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  1 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29342169
Autor:Reeves LE; Krysko KL; Avery ML; Gillett-Kaufman JL; Kawahara AY; Connelly CR; Kaufman PE
Endereço:Entomology and Nematology Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.
Título:Interactions between the invasive Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, and the local mosquito community in Florida, USA.
Fonte:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190633, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The Burmese python, Python bivittatus Kuhl, is a well-established invasive species in the greater Everglades ecosystem of southern Florida, USA. Most research on its ecological impacts focuses on its role as a predator and its trophic interactions with native vertebrate species, particularly mammals. Beyond predation, there is little known about the ecological interactions between P. bivittatus and native faunal communities. It is likely that established populations of P. bivittatus in southern Florida serve as hosts for native mosquito communities. To test this concept, we used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA barcoding to determine the hosts of blood fed mosquitoes collected at a research facility in northern Florida where captive P. bivittatus and Argentine black and white tegu, Salvator merianae (Duméril and Bibron), are maintained in outdoor enclosures, accessible to local mosquitoes. We recovered python DNA from the blood meals of three species of Culex mosquitoes: Culex erraticus (Dyar and Knab), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex pilosus (Dyar and Knab). Culex erraticus conclusively (P = 0.001; Fisher's Exact Test) took more blood meals from P. bivittatus than from any other available host. While the majority of mosquito blood meals in our sample were derived from P. bivittatus, only one was derived from S. merianae. These results demonstrate that local mosquitoes will feed on invasive P. bivittatus, a recently introduced host. If these interactions also occur in southern Florida, P. bivittatus may be involved in the transmission networks of mosquito-vectored pathogens. Our results also illustrate the potential of detecting the presence of P. bivittatus in the field through screening mosquito blood meals for their DNA.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  2 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29236745
Autor:Shibata H; Sakata S; Hirano Y; Nitasaka E; Sakabe A
Endereço:Division of Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
Título:Facultative parthenogenesis validated by DNA analyses in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus).
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(12):e0189654, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:In reptiles, the mode of reproduction is typically sexual. However, facultative parthenogenesis occurs in some Squamata, such as Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) and Burmese python (Python bivittatus). Here, we report facultative parthenogenesis in the green anaconda (Eunectes murinus). We found two fully developed female neonates and 17 undeveloped eggs in the oviduct of a female anaconda isolated from other individuals for eight years and two months at Ueno Zoo, Japan. To clarify the zygosity of the neonates, we analyzed 18 microsatellite markers of which 16 were informative. We observed only maternal alleles and no paternal alleles for all 16 markers. To examine the possibility of the long-term sperm storage, we estimated allele frequencies in a putative parental stock by genotyping five unrelated founders. If all founders, including the mother, are originated from a single Mendelian population, then the probability that the neonates were produced by sexual reproduction with an unrelated male via long-term sperm storage was infinitesimally small (2.31E-32 per clutch). We also examined samples from two additional offspring that the mother delivered eight years before her death. We consistently observed paternal alleles in these elder offspring, indicating that the mother had switched from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction during the eight years of isolation. This is the first case of parthenogenesis in Eunectes to be validated by DNA analysis, and suggests that facultative parthenogenesis is widespread in the Boidae.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES
Nome de substância:9007-49-2 (DNA)


  3 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28464824
Autor:Andrew AL; Perry BW; Card DC; Schield DR; Ruggiero RP; McGaugh SE; Choudhary A; Secor SM; Castoe TA
Endereço:Department of Biology, The University of Texas Arlington, 501 S. Nedderman Dr, Arlington, TX, 76019, USA.
Título:Growth and stress response mechanisms underlying post-feeding regenerative organ growth in the Burmese python.
Fonte:BMC Genomics; 18(1):338, 2017 05 02.
ISSN:1471-2164
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:BACKGROUND: Previous studies examining post-feeding organ regeneration in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) have identified thousands of genes that are significantly differentially regulated during this process. However, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of coherent mechanisms and specific growth pathways that underlie these rapid and extensive shifts in organ form and function. Here we addressed these gaps by comparing gene expression in the Burmese python heart, liver, kidney, and small intestine across pre- and post-feeding time points (fasted, one day post-feeding, and four days post-feeding), and by conducting detailed analyses of molecular pathways and predictions of upstream regulatory molecules across these organ systems. RESULTS: Identified enriched canonical pathways and upstream regulators indicate that while downstream transcriptional responses are fairly tissue specific, a suite of core pathways and upstream regulator molecules are shared among responsive tissues. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, PPAR/LXR/RXR signaling, and NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response are significantly differentially regulated in multiple tissues, indicative of cell growth and proliferation along with coordinated cell-protective stress responses. Upstream regulatory molecule analyses identify multiple growth factors, kinase receptors, and transmembrane receptors, both within individual organs and across separate tissues. Downstream transcription factors MYC and SREBF are induced in all tissues. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that largely divergent patterns of post-feeding gene regulation across tissues are mediated by a core set of higher-level signaling molecules. Consistent enrichment of the NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response indicates this pathway may be particularly important in mediating cellular stress during such extreme regenerative growth.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, NON-P.H.S.; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Nome de substância:0 (NF-E2-Related Factor 2); EC 2.7.1.1 (TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases)


