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[PMID]:29306711
[Au] Autor:Bouisset P; Nohl M; Bouville A; Leclerc G
[Ad] Endereço:Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, BP 182 - 98725 Vairao, Tahiti, French Polynesia. Electronic address: patrick.bouisset@mail.pf.
[Ti] Título:Inventory and vertical distribution of Cs, Pu and Pu in soil from Raivavae and Hiva Oa, two French Polynesian islands in the southern hemisphere.
[So] Source:J Environ Radioact;183:82-93, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1700
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Atmospheric nuclear weapons tests carried out by the United States, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China between 1945 and 1980 resulted in radioactive fallout over the earth's surface of long-lived radionuclides, such as Cs, Pu and Pu that could be detected more than 50 years after their production. In addition, the burnup in the upper atmosphere of a thermoelectric generator fueled by Pu, SNAP-9A, contributed to the inventory of Pu deposited on the ground. In order to estimate the deposition densities of Cs, Pu and Pu in French Polynesia, we collected undisturbed soil samples up to 30 cm deep at eight sites in two islands (Hiva Oa, 139°W - 10°S and Raivavae, 148°W - 24°S) in 2015-2016. The top 0-10 cm of the soil cores were sliced into five 2-cm layers and the bottom 10-30 cm into four 5-cm layers for gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry measurements. We found that more than 50% of the radioactive inventories are still contained within the first 10 cm and that the average vertical migration velocities of Cs and Pu are less than 0.2 cm y . The average accumulated depositions, deduced from the profile measurements, are 236 ±â€¯11 Bq.m and 313 ±â€¯39 Bq.m for Cs, 12.1 ±â€¯1.5 Bq.m and 22.1 ±â€¯1.7 Bq.m for Pu, and 1.23 ±â€¯0.46 Bq.m and 1.58 ±â€¯0.60 Bq.m for Pu, in Hiva Oa and Raivavae, respectively. The Pu/ Pu ratios are 0.102 ±â€¯0.050 at Hiva Oa and 0.072 ±â€¯0.033 at Raivavae. Both values are higher than the ratio in nuclear weapons tests fallout estimated to be 0.016 in 2016 (Hardy et al., 1973), because of the contribution of Pu fallout from SNAP-9A, which is latitude dependent. The Cs/ Pu ratios, 19.5 ±â€¯3.2 at Hiva Oa and 14.2 ±â€¯2.8 at Raivavae are in the lower part of the range of values observed in other regions of the world.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Radioisótopos de Césio/análise
Plutônio/análise
Monitoramento de Radiação
Cinza Radioativa/análise
Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Ilhas
Polinésia
Solo
Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Cesium Radioisotopes); 0 (Radioactive Fallout); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants, Radioactive); 0 (Water Pollutants, Radioactive); 53023GN24M (Plutonium)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180130
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180130
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:180108
[St] Status:MEDLINE


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[PMID]:29281652
[Au] Autor:McAlister A; Allen MS
[Ad] Endereço:Anthropology, School of Social Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
[Ti] Título:Basalt geochemistry reveals high frequency of prehistoric tool exchange in low hierarchy Marquesas Islands (Polynesia).
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(12):e0188207, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Exchange activities, formal or otherwise, serve a variety of purposes and were prominent in many Pacific Island societies, both during island settlement and in late prehistory. Recent Polynesian studies highlight the role of exchange in the region's most hierarchical polities where it contributed to wealth economies, emergent leadership, and status rivalry in late prehistory. Building on this research, we hypothesized that exchange in low hierarchy chiefdoms (kin-based polities where there are distinctions between commoners and elites but ranking within the latter is lacking, weak, or ephemeral) would differ in frequency and function from that associated with strongly hierarchical polities. We address this hypothesis through geochemical, morphological, and distributional analyses of stone tools on Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands. Non-destructive Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) and destructive Wavelength-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) analyses of 278 complete and broken tools (adzes, chisels, preforms) from four valleys identify use of stone from at least seven sources on three islands: five on Nuku Hiva and one each on Eiao and Ua Pou. A functional analysis demonstrates that no tool form is limited to a particular source, while inter-valley distributions reveal that the proportions of non-local or extra-valley tools (43 to 94%, mean = 77%) approximate or exceed results from other archipelagoes, including those from elite and ritual sites of Polynesian archaic states. Intra-valley patterns also are unexpected, with non-local stone tools being recovered from both elite and commoner residential areas in near-equal proportions. Our findings unambiguously demonstrate the importance of exchange in late prehistoric Marquesan society, at varied social and geographic scales. We propose the observed patterns are the result of elites using non-local tools as political currency, aimed at reinforcing status, cementing client-patron relations, and building extra-valley alliances, consistent with prestige societies elsewhere and early historic accounts from the Marquesan Islands.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Arqueologia
Silicatos/química
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Geografia
Seres Humanos
Polinésia
Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Silicates); 0 (basalt)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1801
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180129
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180129
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171228
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0188207


