Base de dados : MEDLINE
Pesquisa : B01.043.075.189.250 [Categoria DeCS]
Referências encontradas : 74 [refinar]
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  1 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24096907
Autor:Samuelson J; Bushkin GG; Chatterjee A; Robbins PW
Endereço:Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Boston University Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Título:Strategies to discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls.
Fonte:Eukaryot Cell; 12(12):1578-87, 2013 Dec.
ISSN:1535-9786
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Cysts of Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica and oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum are the infectious and sometimes diagnostic forms of these parasites. To discover the structural components of cyst and oocyst walls, we have developed strategies based upon a few simple assumptions. Briefly, the most abundant wall proteins are identified by monoclonal antibodies or mass spectrometry. Structural components include a sugar polysaccharide (chitin for Entamoeba, ß-1,3-linked glucose for Toxoplasma, and ß-1,3-linked GalNAc for Giardia) and/or acid-fast lipids (Toxoplasma and Cryptosporidium). Because Entamoeba cysts and Toxoplasma oocysts are difficult to obtain, studies of walls of nonhuman pathogens (E. invadens and Eimeria, respectively) accelerate discovery. Biochemical methods to dissect fungal walls work well for cyst and oocyst walls, although the results are often unexpected. For example, echinocandins, which inhibit glucan synthases and kill fungi, arrest the development of oocyst walls and block their release into the intestinal lumen. Candida walls are coated with mannans, while Entamoeba cysts are coated in a dextran-like glucose polymer. Models for cyst and oocyst walls derive from their structural components and organization within the wall. Cyst walls are composed of chitin fibrils and lectins that bind chitin (Entamoeba) or fibrils of the ß-1,3-GalNAc polymer and lectins that bind the polymer (Giardia). Oocyst walls of Toxoplasma have two distinct layers that resemble those of fungi (ß-1,3-glucan in the inner layer) or mycobacteria (acid-fast lipids in the outer layer). Oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium have a rigid bilayer of acid-fast lipids and inner layer of oocyst wall proteins.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; REVIEW


  2 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23685826
Autor:Lv S; Tian LG; Liu Q; Qian MB; Fu Q; Steinmann P; Chen JX; Yang GJ; Yang K; Zhou XN
Endereço:National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai 200025, China. lvshan000@126.com
Título:Water-related parasitic diseases in China.
Fonte:Int J Environ Res Public Health; 10(5):1977-2016, 2013 May 17.
ISSN:1660-4601
País de publicação:Switzerland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  3 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:22960487
Autor:Ben Ayed L; Yang W; Widmer G; Cama V; Ortega Y; Xiao L
Endereço:Laboratoire Sciences et Techniques de l'Eau, Institut National Agronomique de Tunisie, 43, Avenue Charles Nicolle 1082, Tunis, Tunisie.
Título:Survey and genetic characterization of wastewater in Tunisia for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Eimeria spp.
Fonte:J Water Health; 10(3):431-44, 2012 Sep.
ISSN:1477-8920
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The microbial diversity of wastewater used for irrigation and fertilization was assessed using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect and genotype several pathogenic protists including Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Cyclospora spp., Eimeria spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi. A total of 220 wastewater samples (110 raw, 110 treated) and 12 sludge samples were collected from 2005 to 2008 from 18 treatment plants located throughout Tunisia. Except for Cyclospora, which was detected only once, E. bieneusi (61%), G. duodenalis (28%), Cryptosporidium spp. (27%) and Eimeria spp. (45%) were frequently observed in wastewater and sludge. Sequencing of PCR products showed that C. hominis, C. andersoni, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage A-II and E. bieneusi genotypes D and IV were the most prevalent. An analysis of the distribution of 209 internal transcribed spacer sequences of E. bieneusi originating from wastewater at the 18 treatment plants showed a similar genetic diversity, regardless of the geographical location. The identification of these parasite species and genotypes and of host-specific Eimeria species indicates that the microbial quality of wastewater was impacted by humans, livestock and rodents. Given the public health risks that some of these parasites represent, guidelines on wastewater usage are needed to minimize human exposure to these pathogens.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL
Nome de substância:059QF0KO0R (Water)


