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[PMID]:27771960
[Au] Autor:Tenkorang EY
[Ad] Endereço:a Department of Sociology , Memorial University of Newfoundland , St. John's , Canada.
[Ti] Título:Early onset of type 2 diabetes among visible minority and immigrant populations in Canada.
[So] Source:Ethn Health;22(3):266-284, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1465-3419
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects nearly over three million Canadians, including immigrants. The timing of the first onset of diabetes has been linked to several other severe diseases. Yet, there is a dearth of empirical studies that examine the timing of the first onset of diabetes among Canadians, in general, and among immigrants and ethnic minority populations within Canada, in particular. DESIGN: Applying event history techniques to the 2013 Canadian Community and Health Survey, we address this research void by examining factors that contribute to the first onset of diabetes among immigrant and visible minority populations in Canada (N = 8905). Given the gendered patterns in the epidemiology of diseases and the differences in risk factors for men and women, gender-specific models were estimated. RESULTS: Results showed that South Asian, Black and Filipino women developed diabetes earlier, compared to women from the UK. Similarly, South Asian, Chinese, Filipino, Black, South East Asian and Arab men developed diabetes earlier than men from the UK. A significant and important finding of this analysis was that the risks of developing diabetes vanished completely for Black and Filipino women, after accounting for lifestyle factors. For South Asian women, however, there was significant attenuation in their risks after accounting for lifestyle factors. The findings were strikingly different for immigrant men. Specifically, their risks of developing diabetes increased after accounting for lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the development of gender-specific and lifestyle interventions, targeted at specific immigrant groups with increased risks of developing diabetes earlier in the life course.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
Estilo de Vida
Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia
Idade de Início
Idoso
Árabes/estatística & dados numéricos
Ásia Sudeste/etnologia
Canadá
Criança
China/etnologia
Feminino
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
Seres Humanos
Estilo de Vida/etnologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Filipinas/etnologia
Fatores de Risco
Fatores Sexuais
Reino Unido/etnologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1803
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180301
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180301
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1080/13557858.2016.1244623


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[PMID]:29311457
[Au] Autor:Kenzaka T; Kataoka K; Fujimitsu T; Tani K
[Ad] Endereço:Environmental Science and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Ohtani University.
[Ti] Título:[Intestinal Microbiota in Migrating Barn Swallows around Osaka].
[So] Source:Yakugaku Zasshi;138(1):117-122, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1347-5231
[Cp] País de publicação:Japan
[La] Idioma:jpn
[Ab] Resumo:Migratory birds are considered as vectors of infectious diseases, owing to their potential for transmitting pathogens over large distances. The populations of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) migrate from Southeast Asia to the Japanese mainland during spring and migrate back to Southeast Asia during autumn. This migratory population is estimated to comprise approximately hundreds to thousands of individuals per year. However, to date, not much is known about the gastrointestinal microbiota of the barn swallow. In this study, we characterized the fecal bacterial community in barn swallow. Using 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing analysis, we examined the presence and composition of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the fecal samples, which were collected during spring season from Osaka. The number (±S.D.) of total bacteria was approximately 2.1(±3.4)×10 per gram of feces. In most samples, the bacterial community composition was dominated by families, such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Mycoplasmataceae, Enterococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Alcaligenaceae. However, no relationship was found between the bacterial community composition and geographical area in the fecal samples. Potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected at the rate of >0.1%, which included Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia/Shigella spp., Enterobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Enterococcus spp., Achromobacter spp., and Serratia spp. Our results suggested that barn swallow is instrumental in the transmission of these genera over large distances.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Migração Animal/fisiologia
Vetores de Doenças
Intestinos/microbiologia
Microbiota
Andorinhas/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Alcaligenaceae/isolamento & purificação
Alcaligenaceae/patogenicidade
Animais
Ásia Sudeste
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação
Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade
Enterococcaceae/isolamento & purificação
Enterococcaceae/patogenicidade
Fezes/microbiologia
Japão
Mycoplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação
Mycoplasmataceae/patogenicidade
Pseudomonadaceae/isolamento & purificação
Pseudomonadaceae/patogenicidade
Streptococcaceae/isolamento & purificação
Streptococcaceae/patogenicidade
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180110
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1248/yakushi.17-00148


