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  1 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29364951
Autor:Puehringer-Sturmayr V; Wascher CAF; Loretto MC; Palme R; Stoewe M; Kotrschal K; Frigerio D
Endereço:Core Facility Konrad Lorenz Forschungsstelle for Behaviour and Cognition, University of Vienna, Grünau im Almtal, Austria.
Título:Seasonal differences of corticosterone metabolite concentrations and parasite burden in northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita): The role of affiliative interactions.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191441, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The reproductive season is energetically costly as revealed by elevated glucocorticoid concentrations, constrained immune functions and an increased risk of infections. Social allies and affiliative interactions may buffer physiological stress responses and thereby alleviate associated effects. In the present study, we investigated the seasonal differences of immune reactive corticosterone metabolite concentrations, endoparasite burden (nematode eggs and coccidian oocysts) and affiliative interactions in northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita), a critically endangered bird. In total, 43 individually marked focal animals from a free-ranging colony were investigated. The analyses included a description of initiated and received affiliative interactions, pair bond status as well as seasonal patterns of hormone and endoparasite levels. During the reproductive season, droppings contained parasite eggs more often and corticosterone metabolite levels were higher as compared to the period after reproduction. The excretion rate of endoparasite products was lower in paired individuals than in unpaired ones, but paired animals exhibited higher corticosterone metabolite concentrations than unpaired individuals. Furthermore, paired individuals initiated affiliative behaviour more frequently than unpaired ones. This suggests that the reproductive season influences the excretion patterns of endoparasite products and corticosterone metabolites and that affiliative interactions between pair partners may positively affect endoparasite burden during periods of elevated glucocorticoid levels. Being embedded in a pair bond may have a positive impact on individual immune system and parasite resistance.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:W980KJ009P (Corticosterone)


  2 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28490374
Autor:Gutiérrez-Expósito D; García-Bocanegra I; Howe DK; Arenas-Montes A; Yeargan MR; Ness SL; Ortega-Mora LM; Álvarez-García G
Endereço:SALUVET, Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
Título:A serosurvey of selected cystogenic coccidia in Spanish equids: first detection of anti-Besnoitia spp. specific antibodies in Europe.
Fonte:BMC Vet Res; 13(1):128, 2017 May 10.
ISSN:1746-6148
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Equine besnoitiosis, caused by Besnoitia bennetti, and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), caused by Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are relevant equine diseases in the Americas that have been scarcely studied in Europe. Thus, a serosurvey of these cystogenic coccidia was carried out in Southern Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed and serum samples from horses (n = 553), donkeys (n = 85) and mules (n = 83) were included. An in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to identify a Besnoitia spp. infection and positive results were confirmed by an a posteriori western blot. For Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp., infections were detected using in-house ELISAs based on the parasite surface antigens N. hughesi rNhSAG1 and S. neurona rSnSAG2/3/4. Risk factors associated with these protozoan infections were also investigated. RESULTS: Antibodies against Besnoitia spp., Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. infections were detected in 51 (7.1%), 46 (6.4%) and 20 (2.8%) of 721 equids, respectively. The principal risk factors associated with a higher seroprevalence of Besnoitia spp. were the host species (mule or donkey), the absence of shelter and the absence of a rodent control programme. The presence of rodents was the only risk factor for Neospora spp. infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first extensive serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in European equids accomplished by two complementary tests and gives evidence of the presence of specific antibodies in these populations. However, the origin of the infection is still unclear. Further parasite detection and molecular genotyping are needed to identify the causative Besnoitia and Neospora species. Finally, cross-reactions with antibodies directed against other species of Sarcocystis might explain the positive reactions against the S. neurona antigens.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antibodies, Protozoan)


  3 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28363058
Autor:Mohr F; Betson M; Quintard B
Título:INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF ATOXOPLASMA SPP. IN BLUE-CROWNED LAUGHINGTHRUSH (DRYONASTES COURTOISI) ADULTS AND NEONATES.
