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  1 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28989098
Autor:Garbino GST; Martins-Junior AMG
Endereço:PPG-Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address: antonio_mgmartins@hotmail.com.
Título:Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) and a revised genus-level classification.
Fonte:Mol Phylogenet Evol; 118:156-171, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1095-9513
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits. At the family level, our resulting topology supports owl monkeys (Aotinae) as sister group of Callitrichinae. The topology of the callitrichine tree was congruent with previous studies except for the position of the midas group of Saguinus tamarins, which placement as sister of the bicolor group did not receive significant statistical support in both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference analyses. Our results showed that the highest value of phylogenetic signal among continuous traits was displayed by the long call character and the lowest was exhibited in the home range, intermediate values were found in characters related to osteology and skull size. Among discrete traits, pelage and osteology had similar phylogenetic signal. Based on genetic, osteological, pelage and vocalization data, we present an updated genus-level taxonomy of Callitrichinae, which recognizes six genera in the subfamily: Callimico, Callithrix, Cebuella, Mico, Leontopithecus and Saguinus. To reflect their phenotypic distinctiveness and to avoid the use of the informal "species group", we subdivided Saguinus in the subgenera Leontocebus, Saguinus and Tamarinus (revalidated here).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28854689
Autor:Araújo NP; de Lima LG; Dias GB; Kuhn GCS; de Melo AL; Yonenaga-Yassuda Y; Stanyon R; Svartman M
Endereço:Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Citogenômica Evolutiva, Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627 - Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Título:Identification and characterization of a subtelomeric satellite DNA in Callitrichini monkeys.
Fonte:DNA Res; 24(4):377-385, 2017 Aug 01.
ISSN:1756-1663
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Repetitive DNAs are abundant fast-evolving components of eukaryotic genomes, which often possess important structural and functional roles. Despite their ubiquity, repetitive DNAs are poorly studied when compared with the genic fraction of genomes. Here, we took advantage of the availability of the sequenced genome of the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus to assess its satellite DNAs (satDNAs) and their distribution in Callitrichini. After clustering analysis of all reads and comparisons by similarity, we identified a satDNA composed by 171 bp motifs, named MarmoSAT, which composes 1.09% of the C. jacchus genome. Fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes of species from the genera Callithrix, Mico and Callimico showed that MarmoSAT had a subtelomeric location. In addition to the common monomeric, we found that MarmoSAT was also organized in higher-order repeats of 338 bp in Callimico goeldii. Our phylogenetic analyses showed that MarmoSAT repeats from C. jacchus lack chromosome-specific features, suggesting exchange events among subterminal regions of non-homologous chromosomes. MarmoSAT is transcribed in several tissues of C. jacchus, with the highest transcription levels in spleen, thymus and heart. The transcription profile and subtelomeric location suggest that MarmoSAT may be involved in the regulation of telomerase and modulation of telomeric chromatin.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Satellite)


  3 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28233388
Autor:Erb WM; Porter LM
Endereço:Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 08901, USA.
Título:Mother's little helpers: What we know (and don't know) about cooperative infant care in callitrichines.
Fonte:Evol Anthropol; 26(1):25-37, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1520-6505
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Since Darwin (), scientists have been puzzled by how behaviors that impose fitness costs on helpers while benefiting their competitors could evolve through natural selection. Hamilton's () theory of inclusive fitness provided an explanation by showing how cooperative behaviors could be adaptive if directed at closely related kin. Recent studies, however, have begun to question whether kin selection is sufficient to explain cooperative behavior in some species (Bergmüller, Johnstone, Russell, & Bshary, ). Many researchers have instead emphasized the importance of direct fitness benefits for helpers in the evolution of cooperative breeding systems. Furthermore, individuals can vary in who, when, and how much they help, and the factors that affect this variation are poorly understood (Cockburn, ; Heinsohn, ). Cooperative breeders thus provide excellent models for the study of evolutionary theories of cooperation and conflict (Cant, ).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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Pissinatti, Alcides
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PMID:28187764
Autor:Alvarenga DA; Pina-Costa A; Bianco C; Moreira SB; Brasil P; Pissinatti A; Daniel-Ribeiro CT; Brito CF
Endereço:Laboratório de Malária, Centro de Pesquisa René Rachou (CPqRR), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
Título:New potential Plasmodium brasilianum hosts: tamarin and marmoset monkeys (family Callitrichidae).