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[PMID]:28464945
[Au] Autor:Phok S; Phanalasy S; Thein ST; Likhitsup A; ACTwatch Group
[Ad] Endereço:Population Services Khmer, 29 334 St, Boeung Keng Kang, P. O. Box 258, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
[Ti] Título:Private sector opportunities and threats to achieving malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion: results from malaria outlet surveys in Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Thailand.
[So] Source:Malar J;16(1):180, 2017 05 02.
[Is] ISSN:1475-2875
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to review multi-country evidence of private sector adherence to national regulations, guidelines, and quality-assurance standards for malaria case management and to document current coverage of private sector engagement and support through ACTwatch outlet surveys implemented in 2015 and 2016. RESULTS: Over 76,168 outlets were screened, and approximately 6500 interviews were conducted (Cambodia, N = 1303; the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), N = 724; Myanmar, N = 4395; and Thailand, N = 74). There was diversity in the types of private sector outlets providing malaria treatment across countries, and the extent to which they were authorized to test and treat for malaria differed. Among outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, public sector availability of the first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria was >75%. In the anti-malarial stocking private sector, first-line treatment availability was variable (Cambodia, 70.9%; the Lao PDR, 40.8%; Myanmar P. falciparum = 42.7%, P. vivax = 19.6%; Thailand P. falciparum = 19.6%, P. vivax = 73.3%), as was availability of second-line treatment (the Lao PDR, 74.9%; Thailand, 39.1%; Myanmar, 19.8%; and Cambodia, 0.7%). Treatment not in the National Treatment Guidelines (NTGs) was most common in Myanmar (35.8%) and Cambodia (34.0%), and was typically stocked by the informal sector. The majority of anti-malarials distributed in Cambodia and Myanmar were first-line P. falciparum or P. vivax treatments (90.3% and 77.1%, respectively), however, 8.8% of the market share in Cambodia was treatment not in the NTGs (namely chloroquine) and 17.6% in Myanmar (namely oral artemisinin monotherapy). In the Lao PDR, approximately 9 in 10 anti-malarials distributed in the private sector were second-line treatments-typically locally manufactured chloroquine. In Cambodia, 90% of anti-malarials were distributed through outlets that had confirmatory testing available. Over half of all anti-malarial distribution was by outlets that did not have confirmatory testing available in the Lao PDR (54%) and Myanmar (59%). Availability of quality-assured rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) amongst the RDT-stocking public sector ranged from 99.3% in the Lao PDR to 80.1% in Cambodia. In Cambodia, the Lao PDR, and Myanmar, less than 50% of the private sector reportedly received engagement (access to subsidized commodities, supervision, training or caseload reporting), which was most common among private health facilities and pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this multi-country study suggest that Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Thailand are generally in alignment with national regulations, treatment guidelines, and quality-assurance standards. However, important gaps persist in the private sector which pose a threat to national malaria control and elimination goals. Several options are discussed to help align the private sector anti-malarial market with national elimination strategies.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Administração de Caso/estatística & dados numéricos
Regulamentação Governamental
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos
Malária/prevenção & controle
Setor Privado/estatística & dados numéricos
Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ásia Sudeste
Administração de Caso/normas
Seres Humanos
Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180223
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180223
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170504
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12936-017-1800-5


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[PMID]:29298312
[Au] Autor:Krützen M; Beasley I; Ackermann CY; Lieckfeldt D; Ludwig A; Ryan GE; Bejder L; Parra GJ; Wolfensberger R; Spencer PBS
[Ad] Endereço:Evolutionary Genetics Group, Department of Anthropology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
[Ti] Título:Demographic collapse and low genetic diversity of the Irrawaddy dolphin population inhabiting the Mekong River.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189200, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In threatened wildlife populations, it is important to determine whether observed low genetic diversity may be due to recent anthropogenic pressure or the consequence of historic events. Historical size of the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) population inhabiting the Mekong River is unknown and there is significant concern for long-term survival of the remaining population as a result of low abundance, slow reproduction rate, high neonatal mortality, and continuing anthropogenic threats. We investigated population structure and reconstructed the demographic history based on 60 Irrawaddy dolphins samples collected between 2001 and 2009. The phylogenetic analysis indicated reciprocal monophyly of Mekong River Orcaella haplotypes with respect to haplotypes from other populations, suggesting long-standing isolation of the Mekong dolphin population from other Orcaella populations. We found that at least 85% of all individuals in the two main study areas: Kratie and Stung Treng, bore the same mitochondrial haplotype. Out of the 21 microsatellite loci tested, only ten were polymorphic and exhibited very low levels of genetic diversity. Both individual and frequency-based approaches suggest very low and non-significant genetic differentiation of the Mekong dolphin population. Evidence for recent bottlenecks was equivocal. Some results suggested a recent exponential decline in the Mekong dolphin population, with the current size being only 5.2% of the ancestral population. In order for the Mekong dolphin population to have any potential for long-term survival, it is imperative that management priorities focus on preventing any further population fragmentation or genetic loss, reducing or eliminating anthropogenic threats, and promoting connectivity between all subpopulations.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Golfinhos/genética
Variação Genética
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia Sudeste
Demografia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180206
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180206
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180104
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189200