Fonte:J Zoo Wildl Med; 48(1):1-6, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1042-7260
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Between 1996 and 2013, 71 blue-crowned laughingthrush (Dryonastes courtoisi) chicks, a small passerine bird endemic to China, were born at Mulhouse Zoo in northeast France. None of them survived past 1 yr, and 82% died between 0 and 6 days old of an unidentified cause and despite an attempt to establish an artificial breeding protocol. Atoxoplasma spp., causing a disease known as systemic isosporosis, is a coccidian parasite that can infect several species of birds. Mulhouse's adult birds were suspected to be infected with Atoxoplasma spp. and to transmit this parasite to their offspring. A treatment with toltrazuril (Baycox® 2.5%) was implemented in the four adult birds. Coprologic examinations were performed before, during, and after the treatment to quantify the parasite load in feces. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to test blood samples from the adult and liver, lung, gizzard, and kidney samples from 10 chicks to detect Atoxoplasma spp. Five of the 10 chicks had some tissue samples positive for Atoxoplasma spp. in at least one of the three repeats of the atoxoplasmosis PCR. An average of 181 Isospora spp. oocysts per gram of feces were found in the group of adults before treatment. This number was reduced to zero 1 wk after the beginning of the toltrazuril treatment. The PCR results suggest a transovarian transmission of Atoxoplasma spp., but further investigation is needed for confirmation. The treatment with toltrazuril appears to allow a significant reduction of the parasite excretion.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Coccidiostats); 0 (Triazines); QVZ3IAR3JS (toltrazuril)


  4 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28342040
Autor:Beltrame MO; Tietze E; Pérez AE; Bellusci A; Sardella NH
Endereço:Laboratorio de Paleoparasitología y Arqueología Contextual, Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Juan B. Justo 2550, 7600 Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. ornelabeltrame@conicet.gov.ar.
Título:Ancient parasites from endemic deer from "CUEVA PARQUE DIANA" archeological site, Patagonia, Argentina.
Fonte:Parasitol Res; 116(5):1523-1531, 2017 May.
ISSN:1432-1955
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The narrow Andean-Patagonian temperate rainforest strip in the west of southern South America is inhabited by two endemic species of cervids, the southern pudu (Pudu puda) and the huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus), both cataloged as near threatened and threatened species, respectively. One of the possible causes of their declined number is the susceptibility to livestock diseases. Significant zooarchaeological records of both deer have been found throughout the Holocene from Patagonia. The present contribution reports the first paleoparasitological results obtained from coprolites of endemic deer from the archeological site "Cueva Parque Diana," Neuquén Province, Argentina, and discusses the possible diseases found in ancient times. Thirty-four coprolites were fully processed, rehydrated, homogenized, sieved, subjected to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined by light microscopy. Thirty samples contained parasite remains. The presence of diverse parasitic diseases such as trematodioses, metastrongylosis, trichuriosis, strongylida gastroenteritis, dioctophymosis, and coccidiosis which could cause diseases in deer previous to the arrival of European livestock and the presence of zoonotic diseases in the hunters-gatherers and fishermen are discussed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28303816
Autor:Swathirajan CR; Vignesh R; Pradeep A; Solomon SS; Solomon S; Balakrishnan P
Endereço:Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Título:Occurrence of enteric parasitic infections among HIV-infected individuals and its relation to CD4 T-cell counts with a special emphasis on coccidian parasites at a tertiary care centre in South India.
Fonte:Indian J Med Microbiol; 35(1):37-40, 2017 Jan-Mar.
