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  1 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29385211
Autor:Hiwaki O; Miyaguchi H
Endereço:Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima, Japan.
Título:Noninvasive measurement of dynamic brain signals using light penetrating the brain.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0192095, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Conventional techniques for the noninvasive measurement of brain activity involve critical limitations in spatial or temporal resolution. Here, we propose the method for noninvasive brain function measurement with high spatiotemporal resolution using optical signals. We verified that diffused near-infrared light penetrating through the upper jaw and into the skull, which we term as optoencephalography (OEG), leads to the detection of dynamic brain signals that vary concurrently with the electrophysiological neural activity. We measured the OEG signals following the stimulation of the median nerve in common marmosets. The OEG signal response was tightly coupled with the electrophysiological response represented by the somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). The OEG measurement is also shown to offer rather clear discrimination of brain signals.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  2 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28989098
Autor:Garbino GST; Martins-Junior AMG
Endereço:PPG-Zoologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address: antonio_mgmartins@hotmail.com.
Título:Phenotypic evolution in marmoset and tamarin monkeys (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) and a revised genus-level classification.
Fonte:Mol Phylogenet Evol; 118:156-171, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1095-9513
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Marmosets and tamarins (Cebidae, Callitrichinae) constitute the most species-rich subfamily of New World monkeys and one of the most diverse phenotypically. Despite the profusion of molecular phylogenies of the group, the evolution of phenotypic characters under the rapidly-emerging consensual phylogeny of the subfamily has been little studied, resulting in taxonomic proposals that have limited support from other datasets. We examined the evolution of 18 phenotypic traits (5 continuous and 13 discrete), including pelage, skull, dentition, postcrania, life-history and vocalization variables in a robust molecular phylogeny of marmoset and tamarin monkeys, quantifying their phylogenetic signal and correlations among some of the traits. At the family level, our resulting topology supports owl monkeys (Aotinae) as sister group of Callitrichinae. The topology of the callitrichine tree was congruent with previous studies except for the position of the midas group of Saguinus tamarins, which placement as sister of the bicolor group did not receive significant statistical support in both Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Inference analyses. Our results showed that the highest value of phylogenetic signal among continuous traits was displayed by the long call character and the lowest was exhibited in the home range, intermediate values were found in characters related to osteology and skull size. Among discrete traits, pelage and osteology had similar phylogenetic signal. Based on genetic, osteological, pelage and vocalization data, we present an updated genus-level taxonomy of Callitrichinae, which recognizes six genera in the subfamily: Callimico, Callithrix, Cebuella, Mico, Leontopithecus and Saguinus. To reflect their phenotypic distinctiveness and to avoid the use of the informal "species group", we subdivided Saguinus in the subgenera Leontocebus, Saguinus and Tamarinus (revalidated here).
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29300153
Autor:Modesto M; Michelini S; Oki K; Biavati B; Watanabe K; Mattarelli P
Endereço:1​Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bologna, Italy.
Título:Bifidobacterium catulorum sp. nov., a novel taxon from the faeces of the baby common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).
Fonte:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol; 68(2):575-581, 2018 Feb.
