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[PMID]:29381734
[Au] Autor:Abdulrahim S; Jawad M
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Health Promotion and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
[Ti] Título:Socioeconomic differences in smoking in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Palestine: A cross-sectional analysis of national surveys.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0189829, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:INTRODUCTION: The association between education and wealth, as fundamental determinants of health, and smoking is well-established. Yet, social inequalities have received little attention in the expanding field of tobacco research in the Arab region. In this study, we examine inequalities in cigarette smoking by education and wealth in four Arab countries. METHODS: Utilizing the most recently available population-level data sets (Syria 2009 PAPFAM, Jordan 2012 DHS, Palestine 2010 Family Health Survey, and Lebanon 2004 PAPFAM), we tested the association between cigarette smoking and education and wealth-controlling for age, marital status, and region of residence-for each country, and among men and women depending on data availability. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking prevalence among Arab men is high- 51.3% in Syria, 39.7% in Palestine, and 42.1% in Lebanon; among women, prevalence is 8.4% in Syria, 10.9% in Jordan, and 24.3% Lebanon. Cigarette smoking shows the expected patterns inequalities by education among men in Syria, Palestine, and Lebanon, and among women in Jordan and Lebanon. On the other hand, wealth does not show a clear pattern in its association with cigarette smoking and, in some cases (men in Palestine and women in Syria) the behavioral risk is higher among the wealthiest. CONCLUSIONS: Available data from 2004-2012 show that cigarette smoking among men and women in the four Arab countries is predominant among those with limited access to education as a fundamental cause. The weak or absent negative association between wealth and cigarette smoking suggests that access to material resources does not precipitate a reduction in the consumption of tobacco.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia
Fumar
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Árabes
Estudos Transversais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Israel/epidemiologia
Jordânia/epidemiologia
Líbano
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Prevalência
Classe Social
Síria/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0189829


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[PMID]:29226821
[Au] Autor:Guha-Sapir D; Schlüter B; Rodriguez-Llanes JM; Lillywhite L; Hicks MH
[Ad] Endereço:Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, Institute of Health and Society, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: debarati.guha@uclouvain.be.
[Ti] Título:Patterns of civilian and child deaths due to war-related violence in Syria: a comparative analysis from the Violation Documentation Center dataset, 2011-16.
[So] Source:Lancet Glob Health;6(1):e103-e110, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2214-109X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Since March, 2011, the Syrian civil war has lowered life expectancy by as much as 20 years. We describe demographic, spatial, and temporal patterns of direct deaths of civilians and opposition combatants from conflict-related violence in 6 years of war. METHODS: We analysed conflict-related violent deaths with complete information on date, place, and cause of death and demographic group occurring from March 18, 2011, to Dec 31, 2016, recorded by the Violation Documentation Center (VDC). We included civilian and combatant deaths in all Syrian governorates, excluding government-controlled areas. We did not include detainees and missing persons, nor deaths from siege conditions or insufficient medical care. We categorised deaths based on VDC weapon type. We used χ testing to compare deaths from different weapons in civilian men, women, boys, and girls and adult and child combatants. We analysed deaths by governorate and over time. FINDINGS: The VDC recorded 143 630 conflict-related violent deaths with complete information between March 18, 2011, and Dec 31, 2016. Syrian civilians constituted 101 453 (70·6%) of the deaths compared with 42 177 (29·4%) opposition combatants. Direct deaths were caused by wide-area weapons of shelling and air bombardments in 58 099 (57·3%) civilians, including 8285 (74·6%) civilian women and 13 810 (79·4%) civilian children, and in 4058 (9·6%) opposition combatants. Proportions of children among civilian deaths increased from 8·9% (388 of 4254 civilian deaths) in 2011 to 19·0% (4927 of 25 972) in 2013 and to 23·3% (2662 of 11 444) in 2016. Of 7566 deaths from barrel bombs, 7351 (97·2%) were civilians, of whom 2007 (27·3%) were children. Of 20 281 deaths by execution, 18 747 (92·4%) were civilians and 1534 (7·6%) were opposition combatants. Compared with opposition child soldiers who were male (n=333), deaths of civilian male children (n=11 730) were caused more often by air bombardments (39·2% vs 5·4%, p<0·0001) and shelling (37·3% vs 13·2%, p<0·0001) and less often by shooting (12·5% vs 76·0%, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Aerial bombing and shelling rapidly became primary causes of direct deaths of women and children and had disproportionate lethal effects on civilians, calling into question the use of wide-area explosive weapons in urban areas. Increased reliance on aerial bombing by the Syrian Government and international partners is likely to have contributed to findings that children were killed in increasing proportions over time, ultimately comprising a quarter of civilian deaths in 2016. The inordinate proportion of civilians among the executed is consistent with deliberate tactics to terrorise civilians. Deaths from barrel bombs were overwhelmingly civilian rather than opposition combatants, suggesting indiscriminate or targeted warfare contrary to international humanitarian law and possibly constituting a war crime. FUNDING: None.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Mortalidade da Criança/tendências
Mortalidade/tendências
Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Criança
Bases de Dados Factuais
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Síria/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171212
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  3 / 1272 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29323641
[Au] Autor:Devi S
[Ti] Título:Syria: 7 years into a civil war.
[So] Source:Lancet;391(10115):15-16, 2018 01 06.
[Is] ISSN:1474-547X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Administração Financeira
Instalações de Saúde/economia
Instalações de Saúde/provisão & distribuição
Seres Humanos
Socorro em Desastres
Síria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180212
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180212
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180112
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29301428
[Au] Autor:Barkil-Oteo A; Abdallah W; Mourra S; Jefee-Bahloul H
[Ad] Endereço:From the Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; the Department of Psychiatry, Howard University Hospital, Washington, DC; the Department of Psychiatry, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles; and the Department of Psychiatry, UMass Medical School, Worcester, Mass.
[Ti] Título:Trauma and Resiliency: A Tale of a Syrian Refugee.
[So] Source:Am J Psychiatry;175(1):8-12, 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1535-7228
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Ansiedade
Depressão
Exposição à Violência/psicologia
Psicoterapia/métodos
Refugiados/psicologia
Inibidores da Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos
Síncope
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adulto
Ansiedade/diagnóstico
Ansiedade/terapia
Depressão/diagnóstico
Depressão/psicologia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Sintomas Inexplicáveis
Dor/etiologia
Dor/psicologia
Processos Psicoterapêuticos
Campos de Refugiados
Resiliência Psicológica
Autogestão/métodos
Apoio Social
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
Síncope/etiologia
Síncope/psicologia
Síria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180207
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180207
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:AIM; IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180106
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.17030358