  4 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27773569
Autor:Leal F; Cohn MJ
Endereço:Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Department of Biology, UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, P.O. Box 103610, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
Título:Loss and Re-emergence of Legs in Snakes by Modular Evolution of Sonic hedgehog and HOXD Enhancers.
Fonte:Curr Biol; 26(21):2966-2973, 2016 Nov 07.
ISSN:1879-0445
País de publicação:England
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Limb reduction and loss are hallmarks of snake evolution. Although advanced snakes are completely limbless, basal and intermediate snakes retain pelvic girdles and small rudiments of the femur. Moreover, legs may have re-emerged in extinct snake lineages [1-5], suggesting that the mechanisms of limb development were not completely lost in snakes. Here we report that hindlimb development arrests in python embryos as a result of mutations that abolish essential transcription factor binding sites in the limb-specific enhancer of Sonic hedgehog (SHH). Consequently, SHH transcription is weak and transient in python hindlimb buds, leading to early termination of a genetic circuit that drives limb outgrowth. Our results suggest that degenerate evolution of the SHH limb enhancer played a role in reduction of hindlimbs during snake evolution. By contrast, HOXD digit enhancers are conserved in pythons, and HOXD gene expression in the hindlimb buds progresses to the distal phase, forming an autopodial (digit) domain. Python hindlimb buds then develop transitory pre-chondrogenic condensations of the tibia, fibula, and footplate, raising the possibility that re-emergence of hindlimbs during snake evolution did not require de novo re-evolution of lost structures but instead could have resulted from persistence of embryonic legs. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Hedgehog Proteins); 0 (Reptilian Proteins)


  5 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28991506
Autor:Brusch GA; Billy G; Blattman JN; DeNardo DF
Título:Reproduction Alters Hydration State but Does Not Impact the Positive Effects of Dehydration on Innate Immune Function in Children's Pythons (Antaresia childreni).
Fonte:Physiol Biochem Zool; 90(6):646-654, 2017 Nov/Dec.
ISSN:1537-5293
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Resource availability can impact immune function, with the majority of studies of such influences focusing on the allocation of energy investment into immune versus other physiological functions. When energy is a limited resource, performance trade-offs can result, compromising immunity. Dehydration is also considered a physiological challenge resulting from the limitation of a vital resource, yet previous research has found a positive relationship between dehydration and innate immune performance. However, these studies did not examine the effects of dehydration on immunity when there was another concurrent, substantial physiological challenge. Thus, we examined the impact of reproduction and water deprivation, individually and in combination, on immune performance in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni). We collected blood samples from free-ranging A. childreni to evaluate osmolality and innate immune function (lysis, agglutination, bacterial growth inhibition) during the austral dry season, when water availability is limited and this species is typically reproducing. To examine how reproduction and water imbalance, both separately and combined, impact immune function, we used a laboratory-based 2 × 2 experiment. Our results demonstrate that A. childreni experience significant dehydration during the dry season and that, overall, osmolality, regardless of the underlying cause (seasonal rainfall, water deprivation, or reproduction), is positively correlated with increased innate immune performance.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:059QF0KO0R (Water)


