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  1 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27096364
Autor:Bloch JI; Woodruff ED; Wood AR; Rincon AF; Harrington AR; Morgan GS; Foster DA; Montes C; Jaramillo CA; Jud NA; Jones DS; MacFadden BJ
Endereço:Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7800, USA.
Título:First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.
Fonte:Nature; 533(7602):243-6, 2016 05 12.
ISSN:1476-4687
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.
Tipo de publicação: HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.


  2 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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Machado, Rosangela Zacarias
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PMID:26577193
Autor:Bonato L; Figueiredo MA; Gonçalves LR; Machado RZ; André MR
Endereço:Laboratório de Imunoparasitologia, Departamento de Patologia Veterinária, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias/Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.
Título:Occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon.
Fonte:Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis; 42:15-20, 2015 Oct.
ISSN:1878-1667
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510 bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S)


  3 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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AMBROSIO, Carlos Eduardo
Miglino, Maria Angélica
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PMID:25660702
Autor:Teixeira DG; Hamlett WC; de Barros Vaz Guimarães MA; Morini AC; Araújo KP; Cury FS; de Souza AF; Vidane AS; Ambrósio CE; Miglino MA
Endereço:1 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, Av. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, Block 17, Superior floor, 05508 270, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
Título:Morphological Tools for Describing the Male External Genitalia of Sapajus apella.
Fonte:Zoolog Sci; 32(1):97-104, 2015 Jan.
ISSN:0289-0003
País de publicação:Japan
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Sapajus apella is a wild monkey of South America distributed across almost all of Brazil. This species adapts to domesticated life and reproduces easily. The present study describes the macro- and microscopic morphology of male genital organs (penis, penis bone, glans penis, prepuce, bulb of penis, and urethra) of Sapajus apella. Four male monkeys were used in this study. For macroscopic description, the genitals were dissected, examined and photographed. For microscopic analysis, samples were stained by HE and Tricom Masson and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The penis has a gutter shape with numerous spines on the free part of the penis and glans, and showed cavernous body elements in which mesenchymal cells appear. The glans penis is well developed with a broad crown shape. The prepuce does not cover the free part of the penis. The bulb displays well-developed muscle structure and the membranous urethra is very elongated. These results reveal that Sapajus apella shows specific male genital features, different from other primates.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  4 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25552302
Autor:Angeli C; Edgerton VR; Gerasimenko Y; Harkema S
Endereço:1 Frazier Rehab Institute, Kentucky One Health, Louisville, KY, USA 2 Department of Neurological Surgery, Kentucky Spinal Cord Research Centre, University of Louisville, KY, USA.
Título:Reply: No dawn yet of a new age in spinal cord rehabilitation.
Fonte:Brain; 138(Pt 7):e363, 2015 Jul.
ISSN:1460-2156
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Tipo de publicação: COMMENT; LETTER


  5 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25529242
Autor:Almécija S; Orr CM; Tocheri MW; Patel BA; Jungers WL
Endereço:Department of Anatomical Sciences, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, New York; Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici Z (ICTA-ICP), campus de la UAB, c/ de les Columnes, s/n., 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain; NYCEP Morphometrics Group.
Título:Exploring phylogenetic and functional signals in complex morphologies: the hamate of extant anthropoids as a test-case study.
Fonte:Anat Rec (Hoboken); 298(1):212-29, 2015 Jan.
ISSN:1932-8494
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3DGM) is a powerful tool for capturing and visualizing the "pure" shape of complex structures. However, these shape differences are sometimes difficult to interpret from a functional viewpoint, unless specific approaches (mostly based on biomechanical modeling) are employed. Here, we use 3DGM to explore the complex shape variation of the hamate, the disto-ulnar wrist bone, in anthropoid primates. Major trends of shape variation are explored using principal components analysis along with analyses of shape and size covariation. We also evaluate the phylogenetic patterning of hamate shape by plotting an anthropoid phylogenetic tree onto the shape space (i.e., phylomorphospace) and test against complete absence of phylogenetic signal using posterior permutation. Finally, the covariation of hamate shape and locomotor categories is explored by means of 2-block partial least squares (PLS) using shape coordinates and a matrix of data on arboreal locomotor behavior. Our results show that 3DGM is a valuable and versatile tool for characterizing the shape of complex structures such as wrist bones in anthropoids. For the hamate, a significant phylogenetic pattern is found in both hamate shape and size, indicating that closely related taxa are typically the most similar in hamate form. Our allometric analyses show that major differences in hamate shape among taxa are not a direct consequence of differences in hamate size. Finally, our PLS indicates a significant covariation of hamate shape and different types of arboreal locomotion, highlighting the relevance of this approach in future 3DGM studies seeking to capture a functional signal from complex biological structures.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.