ISSN:1998-3646
País de publicação:India
Idioma:eng
Resumo:CONTEXT: Diarrhoea is one of the major complications occurring in over 90% of HIV-infected individuals in developing countries. Coccidian group of parasites, being opportunistic pathogens, have been implicated as the most common causative agents of diarrhoea among HIV-infected population. AIMS: The aim was to study the magnitude of parasitic diarrhoea with special context to coccidian parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals and their association with the patient's immunological status measured by CD4 T-cell counts. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This investigation was performed between January 2002 and December 2014 at a tertiary HIV care centre in Chennai, South India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stool samples were collected and microscopically observed for parasites using direct, formal-ether-concentrated wet mounts and modified acid-fast staining for coccidian parasites. CD4 T-cell counts were done by FACScount. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software, version 5.0, andP < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Coccidian parasitic infection accounted for about 23.4% of parasitic infections, and of these, Cystoisospora belli was observed to be the most common cause of diarrhoea (88.8%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (9.9%) and Cyclospora spp. (1.3%). Trend analysis of coccidian aetiology during the study period revealed a significant rise in the positivity of C. belli and Cryptosporidium spp. (P = 0.001). Among the HIV patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/µL, Cryptosporidium infection was most common (90%), followed by infection with C. belli(61.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Coccidian parasites continue to be the most common aetiological agent of diarrhoea among patients with HIV. The increasing trend of positivity of both cystoisosporiasis and cryptosporidiosis over the study period and the high positivity of cryptosporidiosis in patients with lower CD4+ T-cell counts are issues of serious concern. The findings call for the need for the early diagnosis of coccidian parasites and appropriate intervention among HIV-infected patients.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28143697
Autor:Licari E; Takács N; Solymosi N; Farkas R
Endereço:The Veterinary Clinic' Triq Frangisk Xerri, Birkirkara, BKR1020, 27692277, Malta. Electronic address: petlovencare@gmail.com.
Título:First detection of tick-borne pathogens of dogs from Malta.
Fonte:Ticks Tick Borne Dis; 8(3):396-399, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1877-9603
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The knowledge about the vector-borne infections in domestic dogs has been increasing worldwide. However no studies have been done on hard tick infestation and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of dogs present in Malta. Therefore, a total of 99 dogs was selected and inspected between March and July 2013 in 18 urban and 17 rural areas on the islands of Malta and Gozo. All ticks were removed from the dogs and identified. Blood samples were taken and tested for protozoa (Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp.) and bacteria (Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp.) by conventional PCR. All of the ticks collected from 34 (34.3%; 95% CI: 26-44) dogs belong to the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Tick infestation on the farm dogs was significantly higher than that of dogs kept outdoors as pets (OR: 15.19, 95% CI: 2.72-118.92, p<0.001) or in a sanctuary (OR: 35.11, 95% CI: 3.20-1986.67, p<0.001). Altogether 22 animals were infected with one or two TBPs, most of them with Hepatozoon canis (16/22; 72.7%). Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli were detected in 5 and 4 dogs, respectively. Three dogs had co-infections caused by H. canis and A. platys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on tick infestation and TBPs of dogs in Malta.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28089651
Autor:Attipa C; Hicks CA; Barker EN; Christodoulou V; Neofytou K; Mylonakis ME; Siarkou VI; Vingopoulou EI; Soutter F; Chochlakis D; Psaroulaki A; Papasouliotis K; Tasker S
Endereço:Diagnostic Laboratories, Langford Vets, School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Langford, UK; Cyvets Veterinary Center, Paphos, Cyprus. Electronic address: attipacy@gmail.com.
Título:Canine tick-borne pathogens in Cyprus and a unique canine case of multiple co-infections.
Fonte:Ticks Tick Borne Dis; 8(3):341-346, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1877-9603
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Canine tick-borne pathogens such as Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis are widespread in the Mediterranean basin but have never been reported or investigated in Cyprus. We describe herein the presence of canine tick-borne pathogens in three dogs with clinical signs compatible with vector-borne diseases from Paphos area of Cyprus. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, H. canis, Babesia vogeli and Mycoplasma haemocanis in Cyprus. One dog co-infected with E. canis, H. canis, B. vogeli and M. haemocanis is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of this multiple co-infection in dogs. The tick-borne pathogens reported in the current study should be considered in the differential diagnoses in dogs exposed to ticks in Cyprus.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28062994
Autor:da Silva LM; Rodrigues MB; de Pinho IF; do Bomfim Lopes B; Luz HR; Ferreira I; Lopes CW; Berto BP
Endereço:Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 km 7, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, 23897-000, Brazil.
Título:Some remarks on the distribution and dispersion of Coccidia from icterid birds in South America: Isospora guaxi n. sp. and Isospora bellicosa Upton, Stamper & Whitaker, 1995 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red-rumped cacique Cacicus haemorrhous (L.) (Passeriformes: Icteridae) in southeastern Brazil.