Fonte:Malar J; 16(1):71, 2017 Feb 10.
ISSN:1475-2875
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Non-human primates (NHPs) as a source for Plasmodium infections in humans are a challenge for malaria elimination. In Brazil, two species of Plasmodium have been described infecting NHPs, Plasmodium brasilianum and Plasmodium simium. Both species are infective to man. Plasmodium brasilianum resembles morphologically, genetically and immunologically the human quartan Plasmodium malariae. Plasmodium brasilianum naturally infects species of non-human primates from all New World monkey families from a large geographic area. In the family Callitrichidae only the genus Saguinus has been described infected so far. The present study describes the natural infection of P. brasilianum in tamarins and marmosets of the genera Callithrix, Mico and Leontopithecus in the Atlantic forest. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-two NHPs of the family Callitrichidae housed in the Primate Centre of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ) were sampled in June 2015, and January and July 2016. The CPRJ is located in the Atlantic forest in the Guapimirim municipality, in the Rio de Janeiro state, where human autochthonous cases of malaria have been reported. The samples were screened for the presence of Plasmodium using optical microscopy and nested PCR for detection of 18S small subunit rRNA gene. The amplicon was sequenced to confirm the molecular diagnosis. RESULTS: The frequency of Plasmodium infections detected by nested PCR in New World monkeys of the family Callitrichidae was 6.6%. For the first time, Callitrichidae primates of genera Callithrix, Mico and Leontopithecus were found naturally infected with P. brasilianum. Infection was confirmed by sequencing a small fragment of 18S rRNA gene, although no parasites were detected in blood smears. CONCLUSIONS: The reported P. brasilianum infection in NHP species maintained in captivity suggests that infection can be favoured by the presence of vectors and the proximity between known (and unknown) hosts of malaria. Thus, the list of potential malaria reservoirs needs to be further explored.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (DNA, Protozoan); 0 (DNA, Ribosomal); 0 (RNA, Protozoan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 18S)


  5 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26831854
Autor:Wark JD; Amendolagine L; Lukas KE; Kuhar CW; Dennis PM; Snowdon CT; Schoffner T; Schook MW
Endereço:Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, 3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland, OH, 44109, USA. jwark@lpzoo.org.
Título:Fecal glucocorticoid metabolite responses to management stressors and social change in four species of callitrichine monkeys.
Fonte:Primates; 57(2):267-77, 2016 Apr.
ISSN:1610-7365
País de publicação:Japan
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The use of enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for the non-invasive measurement of glucocorticoids provides a valuable tool for monitoring health and welfare in sensitive species. We validated methods for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) using the response to veterinary exams for four species of callitrichine monkeys: golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia, n = 7), callimico (Callimico goeldii, n = 2), pied tamarin (Saguinus bicolor, n = 2), and white-fronted marmoset (Callithrix geoffroyi, n = 2). Routine veterinary exams were performed for the golden lion tamarins and callimicos, but exams for the pied tamarins and white-fronted marmosets were prompted by the death of a social partner. Prior to veterinary exams, fecal markers were evaluated to allow collection of individual samples and estimate approximate gut transit times. Based on this assessment, individual markers were fed in the afternoon, and fresh morning fecal samples were collected throughout this study. Following a veterinary exam, FGM increased roughly 3- to 28-fold above baseline in all species. Although FGM for most species returned to baseline concentrations within 24-48 h, the marmosets exhibited a progressive increase in FGM after an exam in response to the death of a breeding female and subsequent hand-rearing of a neonate. Individual differences were noted in the callimicos and tamarins, with higher baseline FGM levels in females vs. males, although small sample size precluded a clear determination of sex differences. To our knowledge, this is the first study to measure FGM in callimicos and white-fronted marmosets and the first to compare FGM across callitrichine species. These findings highlight the broad applicability of this EIA to measure the stress response of callitrichine monkeys. The progressive increase in FGM in the marmosets during hand-rearing of a neonate suggests that care should be taken to minimize this disturbance as much as possible.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Glucocorticoids)


  6 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26111848
Autor:Díaz-Muñoz SL
Endereço:Section of Ecology, Behavior and Evolution, University of California, San Diego, California.