  6 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25387886
Autor:Martins AM; Amorim N; Carneiro JC; de Mello Affonso PR; Sampaio I; Schneider H
Endereço:Institute for Coastal Studies, Universidade Federal do Pará, Bragança, Brazil.
Título:Alu elements and the phylogeny of capuchin (Cebus and Sapajus) monkeys.
Fonte:Am J Primatol; 77(4):368-75, 2015 Apr.
ISSN:1098-2345
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Three families of New World monkeys, the Pitheciidae, Atelidae, and Cebidae, are currently recognized. The monophyly of the Cebidae is supported unequivocally by the presence of ten unique Alu elements, which are absent from the other two families. In this paper, the five genomic regions containing these Alu elements were sequenced in specimens representing nine capuchin (Cebus, Sapajus) species in order to identify mutations that may help elucidate the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the cebids. The results confirmed the presence of previously described Alu elements in the capuchins. An Alu insertion present in the Cebidae2 genomic region belonging to the AluSc subfamily was amplified and sequenced only in Sapajus. No amplified or unspecific product was obtained for all other species studied here. An AluSc insertion present in the CeSa1 region was found only in Cebus, Sapajus, and Saimiri. Cebidae4 was characterized by two insertions, an AluSz6 shared by all cebids, and a complete SINE (AluSx3) found only in the capuchins (Cebus and Sapajus). The genomic region Cebidae5 revealed two insertion events, one of the AluSx subfamily, which was shared by all cebids, and another (AluSc8), that was unique to Cebus, offering a straightforward criterion for the differentiation of the two genera, Cebus and Sapajus. The Cebidae6 region showed four distinct insertion events: a 52-bp simple repeat ((TATG) n), two very ancient repeats (MIRc) and a TcMar-Tigger shared by all New World monkeys studied so far, and an Alu insertion of the AluSx subfamily present exclusively in the cebids. The phylogenetic tree confirmed the division of the capuchins into two genera, Cebus and Sapajus, and suggested the southern species Sapajus nigritus robustus and S. cay as the earliest and second earliest offshoots in this genus, respectively. This supports a southern origin for the Sapajus radiation.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.


  7 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25339421
Autor:Terhune CE; Cooke SB; Otárola-Castillo E
Endereço:Department of Anthropology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Título:Form and function in the platyrrhine skull: a three-dimensional analysis of dental and TMJ morphology.
Fonte:Anat Rec (Hoboken); 298(1):29-47, 2015 Jan.
ISSN:1932-8494
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Cranial and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) form has been shown to reflect masticatory forces and mandibular range of motion, which vary in relation to feeding strategy. Similarly, the dentition, as the portion of the masticatory apparatus most directly involved in triturating food items, strongly reflects dietary profile. Fine control over condylar and mandibular movements guides the teeth into occlusion, while the topography and position of the dental arcade mediate mandibular movements. We hypothesize that masticatory, and particularly TMJ, morphology and dental form covary in predictable ways with one another and with diet. We employed three-dimensional geometric morphometric techniques to examine inter-specific variation in ten platyrrhine species. Landmarks were collected on six datasets describing the upper and lower molars, cranium, glenoid fossa, mandible, and mandibular condyle; two-block partial least squares analyses were performed to assess covariation between cranial morphology, dentition, and diet. Significant relationships were identified between the molars and the cranium, mandible, and glenoid fossa. Some of these shape complexes reflect feeding strategy; for example, higher crowned/cusped dentitions, as found in primates consuming larger quantities of structural carbohydrates (e.g., Alouatta and Saimiri), correspond to anteroposterior longer and deeper glenoid fossae. These results indicate strong covariance between dental and TMJ form, aspects of which are related to feeding behavior. However, other aspects of morphological variation display a strong phylogenetic signal; we must therefore examine further ways in which to control for phylogeny when examining covariation in interspecific masticatory form.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.