  3 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29016624
[Au] Autor:Edmunds PJ
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Biology, California State University, Northridge, CA, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Unusually high coral recruitment during the 2016 El Niño in Mo'orea, French Polynesia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(10):e0185167, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The negative implications of the thermal sensitivity of reef corals became clear with coral bleaching throughout the Caribbean in the 1980's, and later globally, with the severe El Niño of 1998 and extensive seawater warming in 2005. These events have substantially contributed to declines in coral cover, and therefore the El Niño of 2016 raised concerns over the implications for coral reefs; on the Great Barrier Reef these concerns have been realized. A different outcome developed in Mo'orea, French Polynesia, where in situ seawater temperature from 15 March 2016 to 15 April 2016 was an average of 0.4°C above the upper 95% CI of the decadal mean temperature, and the NOAA Degree Heating Weeks (DHW) metric supported a Level 1 bleaching alert (DHW ≥ 4.0). Starting 1 September 2016 and for the rest of the year (122 d), in situ seawater temperature was an average of 0.4°C above the 95% CI of long-term values, although DHW remained at zero. Minor coral bleaching (0.2-2.6% of the coral) occurred on the outer reef (10-m and 17-m depth) in April 2016, by May 2016 it had intensified to affect 1.3-16.8% of the coral, but by August 2016, only 1.4-3.0% of the coral was bleached. Relative to the previous decade, recruitment of scleractinians to settlement tiles on the outer- (10 m) and back- (2 m) reef over 2016/17 was high, both from January 2016 to August 2016, and from August 2016 to January 2017, with increased relative abundances of pocilloporids on the outer reef, and acroporids in the back reef. The 2016 El Niño created a distinctive signature in seawater temperature for Mo'orea, but it did not cause widespread coral bleaching or mortality, rather, it was associated with high coral recruitment. While the 2016 El Niño has negatively affected other coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific, the coral communities of Mo'orea continue to show signs of resilience, thus cautioning against general statements regarding the effects of the 2015/16 El Niño on coral reefs in the region.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Antozoários/fisiologia
Recifes de Corais
Ecossistema
Monitoramento Ambiental
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Região do Caribe
Polinésia
Dinâmica Populacional
Água do Mar
Temperatura Ambiente
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171031
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171031
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171011
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0185167


  4 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28980648
[Au] Autor:Marris E
[Ti] Título:Why fake islands might be a real boon for science.
[So] Source:Nature;550(7674):22-24, 2017 10 04.
[Is] ISSN:1476-4687
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Atividades Cotidianas
Mudança Climática
Habitação/provisão & distribuição
Habitação/tendências
Ilhas
Refugiados
Ciência/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Academias e Institutos/economia
Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências
Recifes de Corais
Inundações
Habitação/economia
Laboratórios/economia
Laboratórios/provisão & distribuição
Laboratórios/tendências
Biologia Marinha/métodos
Biologia Marinha/tendências
Oceanografia/métodos
Oceanografia/tendências
Polinésia
Ciência/economia
Navios
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:171006
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1038/550022a


