodide and western blot of Bax, Bcl-2, TP53, and TP73. Induction and reduction of ROS were assessed by fluorimetry. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects were evaluated with a comet assay and micronuclei on binucleated cells. RESULTS: Five of nine horchatas had cytotoxic effects against D-384 while not affecting normal cells. These horchatas induce cell death by apoptosis modulated by p53/p73. In CHO-K1 cells, the horchatas decrease the damage induced by hydrogen peroxide and Mitomycin C measured in the comet and micronucleus assay respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The IC range of effective horchatas in D-384 was 41 to 122 µg·mL . This effect may be related to its use in traditional medicine (brain tonic). On the other hand, immortalized Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) and lymphocytes did not show a cytotoxic effect. The most potent horchata induced apoptosis via a p53/p73-mediated mechanism. The horchatas present antigenotoxic properties, which may be related to the antioxidant capacity. Future studies on horchata components are necessary to understand the interactions and beneficial properties.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Bebidas
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos
Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
Plantas Medicinais
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Células CHO
Linhagem Celular
Ensaio Cometa
Cricetinae
Cricetulus
Equador
Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
Medicina Tradicional
Testes para Micronúcleos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Preparations)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180108
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180108
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12906-017-2048-x



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