ISSN:1466-5034
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In our previous study based on hsp60 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we stated that the bifidobacterial strains isolated from the individual faecal samples of five baby common marmosets constituted different phylogenetically isolated groups of the genus Bifidobacterium. In that study, we also proposed that these isolated groups potentially represented novel species of the genus Bifidobacterium. Out of them, Bifidobacterium aesculapii, Bifidobacterium myosotis, Bifidobacterium tissieri and Bifidobacterium hapali, have been described recently. Another strain, designated MRM 8.19 , has been classified as member of the genus Bifidobacterium on the basis of positive results for fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity and analysis of partial 16S rRNA, hsp60, clpC, dnaJ, dnaG and rpoB gene sequences. Analysis of 16S rRNA and hsp60 gene sequences revealed that strain MRM 8.19 was related to B. tissieri DSM 100201 (95.8 %) and to Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 (93.7 %), respectively. The DNA G+C composition was 63.7 mol% and the peptidoglycan structure was l-Orn(Lys)-l-Ser. Based on the phylogenetic, genotypic and phenotypic data reported, strain MRM 8.19 represents a novel taxon within the genus Bifidobacterium for which the name Bifidobacterium catulorum sp. nov. (type strain MRM 8.19 =DSM 103154 =JCM 31794 ) is proposed.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Chaperonin 60); 0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Peptidoglycan); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); EC 4.1.2.- (Aldehyde-Lyases); EC 4.1.2.22 (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase)


  4 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28957433
Autor:Ziegler TE; Sosa ME; Colman RJ
Endereço:Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
Título:Fathering style influences health outcome in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) offspring.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(9):e0185695, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In the cooperative breeding common marmoset monkey, Callithrix jacchus, fathers share the care responsibility and energetic load with their mate from the time their infants are born. However, not all fathers show the same level of participation in direct infant care. Here we present the first results demonstrating that fathering style can improve both survival and growth trajectory of a male's offspring during the first 30 weeks of life and that these infant outcomes are consistent within a father throughout successive births. Twenty-four marmoset fathers were tested for their responsiveness to an infant distress call when their infants were approximately two weeks old. These fathers were categorized as either responsive (RS) or nonresponsive (NRS) based on their response to the calls. Survival past 1 month was then determined and bi-monthly weights of current infants through 30 weeks of age were taken. Infant survival to the first month was significantly higher with RS fathers than with NRS fathers during this critical time period. Infants from RS fathers also had a higher growth trajectory with significant differences in body weight in the 28th and 30th week after birth. Only the RS fathers showed a significant increase in serum testosterone in response to infant cries suggesting a physiological role of testosterone in the motivation to search for the infant. Furthermore, all offspring born to RS fathers from subsequent births also showed a significantly higher survival rate and higher growth trajectory than for offspring of NRS fathers. These results suggest that fathering style is a consistent trait and responsive fathers improve infant survival rate and growth during the first 30 weeks. Such fathering style traits may be passed on to the male offspring due to environmental or genetic factors.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:3XMK78S47O (Testosterone)


  5 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28915405
Autor:Manickam C; Martinot AJ; Jones RA; Varner V; Reeves RK
Endereço:Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.
Título:Hepatic immunopathology during occult hepacivirus re-infection.
Fonte:Virology; 512:48-55, 2017 Dec.
ISSN:1096-0341
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Despite drug advances for Hepatitis C virus (HCV), re-infections remain prevalent in high-risk populations. Unfortunately, the role of preexisting viral immunity and how it modulates re-infection is unclear. GBV-B infection of common marmosets is a useful model to study tissue immune responses in hepacivirus infections, and in this study we re-challenged 4 animals after clearance of primary viremia. Although only low-to-absent viremia was observed following re-challenge, GBV-B viral RNA was detectable in liver, confirming re-infection. Microscopic hepatic lesions indicated severe-to-mild lymphocyte infiltration and fibrosis in 3 out of 4 animals. Further, GBV-B-specific T cells were elevated in animals with moderate-to-severe hepatopathology, and up to 3-fold increases in myeloid dendritic and activated natural killer cells were observed after infection. Our data indicate that occult hepacivirus re-infections occur and that new liver pathology is possible even in the presence of anti-hepacivirus T cells and in the absence of high viremia.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28912155
Autor:Townsend RG; Solomon SS; Martin PR; Solomon SG; Gong P
Endereço:School of Physics.
Título:Visual Motion Discrimination by Propagating Patterns in Primate Cerebral Cortex.
Fonte:J Neurosci; 37(42):10074-10084, 2017 Oct 18.
ISSN:1529-2401
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Visual stimuli can evoke waves of neural activity that propagate across the surface of visual cortical areas. The relevance of these waves for visual processing is unknown. Here, we measured the phase and amplitude of local field potentials (LFPs) in electrode array recordings from the motion-processing medial temporal (MT) area of anesthetized male marmosets. Animals viewed grating or dot-field stimuli drifting in different directions. We found that, on individual trials, the direction of LFP wave propagation is sensitive to the direction of stimulus motion. Propagating LFP patterns are also detectable in trial-averaged activity, but the trial-averaged patterns exhibit different dynamics and behaviors from those in single trials and are similar across motion directions. We show that this difference arises because stimulus-sensitive propagating patterns are present in the phase of single-trial oscillations, whereas the trial-averaged signal is dominated by additive amplitude effects. Our results demonstrate that propagating LFP patterns can represent sensory inputs at timescales relevant to visually guided behaviors and raise the possibility that propagating activity patterns serve neural information processing in area MT and other cortical areas. Propagating wave patterns are widely observed in the cortex, but their functional relevance remains unknown. We show here that visual stimuli generate propagating wave patterns in local field potentials (LFPs) in a movement-sensitive area of the primate cortex and that the propagation direction of these patterns is sensitive to stimulus motion direction. We also show that averaging LFP signals across multiple stimulus presentations (trial averaging) yields propagating patterns that capture different dynamic properties of the LFP response and show negligible direction sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that sensory stimuli can modulate propagating wave patterns reliably in the cortex. The relevant dynamics are normally masked by trial averaging, which is a conventional step in LFP signal processing.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28854243
Autor:Michel A; Nicolas JM; Rose S; Jackson M; Colman P; Briône W; Sciberras D; Muglia P; Scheller DK; Citron M; Downey P
Endereço:UCB BioPharma, Braine L'Alleud, Belgium.