  4 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:22946399
Autor:Done LB; Case JT; Mazet JA; Ziccardi M
Endereço:Wildlife Health Center , University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA. exoticvet@aol.com
Título:Assessment of the quality of multi-institutional data for population-based epidemiological studies: a case study of atoxoplasmosis in Bali mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi).
Fonte:J Zoo Wildl Med; 42(2):228-35, 2011 Jun.
ISSN:1042-7260
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:To evaluate the potential to conduct population-based epidemiologic studies using multi-institutional data, the quality of data extracted from the MedARKS system was evaluated with regard to atoxoplasmosis in Bali mynahs (Leucopsar rothschildi). Data extracted for 338 Bali mynahs from 34 institutions were analyzed for completeness, correctness, and consistency and subjectively analyzed for accessibility. Data completeness was ascertained by analysis of missing records, tests, and blank fields. Two hundred and sixty four records had animal enclosure information missing, nine records were missing from the parasitology module, and 85 records did not include tests or results. Data correctness was assessed by evaluation of unclear and inaccurate results. From 2,432 parasitology records, 81 tests (3.3%) were not definitive because of uninterpretable entries. Data consistency was assessed by comparing the problem list to positive tests in the parasitology module and listing of buffy coat smears in the clinical pathology module. Overall, six different terms with 28 values were used to denote "positive for Atoxoplasma sp.," and a substantial number of discrepancies were found between problem lists, parasitology modules, and test findings among these data records. In general, this study showed that the data contained in a computer patient record (CPR) system for zoos has great promise for population-level studies if specific areas are addressed, including 1) reduced reliance on free-text data entry, 2) universal use of a standardized vocabulary, 3) use of methods to identify and track individual animals accurately and easily, 4) integration of data checks and maintenance methods, and 5) concerted use of "centralized" animal medical record information.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:21932544
Autor:Streliaeva AV; Polzikov VV; Prokina ES; Kurilov DV; Chebyshev NV; Shcheglova TA; Gasparian ÉR; Sadykov VM
Título:[Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].
Fonte:Med Parazitol (Mosk); (3):28-31, 2011 Jul-Sep.
ISSN:0025-8326
País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
Idioma:rus
Resumo:The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the new agent was low toxic. The lethal doses of irillen were calculated: LD50 was 16377 +/- 457.5 mg/kg; LD16 = 12986.4 mg/kg; LD84 was 18976.6 mg/kg for albino mice; LD50 was 16998.0 +/- 535.4 mg/kg; LD16 = 12875.3 mg/ kg; LD84 = 18583.4 mg/kg for albino rats. The irillen prepared by the authors should be referred to as a low toxic and practically nontoxic agent (Toxicity Class IV and V). Irillen has a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. It is effective in treating toxocariasis in dogs, larval alveolar echinococcosis, ascaridiasis, and eimeriasis in chickens, and siphachiasis.
Tipo de publicação: ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiparasitic Agents); 0 (Hydrocarbons); 0 (Plant Extracts)


  6 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:20597215
Autor:Gericota B; Garner MM; Barr B; Nordhausen R; Larsen RS; Lowenstine LJ; Murphy BG
Endereço:William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Título:Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization of a novel Lankesterella protozoan in two White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea).
Fonte:J Zoo Wildl Med; 41(2):242-8, 2010 Jun.
ISSN:1042-7260
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Two White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) housed at a zoological park died after a short period of lethargy, weight loss, and edema. Detailed postmortem examinations were performed on both frogs, including bacterial cultures and complete histologic examinations. Intracytoplasmatic as well as free protozoan parasites were identified in multiple organs from both frogs. The parasites were identified within erythrocytes, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and hepatocytes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a cross-reaction with Toxoplasma gondii antisera. Parasite ultrastructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscopy. The parasites demonstrated an apical complex containing a conoid, rhoptries, and micronemes, demonstrating it was a member of the phylum Apicomplexa. In addition, the parasites had bipolar paranuclear bodies, organelles that are typical of coccidian sporozoites. The organisms were tentatively identified as members of the genus Lankesterella on the basis of histologic and ultrastructural morphology. A portion of the 18s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was amplified via a polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and used in a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search of the GenBank database. The 18s rRNA gene sequence was found to be most similar to gene sequences isolated from Lankesterella organisms (88%). In aggregate, these data support the classification of these protozoa as a novel species of Lankesterella. A causal relationship between frog morbidity and protozoal parasitism was not determined. This is the first report of Lankesterella sp. in White's tree frogs.
Tipo de publicação: CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:20503593
Autor:Mossallam SF
Endereço:Parasitology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt.
Título:Detection of some intestinal protozoa in commercial fresh juices.
Fonte:J Egypt Soc Parasitol; 40(1):135-49, 2010 Apr.
ISSN:1110-0583
País de publicação:Egypt
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Fresh fruit juices are popular, but not always safe. For assessing the likelihood of infection with newly emerging intestinal protozoa, commercial fresh orange, lemon, sugar cane, strawberry, and mango juices were screened by wet mounts, Weber's modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. Protozoa viability was done by fluorescein-diacetate/propidium-iodide staining, and infectivity was performed in Swiss albino mice. Results showed that 35.43% were contaminated with one or more of Cryptosporidia, Microsporidia, and Cyclospora, as well as Giardia spp. Strawberry was the most contaminated juice (54.28%), while orange was the slightest (22.86%). Cryptosporidia was the highest contaminant (61.29%), and Cyclospora was the least (14.52%). Microsporidia spp. was the most robust contaminant which retained its viability and infectivity in juices in which it was detected. Moderately acidic strawberry and mango juices and alkaline sugar cane juice pose a possible threat, due to harboring the highest viable and infectious protozoa. Regarding highly acidic juices, viability and infectivity decreased in lemon, yet was not still risk free. Orange juice was comparatively safe, as viability dramatically declined, while infectivity was completely abolished. Hence consumers, especially high risk group, are placed at hazard of contracting intestinal protozoa infections, especially through moderately acidic and alkaline juices.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