Fonte:Syst Parasitol; 94(1):151-157, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1573-5192
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:A new species of coccidian, Isospora guaxi n. sp., and Isospora bellicosa Upton, Stamper & Whitaker, 1995 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are recorded from red-rumped caciques Cacicus haemorrhous (L.) in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Brazil. Isospora guaxi n. sp. has sub-spheroidal oöcysts, measuring on average 30.9 × 29.0 µm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.9 µm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 19.3 × 13.8 µm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is prominent and compartmentalized. Sporocyst residuum is composed of scattered granules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. Isospora bellicosa has sub-spheroidal to ovoidal oöcysts, measuring on average 27.1 × 25.0 µm, with smooth, bi-layered wall c.1.5 µm thick. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one or two polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 18.1 × 10.9 µm. Stieda body is knob-like and sub-Stieda body is rounded to rectangular. Sporocyst residuum is composed of a cluster of compact or diffuse granules. Sporozoites are vermiform, with one refractile body and a nucleus. Isospora bellicosa was originally described from the Peruvian meadowlark Sturnella bellicosa deFilippi, a trans-Andean icterid which is allopatric with the cis-Andean C. haemorrhous. Therefore, in conclusion, this current study reveals the dispersion of coccidia from Icteridae across the Andes Mountains, besides describing the sixth isosporoid coccidium infecting an icterid bird.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27222431
Autor:Xiang L; Guo F; Yu Y; Parson LS; LaCoste L; Gibson A; Presley SM; Peterson M; Craig TM; Rollins D; Fedynich AM; Zhu G
Endereço:College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China.
Título:Multiyear Survey of Coccidia, Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, Histomona, and Hematozoa in Wild Quail in the Rolling Plains Ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma, USA.
Fonte:J Eukaryot Microbiol; 64(1):4-17, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1550-7408
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:We developed nested PCR protocols and performed a multiyear survey on the prevalence of several protozoan parasites in wild northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas and Oklahoma (i.e. fecal pellets, bird intestines and blood smears collected between 2010 and 2013). Coccidia, cryptosporidia, and microsporidia were detected in 46.2%, 11.7%, and 44.0% of the samples (n = 687), whereas histomona and hematozoa were undetected. Coccidia consisted of one major and two minor Eimeria species. Cryptosporidia were represented by a major unknown Cryptosporidium species and Cryptosporidium baileyi. Detected microsporidia species were highly diverse, in which only 11% were native avian parasites including Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon cuniculi, whereas 33% were closely related to species from insects (e.g. Antonospora, Liebermannia, and Sporanauta). This survey suggests that coccidia infections are a significant risk factor in the health of wild quail while cryptosporidia and microsporidia may be much less significant than coccidiosis. In addition, the presence of E. hellem and E. cuniculi (known to cause opportunistic infections in humans) suggests that wild quail could serve as a reservoir for human microsporidian pathogens, and individuals with compromised or weakened immunity should probably take precautions while directly handling wild quail.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Protozoan)


  10 / 891 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28170210
Autor:Sokól R; Ras-Norynska MA; Gesek MA; Murawska D; Hanzal V; Janiszewski PE
Endereço:Department of Parasitology and Invasive Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Título:The parasites of the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) as an indicator of health status and quality of the environment
Fonte:Ann Parasitol; 62(4):351-353, 2016.
ISSN:2299-0631
País de publicação:Poland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is a host to internal and external parasites. A heavy parasite burden indicates poor immunological status and a pathogen-contaminated environment. The present study describes the macroscopic and microscopic examination of isolated intestines and gizzards of 130 mallard ducks from birds kept in the breeding farm. Scrapings of intestinal mucosa were examined by flotation and with the sedimentation method. The results of the flotation method indicate the presence of coccidia oocysts in the ileum scrapings from one of five male mallards aged six weeks, one out of five aged 10 weeks and three out of five aged 12 weeks. In female mallards, oocysts were found in two of five birds aged 12 weeks and in two of five aged 16 weeks. No macroscopic lesions were found in the intestinal mucosa. Adult forms of the nematode Amidostomum anseris were found in the gizzards of six mallards aged 20 weeks and in two aged 22 weeks. The relatively low prevalence of parasitic infections reflects the purity of the environment, good immunity status of the birds and good management of the farm.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE



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