  5 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28888325
[Au] Autor:Hall MN
[Ti] Título:An Amazing Turn of Events.
[So] Source:Cell;171(1):18-22, 2017 Sep 21.
[Is] ISSN:1097-4172
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:How the master regulator of cell growth, TOR, came to be identified and understood, from the perspective of its discoverer, Michael N. Hall.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação
Sirolimo/isolamento & purificação
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos
Resistência a Medicamentos
História do Século XX
Seres Humanos
Imunossupressores/história
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico
Polinésia
Sirolimo/história
Sirolimo/uso terapêutico
Microbiologia do Solo
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores
Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Immunosuppressive Agents); EC 2.7.1.1 (TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases); W36ZG6FT64 (Sirolimus)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171010
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171010
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170911
[St] Status:MEDLINE


  6 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28675351
[Au] Autor:Massad E; Burattini MN; Khan K; Struchiner CJ; Coutinho FAB; Wilder-Smith A
[Ad] Endereço:School of Medicine,University of São Paulo,Brazil.
[Ti] Título:On the origin and timing of Zika virus introduction in Brazil.
[So] Source:Epidemiol Infect;145(11):2303-2312, 2017 08.
[Is] ISSN:1469-4409
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The timing and origin of Zika virus (ZIKV) introduction in Brazil has been the subject of controversy. Initially, it was assumed that the virus was introduced during the FIFA World Cup in June-July 2014. Then, it was speculated that ZIKV may have been introduced by athletes from French Polynesia (FP) who competed in a canoe race in Rio de Janeiro in August 2014. We attempted to apply mathematical models to determine the most likely time window of ZIKV introduction in Brazil. Given that the timing and origin of ZIKV introduction in Brazil may be a politically sensitive issue, its determination (or the provision of a plausible hypothesis) may help to prevent undeserved blame. We used a simple mathematical model to estimate the force of infection and the corresponding individual probability of being infected with ZIKV in FP. Taking into account the air travel volume from FP to Brazil between October 2013 and March 2014, we estimated the expected number of infected travellers arriving at Brazilian airports during that period. During the period between December 2013 and February 2014, 51 individuals travelled from FP airports to 11 Brazilian cities. Basing on the calculated force of ZIKV infection (the per capita rate of new infections per time unit) and risk of infection (probability of at least one new infection), we estimated that 18 (95% CI 12-22) individuals who arrived in seven of the evaluated cities were infected. When basic ZIKV reproduction numbers greater than one were assumed in the seven evaluated cities, ZIKV could have been introduced in any one of the cities. Based on the force of infection in FP, basic reproduction ZIKV number in selected Brazilian cities, and estimated travel volume, we concluded that ZIKV was most likely introduced and established in Brazil by infected travellers arriving from FP in the period between October 2013 and March 2014, which was prior to the two aforementioned sporting events.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Surtos de Doenças
Viagem
Infecção pelo Zika virus/epidemiologia
Zika virus/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Número Básico de Reprodução
Brasil/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Modelos Teóricos
Polinésia/epidemiologia
Risco
Infecção pelo Zika virus/virologia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171125
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171125
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170705
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1017/S0950268817001200