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PMID:20135692
Autor:Valdespino C; Rico-Hernández G; Mandujano S
Endereço:Biología y Conservación de Vertebrados, Instituto de Ecología, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. carolina.valdespino@inecol.edu.mx
Título:Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.
Fonte:Am J Primatol; 72(6):539-48, 2010 Jun.
ISSN:1098-2345
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:18727361
Autor:Pugachev ON; Belova LM; Krylov MV
Título:[Coccidia (Eimeriida) from fishes of the continental waters of Russia].
Fonte:Parazitologiia; 42(3):169-78, 2008 May-Jun.
ISSN:0031-1847
País de publicação:Russia (Federation)
Idioma:rus
Resumo:Data on the Coccidia parasitizing fishes of 12 orders (Acipenseriformes, Clupeiformes, Salmoniformes, Anguilliformes, Siluriformes, Atheriniformes, Gadiformes, Gasterosteiformes, Syngnatiformes, Mugiliformes, Scorpaeniformes, and Pleuronectiformes) are given. Authors and year of description, synonymy, morphofunctional organization of exogenic stages, and list of hosts are presented for each coccidian species.
Tipo de publicação: ENGLISH ABSTRACT; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 74 MEDLINE  
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PMID:16930845
Autor:Taubert A; Zahner H; Hermosilla C
Endereço:Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany. Anja.Taubert@vetmed.uni-giessen.de
Título:Dynamics of transcription of immunomodulatory genes in endothelial cells infected with different coccidian parasites.
Fonte:Vet Parasitol; 142(3-4):214-22, 2006 Dec 20.
ISSN:0304-4017
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Sporozoites of Eimeria bovis and tachyzoites of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are able to invade and to replicate in endothelial cells. Here we report on responses of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVEC) in vitro to these coccidial infections by determining mRNA levels of the CXC chemokines GRO-alpha, IL-8 and IP-10, the CC chemokines MCP-1 and RANTES and of GM-CSF, COX-2 and iNOS relative to the level of housekeeping gene (GAPDH) transcription. T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoites caused profound transcriptional upregulation of all genes in question. In general, upregulation started 2-4 h p.i. and maximum transcript levels were observed 4 h p.i. GRO-alpha and IL-8 gene transcription had decreased to almost control levels by 12 h p.i.; in the case of the other chemokines enhanced transcript levels persisted longer or showed a biphasic time-course. A similar time-course to CC chemokines was observed for GM-CSF mRNA, whilst COX-2 gene transcript peaks were detected at 2-4 h p.i. and 48-72 h p.i. iNOS mRNA levels increased from 4 to 48 h p.i. In contrast, E. bovis sporozoites failed to induce the transcription of CXC chemokine genes and of COX-2, and only caused moderate transcription upregulation of the other genes considered. In conclusion, infections of BUVEC with these coccidian parasites result in host cell activation associated with enhanced transcription of genes encoding for proinflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules, which are important for innate immune reactions and the transition to adaptive immunity. Differences between E. bovis versus T. gondii and N. caninum may illustrate a particular evasion strategy of E. bovis sporozoites, which is related to their need to persist in the host cell for a long period of time and to the avoidance of inflammatory process-induction.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Chemokine CXCL10); 0 (Cytokines); 0 (DNA Primers); 83869-56-1 (Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor); EC 1.14.13.39 (Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II)



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