Título:Complex cooperative breeders: Using infant care costs to explain variability in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.
Fonte:Am J Primatol; 78(3):372-87, 2016 Mar.
ISSN:1098-2345
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The influence of ecology on social behavior and mating strategies is one of the central questions in behavioral ecology and primatology. Callitrichines are New World primates that exhibit high behavioral variability, which is widely acknowledged, but not always systematically researched. Here, I examine the hypothesis that differences in the cost of infant care among genera help explain variation in reproductive traits. I present an integrative approach to generate and evaluate predictions from this hypothesis. I first identify callitrichine traits that vary minimally and traits that are more flexible (e.g., have greater variance or norm of reaction), including the number of males that mate with a breeding female, mechanisms of male reproductive competition, number of natal young retained, and the extent of female reproductive suppression. I outline how these more labile traits should vary along a continuum of infant care costs according to individual reproductive strategies. At one end of the spectrum, I predict that groups with higher infant care costs will show multiple adult males mating and providing infant care, high subordinate female reproductive suppression, few natal individuals delaying dispersal, and increased reproductive output by the dominant female -with opposite predictions under low infant costs. I derive an estimate of the differences in ecological and physiological infant care costs that suggest an order of ascending costs in the wild: Cebuella, Callithrix, Mico, Callimico, Saguinus, and Leontopithecus. I examine the literature on each genus for the most variable traits and evaluate a) where they fall along the continuum of infant care costs according to their reproductive strategies, and b) whether these costs correspond to the ecophysiological estimates of infant care costs. I conclude that infant care costs can provide a unifying explanation for the most variable reproductive traits among callitrichine genera. The approach presented can be used to generate predictions and motivate researchers to unravel complexity in callitrichine social and reproductive behavior.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  7 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:26394094
Autor:Wahab F; Drummer C; Behr R
Endereço:Stem Cell Biology Unit, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: fwahab@dpz.eu.
Título:Marmosets.
Fonte:Curr Biol; 25(18):R780-2, 2015 Sep 21.
ISSN:1879-0445
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Wahab et al. introduce the marmosets, a group of peculiar New World monkeys.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes
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PMID:26056892
Autor:de Freitas RA; Milanelo L; Bondan EF; Bentubo HD
Título:FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE FUR MICROBIOTA OF CALLITRICHIDS KEPT IN CAPTIVITY IN BRAZIL.
Fonte:J Zoo Wildl Med; 46(2):350-4, 2015 Jun.
ISSN:1042-7260
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study aimed to isolate filamentous fungi from the fur of primates of the genus Callithrix kept in the Centre for Rehabilitation of Wild Animals (CRWA) at the Tietê Ecological Park, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Samples of the fur of 19 specimens of black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) and 6 specimens of white-tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were obtained by the square carpet technique. The samples were plated on Mycosel™ agar medium (Difco™) and incubated at 25°C for 21 days. The identification of each isolated mold was based on its macroscopic and microscopic features and followed classical recommendations. The following filamentous fungi were isolated: Penicillium spp. (76%), Cladosporium spp. (60%), Acremonium spp. (44%), Scopulariopsis spp. (24%), Aspergillus spp. (16%), Chrysosporium spp. (16%), and Fusarium spp. (8%). Dermatophyte fungi were not detected. We conclude that C. penicillata and C. jacchus kept in captivity are sources of potentially pathogenic filamentous fungi that may represent a risk factor for immunocompromised individuals who may eventually establish contact with them.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25887279
Autor:Scott JE
Endereço:Department of Anthropology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA. Electronic address: jeremiah.e.scott@gmail.com.