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[PMID]:29281137
[Au] Autor:Ritchie HA
[Ad] Endereço:(Post-doc) Research Fellow, International Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands.
[Ti] Título:Gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings: female empowerment amidst male emasculation-a challenge to local integration?
[So] Source:Disasters;42 Suppl 1:S40-S60, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1467-7717
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members. In the case of longer-term refugees (Somalis), it describes new collective agency among refugee women, boosting support for new practices. The paper reflects on emerging gender roles and relations in such hostile conditions, particularly as men remain excluded and struggle for their own identity and authority. In addition, it draws attention to the gap relating to refugee men and policymaking, and highlights ways to address better their needs for refugee resilience, inclusion, and local integration.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Contrato de Risco
Identidade de Gênero
Hierarquia Social
Relações Interpessoais
Refugiados/psicologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Feminino
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Poder (Psicologia)
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos
Fatores Sexuais
Somália/etnologia
Síria/etnologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180104
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180104
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/disa.12271


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[PMID]:29190783
[Au] Autor:Casana J; Laugier EJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Anthropology, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Satellite imagery-based monitoring of archaeological site damage in the Syrian civil war.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(11):e0188589, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Since the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the rich archaeological heritage of Syria and northern Iraq has faced severe threats, including looting, combat-related damage, and intentional demolition of monuments. However, the inaccessibility of the conflict zone to archaeologists or cultural heritage specialists has made it difficult to produce accurate damage assessments, impeding efforts to develop mitigation strategies and policies. This paper presents results of a project, undertaken in collaboration with the American Schools of Oriental Research (ASOR) and the US Department of State, to monitor damage to archaeological sites in Syria, northern Iraq, and southern Turkey using recent, high-resolution satellite imagery. Leveraging a large database of archaeological and heritage sites throughout the region, as well as access to continually updated satellite imagery from DigitalGlobe, this project has developed a flexible and efficient methodology to log observations of damage in a manner that facilitates spatial and temporal queries. With nearly 5000 sites carefully evaluated, analysis reveals unexpected patterns in the timing, severity, and location of damage, helping us to better understand the evolving cultural heritage crisis in Syria and Iraq. Results also offer a model for future remote sensing-based archaeological and heritage monitoring efforts in the Middle East and beyond.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arqueologia
Imagens de Satélites
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Síria
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171226
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171226
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171201
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188589