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[PMID]:29272288
[Au] Autor:Fukushima M; Tomioka N; Jutagate T; Hiroki M; Murata T; Preecha C; Avakul P; Phomikong P; Imai A
[Ad] Endereço:Center for Environmental Biology and Ecosystem Studies, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan.
[Ti] Título:The dynamics of pico-sized and bloom-forming cyanobacteria in large water bodies in the Mekong River Basin.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0189609, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In the face of plans for increased construction of dams and reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin, it is critically important to better understand the primary-producer community of phytoplankton, especially the warm-water cyanobacteria. This is because these algae can serve as the primary source of carbon for higher trophic levels, including fishes, but can also form harmful blooms, threatening local fisheries and environmental and human health. We monitored the dynamics of three cyanobacteria-Synechococcus spp., Microcystis aeruginosa, and Dolichospermum spp.-for two years in nine large lakes and reservoirs in the Mekong River Basin. The densities of these algae were largely system-specific such that their abundance was uniquely determined within individual water bodies. However, after accounting for the system-specific effect, we found that cell densities of Synechococcus spp., M. aeruginosa, and Dolichospermum spp. varied in response to changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), total nitrogen, and water level, respectively. Because both PAR and water level tend to fluctuate concordantly over a wide geographic area, Synechococcus spp., and to a lesser extent Dolichospermum spp., varied synchronously among the water bodies. Sustaining the production of pico-sized primary producers while preventing harmful algal blooms will be a key management goal for the proposed reservoirs in the Mekong Basin.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Proliferação Nociva de Algas
Rios/microbiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ásia Sudeste
Cianobactérias/classificação
Cianobactérias/genética
Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação
Cianobactérias/fisiologia
DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação
Fotossíntese
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180116
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180116
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171223
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189609


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[PMID]:29186140
[Au] Autor:Veera Singham G; Othman AS; Lee CY
[Ad] Endereço:Urban Entomology Laboratory, Vector Control Research Unit, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia.
[Ti] Título:Phylogeography of the termite Macrotermes gilvus and insight into ancient dispersal corridors in Pleistocene Southeast Asia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0186690, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Dispersal of soil-dwelling organisms via the repeatedly exposed Sunda shelf through much of the Pleistocene in Southeast Asia has not been studied extensively, especially for invertebrates. Here we investigated the phylogeography of an endemic termite species, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen), to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of dispersal routes of terrestrial fauna in Pleistocene Southeast Asia. We sampled 213 termite colonies from 66 localities throughout the region. Independently inherited microsatellites and mtDNA markers were used to infer the phylogeographic framework of M. gilvus. Discrete phylogeographic analysis and molecular dating based on fossil calibration were used to infer the dynamics of M. gilvus dispersal in time and space across Southeast Asia. We found that the termite dispersal events were consistently dated within the Pleistocene time frame. The dispersal pattern was multidirectional, radiating eastwards and southwards out of Indochina, which was identified as the origin for dispersal events. We found no direct dispersal events between Sumatra and Borneo despite the presence of a terrestrial connection between them during the Pleistocene. Instead, central Java served as an important link allowing termite colonies to be established in Borneo and Sumatra. Our findings support the hypothesis of a north-south dispersal corridor in Southeast Asia and suggest the presence of alternative dispersal routes across Sundaland during the Pleistocene. For the first time, we also propose that a west-east dispersal through over-water rafting likely occurred across the Pleistocene South China Sea. We found at least two independent entry routes for terrestrial species to infiltrate Sumatra and Borneo at different times.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fósseis
Isópteros/classificação
Filogeografia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Ásia Sudeste
DNA Mitocondrial/genética
Feminino
Variação Genética
Isópteros/genética
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Mitochondrial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171130
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0186690


