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Pesquisa : B01.043.075.189.250.150.160 [Categoria DeCS]
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  1 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29316479
Autor:Melicherová J; Hofmannová L; Valigurová A
Endereço:Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlárská 2, 611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
Título:Response of cell lines to actual and simulated inoculation with Cryptosporidium proliferans.
Fonte:Eur J Protistol; 62:101-121, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1618-0429
País de publicação:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The need for an effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis has triggered studies in the search for a working in vitro model. The peculiar niche of cryptosporidia at the brush border of host epithelial cells has been the subject of extensive debates. Despite extensive research on the invasion process, it remains enigmatic whether cryptosporidian host-parasite interactions result from an active invasion process or through encapsulation. We used HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines for in vitro cultivation of the gastric parasite Cryptosporidium proliferans strain TS03. Using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, observations were carried out 24, 48 and 72 h after inoculation with a mixture of C. proliferans oocysts and sporozoites. Free sporozoites and putative merozoites were observed apparently searching for an appropriate infection site. Advanced stages, corresponding to trophozoites and meronts/gamonts enveloped by parasitophorous sac, and emptied sacs were detected. As our observations showed that even unexcysted oocysts became enveloped by cultured cell projections, using polystyrene microspheres, we evaluated the response of cell lines to simulated inoculation with cryptosporidian oocysts to verify innate and parasite-induced behaviour. We found that cultured cell encapsulation of oocysts is induced by parasite antigens, independent of any active invasion/motility.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antigens, Protozoan)


  2 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29273058
Autor:Utaaker KS; Myhr N; Bajwa RS; Joshi H; Kumar A; Robertson LJ
Endereço:Parasitology Laboratory, Department for Food Safety and Infection Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Adamstuen Campus, PO Box 8146, Dep. 0033, Oslo, Norway. kjersti.selstad.utaaker@nmbu.no.
Título:Goats in the city: prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in extensively reared goats in northern India.
Fonte:Acta Vet Scand; 59(1):86, 2017 Dec 22.
ISSN:1751-0147
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Various characteristics of goats mean they are highly suitable livestock for backyard rearing by people with limited resources. They are a popular livestock choice in India, where they are often kept to supplement an already scarce income. In these settings, hygiene and sanitation standards tend to be low, and weakens the interface between humans and animals, thus reducing the barrier between them and thereby increasing the likelihood that zoonotic and anthroponotic infections will occur. RESULTS: This study reports an investigation of the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in goats being reared in different settings in urban and peri-urban areas in northern India, and addressed the zoonotic potential of these important protozoan parasites shed from goats living close to humans. The overall prevalence of G. duodenalis was 33.8 and 0.5% for Cryptosporidium spp.; the relatively low prevalence of cryptosporidiosis may reflect that most samples were derived from adult animals. The prevalence of G. duodenalis excretion was found to be similar to that reported in other studies. However, although other studies have reported a predominance of non-zoonotic Assemblage E in goats, in this study potentially zoonotic Assemblages predominated [Assemblage A (36%) and Assemblage B (32%)]. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that in this area where goats and humans are living in close proximity, there may be sharing of intestinal parasites, which can be detrimental for both host species.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29247662
Autor:Ferrari ED; Nakamura AA; Nardi ARM; Santana BN; da Silva Camargo V; Nagata WB; Bresciani KDS; Meireles MV
Endereço:Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Araçatuba, Brazil - Clóvis Pestana St., 793 - Dona Amélia, 16050-680, Araçatuba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address: elisd.ferrari@yahoo.com.br.
Título:Cryptosporidium spp. in caged exotic psittacines from Brazil: Evaluation of diagnostic methods and molecular characterization.
Fonte:Exp Parasitol; 184:109-114, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1090-2449
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of and diagnostic methods for Cryptosporidium spp. in caged adult exotic parrots from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Oocysts were purified from fecal samples from 463 psittacines by centrifugal-flotation in Sheather's sugar solution. Cryptosporidium spp. were detected by malachite green negative staining and nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium species were identified by sequencing nested PCR amplicons. Samples were also tested by duplex real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium galli and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III. The prevalence rates of Cryptosporidium spp. determined by microscopy and nested PCR were 3.0% (14/463) and 5.0% (23/463), respectively. The nested PCR/sequencing identified avian genotype III (1.7%; 8/463), Cryptosporidium parvum (0.9%; 4/463) and Cryptosporidium canis (0.2%; 1/463). Duplex real-time PCR was positive for gastric Cryptosporidium in 9.5% (44/463) of the samples. Among them, 1.9% (9/463) were positive for C. galli, 5.8% (27/463) were positive for avian genotype III and 1.7% (8/463) showed mixed infections with C. galli and avian genotype III. With regards to the positive detection of Cryptosporidium spp., there was no statistically significant difference between nested PCR and microscopic analysis (p = .1237), and a fair agreement existed between them (Kappa = 0.242). A statistically significant difference (p < .0001) and fair agreement (Kappa = 0.317) were obtained between nested PCR/sequencing and duplex real-time PCR for the detection of gastric Cryptosporidium. We determined that nested PCR and duplex real-time PCR are the best options for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and gastric Cryptosporidium, respectively, and that avian genotype III is the most common Cryptosporidium genotype/species in psittacines.
Tipo de publicação: EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)