  6 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28723960
Autor:Falk BG; Snow RW; Reed RN
Endereço:U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.
Título:A validation of 11 body-condition indices in a giant snake species that exhibits positive allometry.
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(7):e0180791, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Body condition is a gauge of the energy stores of an animal, and though it has important implications for fitness, survival, competition, and disease, it is difficult to measure directly. Instead, body condition is frequently estimated as a body condition index (BCI) using length and mass measurements. A desirable BCI should accurately reflect true body condition and be unbiased with respect to size (i.e., mean BCI estimates should not change across different length or mass ranges), and choosing the most-appropriate BCI is not straightforward. We evaluated 11 different BCIs in 248 Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus), organisms that, like other snakes, exhibit simple body plans well characterized by length and mass. We found that the length-mass relationship in Burmese pythons is positively allometric, where mass increases rapidly with respect to length, and this allowed us to explore the effects of allometry on BCI verification. We employed three alternative measures of 'true' body condition: percent fat, scaled fat, and residual fat. The latter two measures mostly accommodated allometry in true body condition, but percent fat did not. Our inferences of the best-performing BCIs depended heavily on our measure of true body condition, with most BCIs falling into one of two groups. The first group contained most BCIs based on ratios, and these were associated with percent fat and body length (i.e., were biased). The second group contained the scaled mass index and most of the BCIs based on linear regressions, and these were associated with both scaled and residual fat but not body length (i.e., were unbiased). Our results show that potential differences in measures of true body condition should be explored in BCI verification studies, particularly in organisms undergoing allometric growth. Furthermore, the caveats of each BCI and similarities to other BCIs are important to consider when determining which BCI is appropriate for any particular taxon.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE; VALIDATION STUDIES


  7 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28650234
Autor:Kharbush RJ; Gutwillig A; Hartzler KE; Kimyon RS; Gardner AN; Abbott AD; Cox SK; Watters JJ; Sladky KK; Johnson SM
Título:Antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches and assessment of brain µ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons.
Fonte:Am J Vet Res; 78(7):785-795, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1943-5681
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:OBJECTIVE To quantify plasma fentanyl concentrations (PFCs) and evaluate antinociceptive and respiratory effects following application of transdermal fentanyl patches (TFPs) and assess cerebrospinal µ-opioid receptor mRNA expression in ball pythons (compared with findings in turtles). ANIMALS 44 ball pythons (Python regius) and 10 turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). PROCEDURES To administer 3 or 12 µg of fentanyl/h, a quarter or whole TFP (TFP-3 and TFP-12, respectively) was used. At intervals after TFP-12 application in snakes, PFCs were measured by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. Infrared heat stimuli were applied to the rostroventral surface of snakes to determine thermal withdrawal latencies after treatments with no TFP (control [n = 16]) and TFP-3 (8) or TFP-12 (9). Breathing frequency was measured in unrestrained controls and TFP-12-treated snakes. µ-Opioid receptor mRNA expression in brain and spinal cord tissue samples from snakes and turtles (which are responsive to µ-opioid receptor agonist drugs) were quantified with a reverse transcription PCR assay. RESULTS Mean PFCs were 79, 238, and 111 ng/mL at 6, 24, and 48 hours after TFP-12 application, respectively. At 3 to 48 hours after TFP-3 or TFP-12 application, thermal withdrawal latencies did not differ from pretreatment values or control treatment findings. For TFP-12-treated snakes, mean breathing frequency significantly decreased from the pretreatment value by 23% and 41% at the 24- and 48-hour time points, respectively. Brain and spinal cord tissue µ-opioid receptor mRNA expressions in snakes and turtles did not differ. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In ball pythons, TFP-12 application resulted in high PFCs, but there was no change in thermal antinociception, indicating resistance to µ-opioid-dependent antinociception in this species.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:0 (Analgesics, Opioid); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Receptors, Opioid, mu); UF599785JZ (Fentanyl)