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[PMID]:29240753
[Au] Autor:Egawa K; Shimojima M; Taniguchi S; Nagata N; Tani H; Yoshikawa T; Kurosu T; Watanabe S; Fukushi S; Saijo M
[Ad] Endereço:United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.
[Ti] Título:Virulence, pathology, and pathogenesis of Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) in BALB/c mice: Development of an animal infection model for PRV.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(12):e0006076, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Cases of acute respiratory tract infection caused by Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) of the genus Orthoreovirus (family: Reoviridae) have been reported in Southeast Asia, where it was isolated from humans and bats. It is possible that PRV-associated respiratory infections might be prevalent in Southeast Asia. The clinical course of PRV is not fully elucidated. METHODS: The virulence, pathology, and pathogenesis of two PRV strains, a human-borne PRV strain (isolated from a patient, who returned to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007) and a bat-borne PRV (isolated from a bat [Eonycteris spelaea] in the Philippines in 2013) were investigated in BALB/c mice using virological, pathological, and immunological study methods. RESULTS: The intranasal inoculation of BALB/c mice with human-borne PRV caused respiratory infection. In addition, all mice with immunity induced by pre-inoculation with a non-lethal dose of PRV were completely protected against lethal PRV infection. Mice treated with antiserum with neutralizing antibody activity after inoculation with a lethal dose of PRV showed a reduced fatality rate. In this mouse model, bat-borne PRV caused respiratory infection similar to human-borne PRV. PRV caused lethal respiratory disease in an animal model of PRV infection, in which BALB/c mice were used. CONCLUSIONS: The BALB/c mouse model might help to accelerate research on the virulence of PRV and be useful for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic agents and vaccines for the treatment and prevention of PRV infection. PRV was shown for the first time to be a causative virus of respiratory disease on the basis of Koch's postulations by the additional demonstration that PRV caused respiratory disease in mice through their intranasal inoculation with PRV.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Modelos Animais de Doenças
Orthoreovirus/patogenicidade
Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia
Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
Virulência
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico
Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico
Ásia Sudeste
Peso Corporal
Bronquíolos/patologia
Bronquíolos/virologia
Cercopithecus aethiops
Quirópteros/virologia
Feminino
Genoma Viral
Células HEK293
Seres Humanos
Indonésia
Japão
Pulmão/patologia
Pulmão/virologia
Camundongos
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Orthoreovirus/classificação
Orthoreovirus/genética
Orthoreovirus/isolamento & purificação
Filipinas
RNA Viral/análise
Infecções por Reoviridae/tratamento farmacológico
Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico
Infecções Respiratórias/patologia
Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
Taxa de Sobrevida
Vacinas/farmacologia
Células Vero
Carga Viral
Ensaio de Placa Viral
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies, Neutralizing); 0 (Antibodies, Viral); 0 (RNA, Viral); 0 (Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171224
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171224
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171215
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0006076