  4 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29261714
Autor:Osman M; Benamrouz S; Guyot K; Baydoun M; Frealle E; Chabe M; Gantois N; Delaire B; Goffard A; Aoun A; Jurdi N; Dabboussi F; Even G; Slomianny C; Gosset P; Hamze M; Creusy C; Viscogliosi E; Certad G
Endereço:Institut Pasteur de Lille, Centre d'Infection et d'Immunité de Lille (CIIL), UMR CNRS 8204, INSERM U1019, Université de Lille, CHU de Lille, Biologie et Diversité des Pathogènes Eucaryotes Emergents (BDPEE), Lille, France.
Título:High association of Cryptosporidium spp. infection with colon adenocarcinoma in Lebanese patients.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189422, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: The association between Cryptosporidium and human colon cancer has been reported in different populations. However, this association has not been well studied. In order to add new strong arguments for a probable link between cryptosporidiosis and colon human cancer, the aim of this study was to determine prevalence and to identify species of Cryptosporidium among Lebanese patients. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 218 digestive biopsies were collected in Tripoli, Lebanon, from three groups of patients: (i) patients with recently diagnosed colon intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 72); (ii) patients with recently diagnosed stomach intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment (n = 21); and (iii) patients without digestive intraepithelial neoplasia/adenocarcinoma but with persistent digestive symptoms (n = 125). DNA extraction was performed from paraffin-embedded tissue. The presence of the parasite in tissues was confirmed by PCR, microscopic observation and immunofluorescence analysis. We identified a high rate (21%) of Cryptosporidium presence in biopsies from Lebanese patients with recently diagnosed colonic neoplasia/adenocarcinoma before any treatment. This prevalence was significantly higher compared to 7% of Cryptosporidium prevalence among patients without colon neoplasia but with persistent gastrointestinal symptoms (OR: 4, CI: 1.65-9.6, P = 0.001). When the comparison was done against normal biopsies, the risk of infection increased 11-fold in the group of patients with colon adenocarcinoma (OR: 11.315, CI: 1.44-89.02, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence of Cryptosporidium among patients with digestive cancer. These results show that Cryptosporidium is strongly associated with human colon cancer being maybe a potential etiological agent of this disease.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28973041
Autor:Lee S; Harwood M; Girouard D; Meyers MJ; Campbell MA; Beamer G; Tzipori S
Endereço:Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Título:The therapeutic efficacy of azithromycin and nitazoxanide in the acute pig model of Cryptosporidium hominis.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(10):e0185906, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Recent reports highlighting the global significance of cryptosporidiosis among children, have renewed efforts to develop control measures. We have optimized the gnotobiotic piglet model of acute diarrhea to evaluate azithromycin (AZR), nitazoxanide (NTZ), or treatment with both against Cryptosporidium hominis, the species responsible for most human cases. Piglets, animals reproducibly clinically susceptible to C. hominis, when inoculated with 106 oocysts, developed acute diarrhea with oocyst excretion in feces within 3 days. Ten day-treatment with recommended doses for children, commencing at onset of diarrhea, showed that treatment with AZR or NTZ relieved symptoms early in the treatment compared with untreated animals. Piglets treated with AZR exhibited no reduction of oocyst excretion whereas treatment with NTZ significantly reduced oocyst shedding early, increasing however after 5 days. While treatment with AZR+NTZ led to considerable symptomatic improvement, it had a modest effect on reducing mucosal injury, and did not completely eliminate oocyst excretion. Doubling the dose of AZR and/or NTZ did not improve the clinical outcome, confirming clinical observations that NTZ is only partially effective in reducing duration of diarrhea in children. This investigation confirms the gnotobiotic piglet as a useful tool for drug evaluation for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in children.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antiparasitic Agents); 0 (Thiazoles); 83905-01-5 (Azithromycin); SOA12P041N (nitazoxanide)