  7 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28664976
[Au] Autor:Jarman CL; Larsen T; Hunt T; Lipo C; Solsvik R; Wallsgrove N; Ka'apu-Lyons C; Close HG; Popp BN
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1UU, Great Britain.
[Ti] Título:Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience.
[So] Source:Am J Phys Anthropol;164(2):343-361, 2017 Oct.
[Is] ISSN:1096-8644
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:OBJECTIVES: The Rapa Nui "ecocide" narrative questions whether the prehistoric population caused an avoidable ecological disaster through rapid deforestation and over-exploitation of natural resources. The objective of this study was to characterize prehistoric human diets to shed light on human adaptability and land use in an island environment with limited resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Materials for this study included human, faunal, and botanical remains from the archaeological sites Anakena and Ahu Tepeu on Rapa Nui, dating from c. 1400 AD to the historic period, and modern reference material. We used bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses and amino acid compound specific isotope analyses (AA-CSIA) of collagen isolated from prehistoric human and faunal bone, to assess the use of marine versus terrestrial resources and to investigate the underlying baseline values. Similar isotope analyses of archaeological and modern botanical and marine samples were used to characterize the local environment. RESULTS: Results of carbon and nitrogen AA-CSIA independently show that around half the protein in diets from the humans measured came from marine sources; markedly higher than previous estimates. We also observed higher δ N values in human collagen than could be expected from the local environment. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest highly elevated δ N values could only have come from consumption of crops grown in substantially manipulated soils. These findings strongly suggest that the prehistoric population adapted and exhibited astute environmental awareness in a harsh environment with nutrient poor soils. Our results also have implications for evaluating marine reservoir corrections of radiocarbon dates.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Dieta/história
Ecossistema
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Antropologia Física
Osso e Ossos/química
Isótopos de Carbono/análise
Chile
Colágeno/química
História Antiga
Seres Humanos
Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
Polinésia
Datação Radiométrica
Alimentos Marinhos/história
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Carbon Isotopes); 0 (Nitrogen Isotopes); 9007-34-5 (Collagen)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1710
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171026
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171026
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170701
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1002/ajpa.23273


  8 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28658269
[Au] Autor:Guernier V; Richard V; Nhan T; Rouault E; Tessier A; Musso D
[Ad] Endereço:Institut Louis Malardé, Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.
[Ti] Título:Leptospira diversity in animals and humans in Tahiti, French Polynesia.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(6):e0005676, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a highly endemic bacterial zoonosis in French Polynesia (FP). Nevertheless, data on the epidemiology of leptospirosis in FP are scarce. We conducted molecular studies on Leptospira isolated from humans and the potential main animal reservoirs in order to identify the most likely sources for human infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild rats (n = 113), farm pigs (n = 181) and domestic dogs (n = 4) were screened for Leptospira infection in Tahiti, the most populated island in FP. Positive samples were genotyped and compared to Leptospira isolated from human cases throughout FP (n = 51), using secY, 16S and LipL32 sequencing, and MLST analysis. Leptospira DNA was detected in 20.4% of rats and 26.5% of pigs. We identified two Leptospira species and three sequence types (STs) in animals and humans: Leptospira interrogans ST140 in pigs only and L. interrogans ST17 and Leptospira borgpetersenii ST149 in humans and rats. Overall, L. interrogans was the dominant species and grouped into four clades: one clade including a human case only, two clades including human cases and dogs, and one clade including human cases and rats. All except one pig sample showed a unique L. interrogans (secY) genotype distinct from those isolated from humans, rats and dogs. Moreover, LipL32 sequencing allowed the detection of an additional Leptospira genotype in pigs, clearly distinct from the previous ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm rats as a major potential source for human leptospirosis in FP. By contrast to what was expected, farm pigs did not seem to be a major reservoir for the Leptospira genotypes identified in human patients. Thus, further investigations will be required to determine their significance in leptospirosis transmission in FP.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia
Leptospira/classificação
Leptospirose/epidemiologia
Zoonoses/epidemiologia
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação
Cães
Genótipo
Seres Humanos
Leptospira/isolamento & purificação
Leptospirose/transmissão
Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
Filogenia
Polinésia/epidemiologia
Ratos
Suínos
Zoonoses/transmissão
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (DNA, Bacterial)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170726
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170726
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170629
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005676