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[PMID]:27776514
[Au] Autor:Grist EP; Flegg JA; Humphreys G; Mas IS; Anderson TJ; Ashley EA; Day NP; Dhorda M; Dondorp AM; Faiz MA; Gething PW; Hien TT; Hlaing TM; Imwong M; Kindermans JM; Maude RJ; Mayxay M; McDew-White M; Menard D; Nair S; Nosten F; Newton PN; Price RN; Pukrittayakamee S; Takala-Harrison S; Smithuis F; Nguyen NT; Tun KM; White NJ; Witkowski B; Woodrow CJ; Fairhurst RM; Sibley CH; Guerin PJ
[Ad] Endereço:WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN), Oxford, UK. epmgrist@gmail.com.
[Ti] Título:Optimal health and disease management using spatial uncertainty: a geographic characterization of emergent artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum distributions in Southeast Asia.
[So] Source:Int J Health Geogr;15(1):37, 2016 10 24.
[Is] ISSN:1476-072X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites are now present across much of mainland Southeast Asia, where ongoing surveys are measuring and mapping their spatial distribution. These efforts require substantial resources. Here we propose a generic 'smart surveillance' methodology to identify optimal candidate sites for future sampling and thus map the distribution of artemisinin resistance most efficiently. METHODS: The approach uses the 'uncertainty' map generated iteratively by a geostatistical model to determine optimal locations for subsequent sampling. RESULTS: The methodology is illustrated using recent data on the prevalence of the K13-propeller polymorphism (a genetic marker of artemisinin resistance) in the Greater Mekong Subregion. CONCLUSION: This methodology, which has broader application to geostatistical mapping in general, could improve the quality and efficiency of drug resistance mapping and thereby guide practical operations to eliminate malaria in affected areas.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
Artemisininas/farmacologia
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes
Gerenciamento Clínico
Resistência a Medicamentos
Geografia
Nível de Saúde
Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico
Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos
Vigilância da População/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico
Artemisininas/uso terapêutico
Ásia Sudeste
Seres Humanos
Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Anti-Infective Agents); 0 (Artemisinins); 9RMU91N5K2 (artemisinine)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171211
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171211
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:161026
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29065143
[Au] Autor:Williams VL; Loveridge AJ; Newton DJ; Macdonald DW
[Ad] Endereço:School of Animal, Plant & Environmental Sciences; University of the Witwatersrand, Wits, South Africa.
[Ti] Título:A roaring trade? The legal trade in Panthera leo bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185996, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The African lion is the only big cat listed on CITES Appendix II, and the only one for which international commercial trade is legal under CITES. The trade in lion body parts, and especially the contentious trade in bones from South Africa to Asia, has raised concerns spanning continents and cultures. Debates were amplified at the 2016 CITES Conference of the Parties (CoP17) when a proposal to up-list lions to Appendix I was not supported and a compromise to keep them on Appendix II, with a bone trade quota for South Africa, was reached instead. CoP17 underscored a need for further information on the lion bone trade and the consequences for lions across the continent. Legal international trade in bones to Asia, allegedly to supply the substitute 'tiger bone' market, began in South Africa in February 2008 when the first CITES permits were issued. It was initially unclear the degree to which bones were sourced from captive-origin lions, and whether trade was a threat to wild lion populations. Our original assessment of the legal CITES-permitted lion bone trade from South Africa to East-Southeast Asia was for the period 2008-2011 (published 2015). In this paper, we consolidate new information that has become available for 2012-2016, including CITES reports from other African countries, and data on actual exports for three years to 2016 supplied by a freight forwarding company. Thus, we update the figures on the legal trade in lion bones from Africa to East-Southeast Asia in the period 2008-2016. We also contextualise the basis for global concerns by reviewing the history of the trade and its relation to tigers, poaching and wildlife trafficking. CITES permits issued to export bones escalated from ±314y-1 skeletons from 2008-2011, to ±1312y-1 skeletons from 2013-2015. South Africa was the only legal exporter of bones to Asia until 2013 when Namibia issued permits to export skeletons to Vietnam. While CITES permits to export ±5363 skeletons from Africa to Asia from 2008-2015 were issued (99.1% from South Africa; 0.7% from Namibia) (51% for Laos), actual exports were less than stated on the permits. However, information on actual exports from 2014-2016 indicated that >3400 skeletons were exported in that period. In total, >6000 skeletons weighing no less than 70 tonnes have been shipped to East-Southeast Asia since 2008. Since few wild lions are hunted and poached within South African protected areas, skeletons for the legal trade appear to be derived from captive bred lions. However, confirmation of a 116kg shipment from Uganda to Laos, and reports of lion poaching in neighbouring countries, indicate that urgent proactive monitoring and evaluation of the legal and illegal trade is necessary in African lion range states where vulnerable wild lion populations are likely to be adversely affected.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Osso e Ossos
Comércio
Leões
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África
Animais
Ásia Sudeste
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171113
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171113
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171025
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185996


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[PMID]:28981506
[Au] Autor:Lover AA; Harvard KE; Lindawson AE; Smith Gueye C; Shretta R; Gosling R; Feachem R
[Ad] Endereço:Malaria Elimination Initiative, Global Health Group at the University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Regional initiatives for malaria elimination: Building and maintaining partnerships.
[So] Source:PLoS Med;14(10):e1002401, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1549-1676
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Andrew Lover and colleagues discuss regional malaria initiatives, the strengths and challenges.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
Erradicação de Doenças
Malária
Regionalização
Programas Médicos Regionais/organização & administração
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: África Austral/epidemiologia
Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia
América Central/epidemiologia
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos
Erradicação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico
Política de Saúde/tendências
Seres Humanos
Cooperação Internacional
Malária/epidemiologia
Malária/prevenção & controle
Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia
Regionalização/economia
Regionalização/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171022
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171022
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002401



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