  8 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:24318939
Autor:Winchester JM; Boyer DM; St Clair EM; Gosselin-Ildari AD; Cooke SB; Ledogar JA
Endereço:Interdepartmental Doctoral Program in Anthropological Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-4364; Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 00014, Finland.
Título:Dental topography of platyrrhines and prosimians: convergence and contrasts.
Fonte:Am J Phys Anthropol; 153(1):29-44, 2014 Jan.
ISSN:1096-8644
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Dental topographic analysis is the quantitative assessment of shape of three-dimensional models of tooth crowns and component features. Molar topographic curvature, relief, and complexity correlate with aspects of feeding behavior in certain living primates, and have been employed to investigate dietary ecology in extant and extinct primate species. This study investigates whether dental topography correlates with diet among a diverse sample of living platyrrhines, and compares platyrrhine topography with that of prosimians. We sampled 111 lower second molars of 11 platyrrhine genera and 121 of 20 prosimian genera. For each tooth we calculated Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), relief index (RFI), and orientation patch count (OPCR), quantifying surface curvature, relief, and complexity respectively. Shearing ratios and quotients were also measured. Statistical analyses partitioned effects of diet and taxon on topography in platyrrhines alone and relative to prosimians. Discriminant function analyses assessed predictive diet models. Results indicate that platyrrhine dental topography correlates to dietary preference, and platyrrhine-only predictive models yield high rates of accuracy. The same is true for prosimians. Topographic variance is broadly similar among platyrrhines and prosimians. One exception is that platyrrhines display higher average relief and lower relief variance, possibly related to lower relative molar size and functional links between relief and tooth longevity distinct from curvature or complexity. Explicitly incorporating phylogenetic distance matrices into statistical analyses of the combined platyrrhine-prosimian sample results in loss of significance of dietary effects for OPCR and SQ, while greatly increasing dietary significance of RFI.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23518237
Autor:Nagamine Y; Satoh Y; Shimizu D; Iwasaki S; Terada K
Endereço:Department of Orthodontics, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, 1-8 Hamaura-cho, Chuou-ku, Niigata, Japan.
Título:Relationship between masticatory rhythm, body mass and mandibular morphology in primates.
Fonte:Arch Oral Biol; 58(9):1084-91, 2013 Sep.
ISSN:1879-1506
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that rhythmic movements such as locomotion and respiration have a period proportional to body mass(1/4). Mastication basically consists of rhythmic alternation of jaw-closing and jaw-opening movements. We studied the relation between masticatory rhythm and body mass in primates, and masticatory rhythm and mandible morphology. METHODS: We measured the chewing cycle duration (CCD), mandibular length, mandible height, mandible width and distance from the condylar process of mandible to the centre of gravity of the mandible. Body mass was quoted from the literature. RESULTS: The CCD is related to mandible morphology and was found to be proportional to body mass(1/6). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that masticatory rhythm is correlated with body mass and mandibular morphology, and that scaling rate of masticatory rhythm to body mass is slower than for the other rhythms.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  10 / 1104 MEDLINE  
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PMID:23233292
Autor:Rein TR; Harvati K
Endereço:Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, Paleoanthropology Section, Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Paleoecology, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Rümelinstr. 23, 72070 Tübingen, Germany. rein.tom@gmail.com
Título:Exploring third metacarpal capitate facet shape in early hominins.
Fonte:Anat Rec (Hoboken); 296(2):240-9, 2013 Feb.
ISSN:1932-8494
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The joint between the capitate and third metacarpal plays an important role in stabilizing the manus during hand use in great apes and humans. Researchers have examined the morphology of this region in humans, our fossil relatives, and other extant primates to try to understand the importance of this joint in human evolution. The first goal of our research was to explore shape variation of the third metacarpal capitate facet across extant anthropoids, including hominoids, cercopithecoids, and platyrrhines. This analysis allowed us to examine the range of variation in the capitate facet and the degree to which locomotor behavior, phylogeny, and size explained shape variation. We also examined capitate facet shape in the early hominin fossil record in order to explore how the shape of this articular surface has changed during early hominin evolution. We captured six landmark coordinates on the edge of the capitate facet in extant anthropoids and fossil specimens to quantify and visualize shape variation in this region. We used principal components analysis, Procrustes distances, and multivariate regression analysis to investigate different possible influences on shape variation. We found that shape variation corresponded to function, phylogeny, and size. With the exception of brachiation, shape variation did not clearly correspond with any specific locomotor behavior. However, we identified a shift in the relative mediolateral breadth of the capitate facet during early hominin evolution, which is most likely one of several adaptations for a more stable joint surface.
Tipo de publicação: COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.



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