  9 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28594864
[Au] Autor:Besson M; Gache C; Brooker RM; Moussa RM; Waqalevu VP; LeRohellec M; Jaouen V; Peyrusse K; Berthe C; Bertucci F; Jacob H; Brié C; Wan B; Galzin R; Lecchini D
[Ad] Endereço:PSL Research University: EPHE-UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, BP, Moorea, French Polynesia.
[Ti] Título:Consistency in the supply of larval fishes among coral reefs in French Polynesia.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(6):e0178795, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:For marine fishes with a bipartite life cycle, pelagic larval dispersal can shape the distribution, connectivity, composition and resilience of adult populations. Numerous studies of larval dispersal, and associated settlement and recruitment processes, have examined the relationship between population connectivity and oceanographic features. However, relatively little is known about spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of larvae settling among different reefs and the extent to which the species assemblage of larvae settling at one location is reflective of the assemblage in neighbouring areas. Here, using crest nets, which provide a non-selective measure of the total abundance and assemblage of larvae settling to a reef (i.e. larval supply), we collected larval coral reef fishes at five locations surrounding two spatially disparate French Polynesian islands: Moorea and Nengo-Nengo. Overall, larval settlement patterns were correlated with the lunar cycle, with larval abundance peaking during the new moon. Although there were some spatial differences in larval supply among the five monitored sites, settlement patterns were largely consistent, even at the species level, irrespective of factors such as coastline orientation or distance between sites. This study provides further insights into the mechanisms driving patterns of dispersal and settlement of larval fishes over large spatial scales.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Recifes de Corais
Peixes
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Animais
Larva
Polinésia
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1709
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170919
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170919
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170609
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178795


  10 / 1656 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28542223
[Au] Autor:Arnold BF; van der Laan MJ; Hubbard AE; Steel C; Kubofcik J; Hamlin KL; Moss DM; Nutman TB; Priest JW; Lammie PJ
[Ad] Endereço:School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, United States of America.
[Ti] Título:Measuring changes in transmission of neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and enteric pathogens from quantitative antibody levels.
[So] Source:PLoS Negl Trop Dis;11(5):e0005616, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:1935-2735
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed an approach to measure changes in transmission from quantitative antibody levels that can be applied to diverse pathogens of global importance. We compared age-dependent immunoglobulin G curves in repeated cross-sectional surveys between populations with differences in transmission for multiple pathogens, including: lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti) measured before and after mass drug administration on Mauke, Cook Islands, malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) before and after a combined insecticide and mass drug administration intervention in the Garki project, Nigeria, and enteric protozoans (Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica), bacteria (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.), and viruses (norovirus groups I and II) in children living in Haiti and the USA. Age-dependent antibody curves fit with ensemble machine learning followed a characteristic shape across pathogens that aligned with predictions from basic mechanisms of humoral immunity. Differences in pathogen transmission led to shifts in fitted antibody curves that were remarkably consistent across pathogens, assays, and populations. Mean antibody levels correlated strongly with traditional measures of transmission intensity, such as the entomological inoculation rate for P. falciparum (Spearman's rho = 0.75). In both high- and low transmission settings, mean antibody curves revealed changes in population mean antibody levels that were masked by seroprevalence measures because changes took place above or below the seropositivity cutoff. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Age-dependent antibody curves and summary means provided a robust and sensitive measure of changes in transmission, with greatest sensitivity among young children. The method generalizes to pathogens that can be measured in high-throughput, multiplex serological assays, and scales to surveillance activities that require high spatiotemporal resolution. Our results suggest quantitative antibody levels will be particularly useful to measure differences in exposure for pathogens that elicit a transient antibody response or for monitoring populations with very high- or very low transmission, when seroprevalence is less informative. The approach represents a new opportunity to conduct integrated serological surveillance for neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and other infectious diseases with well-defined antigen targets.
[Mh] Termos MeSH primário: Anticorpos/sangue
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia
Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia
Malária/epidemiologia
Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia
Testes Sorológicos/métodos
[Mh] Termos MeSH secundário: Adolescente
Adulto
Fatores Etários
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Animais
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Estudos Transversais
Filariose Linfática/imunologia
Feminino
Gastroenteropatias/imunologia
Haiti/epidemiologia
Seres Humanos
Lactente
Recém-Nascido
Malária/imunologia
Masculino
Meia-Idade
Doenças Negligenciadas/imunologia
Nigéria/epidemiologia
Polinésia/epidemiologia
Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
Adulto Jovem
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Nome de substância:
0 (Antibodies)
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170713
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170713
[Sb] Subgrupo de revista:IM
[Da] Data de entrada para processamento:170526
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0005616



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