  7 / 1272 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:25817053
[Au] Autor:Bouchghoul H; Hornez E; Duval-Arnould X; Philippe HJ; Nizard J
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Group Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, France.
[Ti] Título:Humanitarian obstetric care for refugees of the Syrian war. The first 6 months of experience of Gynécologie Sans Frontières in Zaatari Refugee Camp (Jordan).
[So] Source:Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand;94(7):755-759, 2015 Jul.
[Is] ISSN:1600-0412
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVE: To report the first 6 months of experience of a nongovernmental-organization-managed obstetric care unit in a war refugee camp, with problems encountered and solutions implemented. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of the maternity activity of Gynécologie Sans Frontières (GSF). SETTING: GSF's maternity unit, in Zaatari camp (Jordan). POPULATION: All pregnant women among Syrian refugees who came to the unit for delivery. METHODS: The GSF's maternity unit is a light structure built with three tents, permitting low-risk pregnancy care and childbirth. Emergency cesarean deliveries were performed in the Moroccan army field hospital. High-risk pregnancies were transferred to Al Mafraq or Amman Hospital (Jordan) after assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Delivery characteristics, indications for referral. RESULTS: From September 2012 to February 2013, 371 women attended the unit and 299 delivered in it. Delivery rates increased from 5/month to 112/month over the period. Mean gestational age at birth was 39(+3) gestational weeks (SD = 1.9). Median birthweight was 3100 g (25-75% interquartile range 2840-3430 g). Spontaneous vaginal deliveries were dominant and the major maternal complication was postpartum hemorrhage (n = 13). Eighty-two women were referred to Al Mafraq or Amman hospitals, mainly for preterm labor (32%) and congenital malformations (11%). We managed one case of stillbirth. Maternal mortality did not occur. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties of war, high-risk pregnant women were properly identified, permitting referrals when required. Cooperation with other nongovernmental organizations, including the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, was essential for the management of situations at risk of complications and to contain perinatal and maternal mortality.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Serviços de Saúde Materna
Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos
Refugiados
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Peso ao Nascer
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos
Feminino
França
Idade Gestacional
Seres Humanos
Recém-Nascido
Jordânia
Transferência de Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia
Gravidez
Estudos Prospectivos
Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
Síria/epidemiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; OBSERVATIONAL STUDY
[Em] Mês de entrada:1508
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171221
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171221
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:150331
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/aogs.12638


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[PMID]:28450584
[Au] Autor:Berkley S
[Ad] Endereço:Seth Berkley is chief executive officer of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland. sberkley@gavi.org.
[Ti] Título:Syria, slums, and health security.
[So] Source:Science;356(6336):353, 2017 Apr 28.
[Is] ISSN:1095-9203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Epidemias/prevenção & controle
Áreas de Pobreza
Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos
Guerra
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Saúde Global
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Seres Humanos
Síria
Vacinas/administração & dosagem
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:EDITORIAL
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Vaccines)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171219
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171219
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170429
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1126/science.aan4083


  9 / 1272 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28471616
[Au] Autor:Zarka S
[Ad] Endereço:Director General, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, and School of Public Health, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.
[Ti] Título:More than Three Years of Medical Humanitarian Aid to the Syrian People.
[So] Source:Isr Med Assoc J;18(10):586-589, 2016 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1565-1088
[Cp] País de publicação:Israel
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Altruísmo
Cooperação Internacional
Medicina Militar/organização & administração
Guerra
Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Seres Humanos
Israel
Militares
Síria
Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170505
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  10 / 1272 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28457104
[Au] Autor:Peleg D; Azogui G; Heib S; Ben Shachar I
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, Israel.
[Ti] Título:Delivery of Transverse-Lie Twins in a 15 year old Syrian Mother.
[So] Source:Isr Med Assoc J;19(1):1, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1565-1088
[Cp] País de publicação:Israel
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Cesárea
Apresentação no Trabalho de Parto
Gravidez de Gêmeos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Raquianestesia
Feminino
Seres Humanos
Recém-Nascido
Israel
Gravidez
Síria
Transporte de Pacientes
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171128
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171128
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170501
[St] Status:MEDLINE



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