Título:Antiparkinsonian effects of the "Radiprodil and Tozadenant" combination in MPTP-treated marmosets.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(8):e0182887, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE: Investigate a combination of two clinically tested drugs, the NR2B antagonist Radiprodil and the A2A antagonist Tozadenant in the MPTP-treated marmoset model of Parkinson's Disease (PD). BACKGROUND: In PD, there remains a need for the development of non-dopaminergic drugs to effectively treat the motor symptoms without the induction of L-Dopa-induced motor complications. METHODS: Clinically relevant doses of Radiprodil and Tozadenant were given both alone and in combination without the addition of L-Dopa, and the antiparkinsonian efficacy of the treatments was assessed in a primate model of PD. RESULTS: When compared to the drugs tested alone, the drug combination led to a significant increase of motor activity and an improvement of motor disability in MPTP-treated marmosets. In addition, the motor restoration brought about by the combination was almost completely devoid of dyskinesia. Interestingly, treated primates were not overstimulated, but were able to move normally when motivated by the exploration of novel objects. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated in a primate model that, the "Radiprodil/Tozadenant" combination significantly improves motor activity, extending previous results obtained in unilaterally lesioned 6-OHDA-rats. The strength of the preclinical data accumulated so far suggests that the use of such an A2A and NR2B antagonist combination could bring significant motor improvement to PD patients, without inducing the motor complications induced by L-Dopa therapy. Although encouraging, these preclinical data need to be confirmed in the clinic.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Antiparkinson Agents); 0 (Benzothiazoles); 0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (NR2B NMDA receptor); 0 (Receptors, Adenosine A2); 0 (Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate); D9K857J81I (tozadenant)


  8 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28841690
Autor:Kücklich M; Möller M; Marcillo A; Einspanier A; Weiß BM; Birkemeyer C; Widdig A
Endereço:Junior Research Group of Primate Kin Selection, Department of Primatology, Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
Título:Different methods for volatile sampling in mammals.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(8):e0183440, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Previous studies showed that olfactory cues are important for mammalian communication. However, many specific compounds that convey information between conspecifics are still unknown. To understand mechanisms and functions of olfactory cues, olfactory signals such as volatile compounds emitted from individuals need to be assessed. Sampling of animals with and without scent glands was typically conducted using cotton swabs rubbed over the skin or fur and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has various drawbacks, including a high level of contaminations. Thus, we adapted two methods of volatile sampling from other research fields and compared them to sampling with cotton swabs. To do so we assessed the body odor of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) using cotton swabs, thermal desorption (TD) tubes and, alternatively, a mobile GC-MS device containing a thermal desorption trap. Overall, TD tubes comprised most compounds (N = 113), with half of those compounds being volatile (N = 52). The mobile GC-MS captured the fewest compounds (N = 35), of which all were volatile. Cotton swabs contained an intermediate number of compounds (N = 55), but very few volatiles (N = 10). Almost all compounds found with the mobile GC-MS were also captured with TD tubes (94%). Hence, we recommend TD tubes for state of the art sampling of body odor of mammals or other vertebrates, particularly for field studies, as they can be easily transported, stored and analysed with high performance instruments in the lab. Nevertheless, cotton swabs capture compounds which still may contribute to the body odor, e.g. after bacterial fermentation, while profiles from mobile GC-MS include only the most abundant volatiles of the body odor.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Volatile Organic Compounds)


  9 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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Antunes, Edson
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PMID:28837636
Autor:Campos R; Mónica FZ; Rodrigues RL; Rojas-Moscoso JA; Moreno RA; Cogo JC; de Oliveira MA; Antunes E; De Nucci G
Endereço:Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, Brazil.