  8 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28542424
Autor:Simková O; Frýdlová P; Zampachová B; Frynta D; Landová E
Endereço:Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Título:Development of behavioural profile in the Northern common boa (Boa imperator): Repeatable independent traits or personality?
Fonte:PLoS One; 12(5):e0177911, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and ecological and evolutionary significance in particular, but the question of its development was largely overlooked. The attributes of personality are defined as between-individual differences in behaviour, which are consistent over time (differential consistency) and contexts (contextual generality) and both can be affected by development. We assessed several candidates for personality variables measured in various tests with different contexts over several life-stages (juveniles, older juveniles, subadults and adults) in the Northern common boa. Variables describing foraging/feeding decision and some of the defensive behaviours expressed as individual average values are highly repeatable and consistent. We found two main personality axes-one associated with foraging/feeding and the speed of decision, the other reflecting agonistic behaviour. Intensity of behaviour in the feeding context changes during development, but the level of agonistic behaviour remains the same. The juveniles and adults have a similar personality structure, but there is a period of structural change of behaviour during the second year of life (subadults). These results require a new theoretical model to explain the selection pressures resulting in this developmental pattern of personality. We also studied the proximate factors and their relationship to behavioural characteristics. Physiological parameters (heart and breath rate stress response) measured in adults clustered with variables concerning the agonistic behavioural profile, while no relationship between the juvenile/adult body size and personality concerning feeding/foraging and the agonistic behavioural profile was found. Our study suggests that it is important for studies of personality development to focus on both the structural and differential consistency, because even though behaviour is differentially consistent, the structure can change.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28515291
Autor:Stenglein MD; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman D; Garcia VE; Layton ML; Hoon-Hanks LL; Boback SM; Keel MK; Drazenovich T; Hawkins MG; DeRisi JL
Endereço:Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Título:Differential Disease Susceptibilities in Experimentally Reptarenavirus-Infected Boa Constrictors and Ball Pythons.
Fonte:J Virol; 91(15), 2017 Aug 01.
ISSN:1098-5514
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:Inclusion body disease (IBD) is an infectious disease originally described in captive snakes. It has traditionally been diagnosed by the presence of large eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions and is associated with neurological, gastrointestinal, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Previously, we identified and established a culture system for a novel lineage of arenaviruses isolated from boa constrictors diagnosed with IBD. Although ample circumstantial evidence suggested that these viruses, now known as reptarenaviruses, cause IBD, there has been no formal demonstration of disease causality since their discovery. We therefore conducted a long-term challenge experiment to test the hypothesis that reptarenaviruses cause IBD. We infected boa constrictors and ball pythons by cardiac injection of purified virus. We monitored the progression of viral growth in tissues, blood, and environmental samples. Infection produced dramatically different disease outcomes in snakes of the two species. Ball pythons infected with Golden Gate virus (GoGV) and with another reptarenavirus displayed severe neurological signs within 2 months, and viral replication was detected only in central nervous system tissues. In contrast, GoGV-infected boa constrictors remained free of clinical signs for 2 years, despite high viral loads and the accumulation of large intracellular inclusions in multiple tissues, including the brain. Inflammation was associated with infection in ball pythons but not in boa constrictors. Thus, reptarenavirus infection produces inclusions and inclusion body disease, although inclusions are neither necessarily associated with nor required for disease. Although the natural distribution of reptarenaviruses has yet to be described, the different outcomes of infection may reflect differences in geographical origin. New DNA sequencing technologies have made it easier than ever to identify the sequences of microorganisms in diseased tissues, i.e., to identify organisms that appear to cause disease, but to be certain that a candidate pathogen actually causes disease, it is necessary to provide additional evidence of causality. We have done this to demonstrate that reptarenaviruses cause inclusion body disease (IBD), a serious transmissible disease of snakes. We infected boa constrictors and ball pythons with purified reptarenavirus. Ball pythons fell ill within 2 months of infection and displayed signs of neurological disease typical of IBD. In contrast, boa constrictors remained healthy over 2 years, despite high levels of virus throughout their bodies. This difference matches previous reports that pythons are more susceptible to IBD than boas and could reflect the possibility that boas are natural hosts of these viruses in the wild.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 453 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28363059
Autor:James LE; Williams CJ; Bertelsen MF; Wang T
Título:EVALUATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR AS AN INDICATOR OF PAIN IN SNAKES.
Fonte:J Zoo Wildl Med; 48(1):196-199, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:1042-7260
País de publicação:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumo:The necessity to prevent and manage pain in reptiles is becoming increasingly important, as their use in scientific research and popularity as exotic pets continues to rise. It was hypothesized that feeding behavior would provide an adequate indicator of pain perception in the ball python (Python regius). Normal feeding was defined the previous week, where a dead rodent was struck within 12 sec (n = 10). Eighteen pythons were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: anesthesia only (AO), chemical noxious stimulus (CS; capsaicin injection), or surgical noxious stimulus (SS; surgical incision). The time to strike was recorded 4 hr after the procedure and weekly during the subsequent 3 wk. Delayed feeding was observed in animals in the CS and SS groups, and normal feeding resumed after 1 and 3 wk, respectively. Spontaneous feeding remained uninterrupted for the AO group. These findings demonstrate feeding behavior as a potential model to assess pain in snakes.
Tipo de publicação: JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nome de substância:S07O44R1ZM (Capsaicin)



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