Título:Lost and found: The third molars of Callimico goeldii and the evolution of the callitrichine postcanine dentition.
Fonte:J Hum Evol; 83:65-73, 2015 Jun.
ISSN:1095-8606
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:This study tests the hypothesis that the third molars of Callimico goeldii represent a reversal in evolutionary tooth loss within the Callitrichinae. Loss of third molars is part of a suite of unusual characters that has been used to unite marmosets and tamarins in a clade to the exclusion of Callimico. However, molecular phylogenetic studies provide consistent support for the hypothesis that marmosets are more closely related to Callimico than to tamarins, raising the possibility that some or all of the features shared by marmosets and tamarins are homoplastic. Here, I use the binary-state speciation and extinction (BiSSE) model and a sample of 249 extant primate species to demonstrate that, given the shape of the primate phylogenetic tree and the distribution of character states in extant taxa, models in which M3 loss is constrained to be irreversible are much less likely than models in which reversals are allowed to occur. This result provides support for the idea that the last common ancestor of Callimico and marmosets was characterized by the two-molared phenotype. The M3s of Callimico therefore appear to be secondarily derived rather than plesiomorphic. This conclusion may also apply to the other apparently plesiomorphic traits found in Callimico. Hypotheses regarding the re-evolution of M3 in the callitrichine clade and the origin and maintenance of the two-molared phenotype are discussed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 1447 MEDLINE  
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PMID:25688005
Autor:Sampaio R; Röhe F; Pinho G; de Sousa e Silva-Júnior J; Farias IP; Rylands AB
Endereço:Floresta Nacional do Purus, Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio), Boca do Acre, Amazonas, 69850000, Brazil, rcosampaio@gmail.com.
Título:Re-description and assessment of the taxonomic status of Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai Hershkovitz, 1966 (Primates, Callitrichinae).
Fonte:Primates; 56(2):131-44, 2015 Apr.
ISSN:1610-7365
País de publicação:Japan
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Cruz Lima's saddle-back tamarin Saguinus fuscicollis cruzlimai Hershkovitz, 1966, was described from a painting by Eládio da Cruz Lima in his book Mammals of Amazonia, Vol. 1, Primates (1945). The painting was of four saddle-back tamarins from the upper Rio Purus, one of them distinct and the inspiration for Hershkovitz to describe it as a new subspecies. Its exact provenance was unknown, however, and the specimen was lost. Surveys in the Purus National Forest in 2011 resulted in sightings of this tamarin along the north bank of the Rio Inauini, a left-bank tributary of the middle Purus, and also on the left bank of the Purus, north and south of the Rio Inauini. It is possible that it extends north as far as the Rio Pauini, and that S. f. primitivus Hershkovitz, 1977, occurs north of the Pauini as far the Rio Tapauá, both also left-bank tributaries of the Purus. Morphometric and molecular genetic analyses and the coloration of the pelage indicate that this tamarin differs from its neighbors sufficiently to be considered a full species. In his doctoral dissertation [2010, Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Distribution of Tamarins (Genus Saguinus Hoffmannsegg, 1807) Georg-August Universität, Göttingen], C. Matauschek found that saddle-back and black-mantle tamarins diverged from the tamarin lineage around 9.2 million years ago; time enough to warrant their classification in a distinct genus. Leontocebus Wagner, 1840, is the first name available. In this article we re-describe Cruz Lima's saddle-back tamarin. We propose a neotype with a precise locality, and make it a full species in the genus Leontocebus.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (Mitochondrial Proteins); 9035-37-4 (Cytochromes b)



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