Título:Tetrodotoxin-insensitive electrical field stimulation-induced contractions on Crotalus durissus terrificus corpus cavernosum.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(8):e0183766, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Reptiles are the first amniotes to develop an intromitent penis, however until now the mechanisms involved in the electrical field stimulation-induced contraction on corpora cavernosa isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus were not investigated. Crotalus and rabbit corpora cavernosa were mounted in 10 mL organ baths for isometric tension recording. Electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced contractions were performed in presence/absence of phentolamine (10 µM), guanethidine (30 µM), tetrodotoxin (1 µM and 1mM), A-803467 (10 µM), 3-iodo-L-Tyrosine (1 mM), salsolinol (3 µM) and a modified Krebs solution (equimolar substitution of NaCl by N-methyl-D-glucamine). Immuno-histochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase was also performed. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 8 Hz and 16 Hz) caused contractions in both Crotalus and rabbit corpora cavernosa. The contractions were abolished by previous incubation with either phentolamine or guanethidine. Tetrodotoxin (1 µM) also abolished the EFS-induced contractions of rabbit CC, but did not affect EFS-induced contractions of Crotalus CC. Addition of A-803467 (10 µM) did not change the EFS-induced contractions of Crotalus CC but abolished rabbit CC contractions. 3-iodo-L-Tyrosine and salsolinol had no effect on EFS-induced contractions of Crotalus CC and Rabbit CC. Replacement of NaCl by N- Methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) abolished EFS-induced contractions of rabbit CC, but did not affect Crotalus CC. The presence of tyrosine hydroxylase was identified in endothelial cells only of Crotalus CC. Since the EFS-induced contractions of Crotalus CC is dependent on catecholamine release, insensitive to TTX, insensitive to A803467 and to NaCl replacement, it indicates that the source of cathecolamine is unlikely to be from adrenergic terminals. The finding that tyrosine hydroxylase is present in endothelial cells suggests that these cells can modulate Crotalus CC tone.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (A 803467); 0 (Aniline Compounds); 0 (Furans); 0 (Receptors, Adrenergic); 0 (Sodium Channels); 4368-28-9 (Tetrodotoxin)


  10 / 3390 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28802219
Autor:Gaudette F; Hamadjida A; Bédard D; Nuara SG; Beaudry F; Huot P
Endereço:CRCHUM, Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: fleur.gaudette.chum@ssss.gouv.qc.ca.
Título:Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify LY-354,740 in rat and marmoset plasma.
Fonte:J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci; 1061-1062:392-398, 2017 Sep 01.
ISSN:1873-376X
País de publicação:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumo:LY-354,740 (eglumegad) is a selective and potent agonist of the metabotropic glutamate group II receptors (mGluR2,3) that has already entered clinical trials as a potential anti-psychotic agent and therefore has well-documented pharmacokinetic (PK), safety and tolerability profiles in human. Whereas its development as an anti-psychotic agent has not been pursued, LY-354,740 may have potential in other neuroscience-related fields, notably anxiety and neuro-protection. The common marmoset is a small primate that has long been used in neuroscience. However, given its small size and small circulating blood volume, conducting PK studies to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of LY-354,740 at clinically-relevant doses is challenging. Here, we have developed and validated a simple, sensitive and selective analytical method that enables quantification of LY-354,740 using a small volume of plasma. The analytical method consisted of protein precipitation followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with heat assisted electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS). The chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium formate (pH 3) on a Thermo Scientific Acclaim Trinity P1 analytical column (100x3.0mm I.D., 3µm) operating at 45°C and at a flow rate of 900µl/min. The method displays a linear relationship ranging from 20.0 to 5000ng/ml. Intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations are less than 5.7% and 7.0%, respectively and the accuracy ranged from 91.0 to 106.0%. The UHPLC-HESI-MS/MS analytical method we describe here is simple, sensitive, specific and capable of quantifying LY-354,740 in both rat and marmoset plasma, and is suitable to conduct PK studies after a single sub-cutaneous dose of 1.0mg/kg or lower in both species.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Bridged Bicyclo Compounds); ONU5A67T2S (eglumetad)



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