  6 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28939445
Autor:Kaupke A; Gawor J; Rzezutka A; Gromadka R
Endereço:Department of Food and Environmental Virology, National Veterinary Research Institute, al. Partyzantów 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.
Título:Identification of pig-specific Cryptosporidium species in mixed infections using Illumina sequencing technology.
Fonte:Exp Parasitol; 182:22-25, 2017 Nov.
ISSN:1090-2449
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Nowadays molecular methods are widely used in epidemiological studies of Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals. However to gain better understanding of parasite species or genotypes, especially when mixed infections are noticed, highly sensitive tools with adequate resolution power need to be employed. In this article, we report an application of the next generation sequencing method (NGS) for detection and characterisation of Cryptosporidium species concurrently present in pig faeces. A mixture of Cryptosporidium DNA obtained from two faecal samples was amplified at the 18 SSU rRNA gene locus and the resulting amplicons were subsequently used for MiSeq sequencing. Although initial molecular analyses indicated the possible presence of another Cryptosporidium species other than Cryptosporidium scrofarum and Cryptosporidium suis, deep sequencing only confirmed the presence of pig-specific Cryptosporidium.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)


  7 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28832257
Autor:Imre K; Morar A; Ilie MS; Plutzer J; Imre M; Emil T; Herbei MV; DarabuÈ™ G
Endereço:1 Department of Animal Production and Veterinary Public Health, Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael I of Romania" Timisoara , Romania .
Título:Survey of the Occurrence and Human Infective Potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in Wastewater and Different Surface Water Sources of Western Romania.
Fonte:Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis; 17(10):685-691, 2017 Oct.
ISSN:1557-7759
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, CaraÈ™-Severin and TimiÈ™) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22). Water samples were collected through polyester microfiber filtration. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated using immunomagnetic separation, according to the US EPA 1623 method, followed by their identification and counting by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. All samples were screened through PCR-based techniques targeting the gdh gene for Giardia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp., followed by sequencing of the positive results. Cryptosporidium-positive samples were subtyped based on sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Giardia spp. was found in all tested water types with a cumulative detection rate of 90.1% in wastewaters, 26.3% in brooks, 37.5% in irrigation channels, 31.2% in lakes, and 36.4% in ponds. Except for ponds, all monitored water bodies harbored the Giardia duodenalis AII subassemblage with human infective potential. In addition, the ruminant origin assemblage E was widely distributed, and the domestic/wild canid-specific assemblage D was also recorded in a pond. Three (27.3%) wastewater samples were Cryptosporidium positive, and the identified species was the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIaA15G2R1 (n = 2) and IIdA18G1 subtypes. The results highlight that this threat to the public health must be brought to the attention of epidemiologists, health officials, and water authorities.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Waste Water); 059QF0KO0R (Water)


  8 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28802280
Autor:Ayinmode AB; Ogbonna NF; Widmer G
Endereço:Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Título:Detection and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Ibadan, Nigeria
Fonte:Ann Parasitol; 63(2):105-109, 2017.
ISSN:2299-0631
País de publicação:Poland
Idioma:eng
Resumo:To study the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) raised for experimental usage, 134 faecal samples were obtained from two rearing houses in Ibadan and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst using the modified acid fast staining technique. Cryptosporidium species in 2 samples positive for microscopy were further characterized by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the 18S rRNA gene. Two of 134 samples were positive for the Cryptosporidium oocysts. Sequencing of the small-subunit rRNA amplicons identified the species in the two PCR positive samples as Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium rat genotype. These findings showed that laboratory rat is a potential reservoir for diverse Cryptosporidium species and suggests that laboratory rats should be screened for Cryptosporidium infection prior to experiments, especially where pathogen free animals are not available. This the first report to identify Cryptosporidium species infecting laboratory rats in Nigeria.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28784188
Autor:Brar APS; Sood NK; Kaur P; Singla LD; Sandhu BS; Gupta K; Narang D; Singh CK; Chandra M
Endereço:Department of Veterinary Pathology,College of Veterinary Science,GADVASU, Ludhiana-141004,India.
Título:Periurban outbreaks of bovine calf scours in Northern India caused by Cryptosporidium in association with other enteropathogens.
Fonte:Epidemiol Infect; 145(13):2717-2726, 2017 10.
ISSN:1469-4409
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl-Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8-14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  10 / 3216 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28750950
Autor:Ward HD
Endereço:Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. Electronic address: hward@tuftsmedicalcenter.org.
Título:New Tools for Cryptosporidium Lead to New Hope for Cryptosporidiosis.
Fonte:Trends Parasitol; 33(9):662-664, 2017 09.
ISSN:1471-5007
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The pyrazolopyridine KDU731 is a promising drug candidate for treatment of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium in young children in the resource-limited world. KDU731, a PI (4) kinase inhibitor, blocks Cryptosporidium infection in vitro and in vivo in immunocompromised mice and dramatically reduces oocyst shedding, diarrhea, and dehydration in neonatal calves.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (KDU731); 0 (Pyrazoles); 0 (Pyridines)



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